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Jxosledu
Jxosledus qajo
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Ergative
Head direction
right
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Jxosledu (Jxosledus qajo [ʈʂχɤs.le.dɯ̽s. qɑ.ɖʐɤ.]) is a language spoken by the Aethos on the planet Aetho. It is a descendant of Proto-Serazi.

Jxosledu is the majority language in the Republican Monarchy of Jxosledu (Jxosledus Äźäruno Hutyudara), the largest Serazian state. The maritime state borders the Great Inner Ocean on the south-eastern side of Aetho's single crescent-shaped supercontinent, and is a major leader in the ongoing industrial revolution of the planet.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

postalveolar dorsal uvular glottal
nasal n
stop t t’ k̟ k̟’ q q’
fricative s z ɬ ɕ ʑ χ h
affricate ʈʂ ʈʂ’
approximant l j ɰ̙
  • The postalveolar consonants are all apical, except for /ʈʂ/, /ʈʂ’/, and [ɽ], which are subapical/retroflex.
  • The lax consonants are voiced intervocalically.
  • The glottal transition /h/ takes on certain characteristics of vowels it appears after, namely: after back vowels it becomes [ɣ] and after front vowels it becomes [ʝ] (both devoiced in the coda).
  • The lateral approximant is pronounced [ɽ] intervocalically and never begins a word.
  • /ɰ/ is an unrounded post-velar approximant.

VowelsEdit

front back
close ɪ ɯ
mid e ɤ
open æ ɑ

OrthographyEdit

Native script Edit

Writing direction Edit

The script is written in the same direction as Arabic, right-to-left rows arranged top-to-bottom.

Native Collation Edit

d, t, s, z, j, c, f, l/r, g, k, ś, ź, y, w, n, q, q', x, h, i, e, ä, u, o, a

TransliterationEdit

This page is written using the Latin transliteration, shown below, of the Jxosledu alphabet.

letter a ä c d e f g h i j k l n
phoneme /ɑ/ /æ/ /ʈʂ’/ /t/ /e/ /ɬ/ /k̟/ /h/ /ɪ/ /ʈʂ/ /k̟’/ /l/ /n/
letter o q q' r s ś t u w x y z ź
phoneme /ɤ/ /q/ /q’/ [ɽ] /s/ /ɕ/ /t’/ /ɯ/ /ɰ/ /χ/ /j/ /z/ /ʑ/

examples

  • [ɬɑɽɤʑɪ], "froth"
  • [ʈʂ’q’ɑɽɑ], "screw"
  • äqxd [æqχt], "seven"

NounsEdit

DeclensionEdit

There are three declension classes for nouns: consonant final, weak vowel final, and strong vowel final. The weak vowels are ