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|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
The Speech or Jhakhal; [dʒʰakʰaL], is an ancient proto-language spoken by the peoples of the Atlantic empire as the official language used by the state and the residents living in the capital of Atlantis. The Speech was and is considered the most complex and hard-to-learn language of all time, compounding accuracy, precision and a very dense meaning contained in each and every word, as each sound has a discernible meaning and thus each root can be understood in two ways, both correct. The language has ascented by the first african proto-languages and it contains more than 190 different sounds. Its grammar and syntax are highly complex with hundreds of thousands of forms for each verb, noun and adjective. The vocabulary is consisted by more than 500.000 common words and more than 20.000.000 complex words, idioms and collocations. The total number of roots is more than 50.000. If we try to reckon the number of word forms, we can get more than a trillion possible ones.
The Speech was formed 80.000 years ago, when the tribes of north-west Africa fled from their homelands, due to famine and wars, and inhabited the island of Atlantis or, as it was called back then, the circled island. There, they were protected by adversaries and as the island was extremely fertile they were able to sustain a great number of residents. Despite those advantages, the various folks inhabiting the land initiated a huge war for domination over the isle. The conflict was so brutal that 50 % of the population was wiped out. For more than 10.000 years the 8 greatest cities were trying to implement their will as the strongest. The center of the island was a continuous battlefield.
As the war could not result in some kingdom's vicrory, their leaders brought peace to the people of Atlantis and forged a new and mighty realm using their will, their power and the skill and technology they had cultivated during the war. Soon, knowledge and finance flourished but there was still a major problem: the language. Each tribe used to speak a different dialect and there was no official and regulated language. For this reason, a committee of wise people studied the various dialects and managed to create a new common and precise language as the official one and another for everyday use: jhakhal; and esala. They were both vastly cultivated, including millions of meanings and grammatical forms. These two languages were the key to the foundation of the capital, Atlantis, right on the center of the island. For more than 50.000 years the Atlantians used to live in peace.
Although they had enough already, they wanted more. Their united army, armed with the technology and the weapons that the Atlantians had built, attacked on the people of the Mediterranian Sea. In just a few centuries they created a vast empire over the southern Europe, Africa and Asia Minor. They tried to expand it again and again. They created colonies in north America and conquered the Middle East.
As the ice age was coming to an end, though, they had to counterpart not only the rebellions that occured constantly but also the rising level of the sea. They built enormous walls around their island to protect themselves. But, then, in just a terrible night their capital was swallowed by the Atlantic ocean. Their empire was lost. But not their languages. The survivors of the catastrophy fled to Europe, America and Asia. The Esala language was the ancestor of all Indo-European languages and Jhakhal; was the premitive form of some Semitic languages, the Basque and Caucasian languages as well.
With a consonant inventory reaching 112 different consonant sounds, jhakhal; consists the most complicated language ever in terms of phonology. Each sound is unique and all of them are represented on this table, in two forms: the first according to the phonetic alphabet and the second to the way the sound is written in the typical latin form of jhakhal; (in brackets).
|Bilabial voiceless plain||
Bilabial voiceless aspirated
Bilabial voiced plain
|Bilabial voiceless aspirated||Bilabial ejectives||
Labio-Dental voiceless plain
|labio-dental voiceless aspirated||labio-dental-voiced-plain||labio-dental-voiced-aspirated||labio-dental-ejectives||dental-voiceless-plain||dental-voiceless-aspirated||dental-voiced-plain||dental-voiced-aspirated||dental-ejectives||alveolar-voiceless-plain||alveolar-voiceless-aspirated||
|Nasal||m (m)||mʰ (mh)||ɱ (m|)||ɱʰ (m|h)||n (n)||nʰ (nh)||ɳ (nq)||ɳʰ (nqh)||ɲ (ny)||ɲʰ (nyh)||ŋ (n|)||ŋʰ (n|h)|
|Plosive||p (p)||pʰ (ph)||b (b)||bʰ (bh)||pʼ (p')||t (t)||tʰ (th)||d (dq)||dʰ (dqh)||tʼ (t')||c (ky)||cʰ (kyh)||ɟ (gqy)||ɟʰ (gqyh)||cʼ (ky')||k (k)||kʰ (kh)||ɡ (gq)||ɡʰ (gqh)||kʼ (k')||q (kq)||qʰ (kqh)||qʼ (kq')|
|Sibilant Fricative||s (s)||sʰ (sh)||z (z)||zʰ (zh)||sʼ (s')||ʃ (sq)||ʃʰ (sqh)||ʒ (zq)||ʒʰ (zqh)||ʃʼ (sq')||ʂ (sqq)||ʂʰ (sqqh)||ʐ (zqq)||ʐʰ (zqqh)||ʂʼ (sqq')|
|Non-Sibilant Fricative||f (f)||fʰ (fh)||v (v)||vʰ (vh)||fʼ (f')||θ (c)||θʰ (ch)||ð (d)||ðʰ (dh)||θʼ (c')||ç (xy)||çʰ (xyh)||ʝ (gy)||ʝʰ (gyh)||çʼ (xy')||x (x)||xʰ (xh)||ɣ (g)||ɣʰ (gh)||xʼ (x')||χ (xq)||χʰ (xqh)||ʁ (grq)||ʁʰ (grqh)||χʼ (xq')||h (h)|
|Africates||pf (pf)||pfʰ (pfh)||bv (bv)||bvʰ (bvh)||pfʼ (pf')||ts (ts)||tsʰ (tsh)||dz (dz)||dzʰ (dzh)||tsʼ (ts')||tʃ (tsq)||tʃʰ (tsqh)||dʒ (j)||dʒʰ (jh)||tʃʼ (tsq')||tʂ (tsqq)||tʂʰ (tsqqh)||dʐ (jq)||dʐʰ (jqh)||tʂʼ (tsqq')|
|Approximant||ɹ (r)||ɹʰ (rh)||j (y)||jʰ (yh)||w (w)||wʰ (wh)|
|Trill||r (rr)||rʰ (rrh)|
|Flap||ɾ (rq)||ɾʰ (rqh)|
|Lat. Approximant||l (l)||lʰ (lh)||ʎ (ly)||ʎʰ (lyh)||ʟ (l;)||ʟʰ (l;h)|
This chart shows the way the vowel sounds are writen in jhakhal; latin form.
Each vowel sound can be either long (which is indicated by doubling the vowel), short/simple or voiceless (indicated with an [;] after the vowel). There are also two kinds of tones: simple or low (not indicated) and additional or high (indicated with an ['] ). As a result, the total sum of all the possible vowel sounds is 78 which is yet another record of complexity.
Long vowels are treated as the equivalent of two of the same sounds in a row.
Voiceless vowels are almost not pronounced. They are treated as extremely short sounds.
The low tone is nothing more than the normal pronunciation of a vowel sound. Therefore, it is not indicated, as it does not influence the accent.
On the other hand, the high tone, which is the same as the chinese second tone, indicates a noticable shift of the tone of our speech higher, regardless of the level of highness the voice reaches.
Sometimes the latin alphabet is used to write jhakhal; with the appropriate letters and symbols as described above.
There are also multiple ancient forms of scripts and alphabets.
Clusters cannot occur at the beginning or the ending of a word as the morphemes are shaped in order to avoid this phenomenon. Inside the word they are relatively common, especially when two roots are combined together. Three consonants can never be combined and they must be seperated by an [ e' ] sound.
1. An aspirated consonant (AC) cannot combine with another consonant sound if the AC comes first. (i.e. kh + f = No)
2. Two consonants of the same manner of articulation cannot combine with each other except for the plosive ones and the pure m and n sound. (i.e. n + ɳ = No, k + p = kp, n + m= nm)
3. The n sounds cannot cluster with a labial sound and for this reason it must be converted into an m sound. (i.e. n + b = mb)
4. Two of the same sounds cannot cluster (i.e. k + k)
5. All the other combinations are possible.
6. If a consonant cluster is impossible then the sound [ e' ] is placed amongst the two sounds. (i.e. kh + f = khe'f)
Vowels can cluster in any way it is required to. They merely have to be 3 or less in a row or they must get devided by an h sound. (i.e. ieao = iehao)
A root can be either:
1. A CVC one. (i.e. jhak)
2. A CVVC one.
3. A CCVC one.
4. A CCVVC one.
5. A CCVVVC one.
6. A CCVV(H)VVC one.
7. A CCVCC one.
8. A CCVVCC one.
9. A CCVVVCC one.(rare)
They are devided in two categories:
Preffixes (placed before a root)
Suffixes (placed after a root)
All preffixes can have these forms:
CV or CCV in order to avoid consonant or vowel clusters.
All suffixes can have these forms:
HVC, HVCC, VC, VCC, VVC in order to avoid clusters. The HVC and HVCC can be placed only right after the root.
Because all words can only begin and end with a consonant sound, the vowel e is placed between the words for means of euphony.
The verbs in jhakhal; are conjugated. They accord to the person, the number and the gender of the subject, the gender of the direct object, the tense, the mood, the aspect and the evidentiality of the action and finally, the voice. Each one has a unique morpheme to descibe it, placed before or after the root of the verb. There are no irregularities and there is only one form of conjugation.
The order of the sepperate morphemes is this one:
evidentiallity, mood, aspect, ROOT, tense, subj. gender, obj. gender, voice, number, person
The gender morphemes are the same as the gender morphemes for the nouns and the adjectives.
There are several tenses in jhakhal; that are formed using three kind of stems:
One referring to the time the action is done, and three others concerning the mood, the evidentiallity and the aspect of the tense.
The are three basic scales of time: past, present and future.
|too close (few hours)||today||a day before/ after||
too recent (2 - 10 days)
recent (10 days - 6 months)
relatively recent (6 months - 10 years)
(10 - 100 years)
(100 or more years)
Nouns are declined according to their case, number, definiteness and gender.
definiteness, ROOT, noun inffixe, gender, case, number
|definite||indefinite||any/no||few||some||enough||a lot||too much/many|
|object in nature||-||-||-||-oo'lt||-uqqld|
|machines/ abstract human-made mediums||-||-||-||-|
|Regions, countries, areas, cities||-||-||-||-||-harr|
There are 85 cases in jhakhal; : 6 morphosyntactic, 68 locatives and about 11 others.
They are determined by morphemes placed after the gender infix of a noun.
|Ergative (subj. of transitive verb)||-aalt-|
|Absolutive (subj. of intransitive/obj. of transitive verb)||-uqldh-|
|Vocative (used while calling or refering to smth/smn using its name)||no infix|
|Instrumental (by means of smn/smth, with smth/smn)||-em|-|
Comitative (in company of smn/smth)
|Agent's case (by smn/smth)||-ebh-|
|Adjective case (i.e. sea plant)||-ien|
note: the adjective case is used instead of the genitive one when there is no literal possession relationship.
Nonspecific Place/Person/ Area in general
Nonspecific Time/ Great range of time
|location near to/ by the|
|location next to|
|location at (t)||-ast-||-ae|'st-||-ost-||-oe|'st-|
|location in contact with||-||-|
location on (the surface/top of)
|location around of|
|location away from/ out of|
|motion as far as|
|motion from the top of||-||-|
|motion beginning from|
|motion out of/ away from smth||-||-|
|motion by/ along smth||-||-|
|motion across smth||-||-|
|motion around of smth||-||-|
|Ablative (concerning smth)|
|Benefactive (for the benefit of)|
|Causal (because of)|
|Ornative (equipped with)|
|Semblative (like, similar to)|
|Identical (being the...)|
|Translative (turning into)|
Every single sound has one or more distinctive meanings and as a result, roots can be formed and translated more easily.
p.e. jhak = jh (motion) + a (harmonious sound) + k (mouth) = talk, say
thavac = th (human being) + a (female) + v (life) + -ac (feminine person) = woman
xqae|'zdoo'lt = xq (tough, hard) + ae|' (useful) + z (hit) + d (solid) + -oo'lt (small non-man-made object) = rock, stone
The suffixes and the prefixes, though, do not accord to these meanings.
|V||Life, live||Plant, nature||-|
|P||People, crowd||Make, create||Pain|
|T||Place||Human being, person||State|
|K||Mouth||Lead, king||Trouble, problem|
|GQRQ||Take by force|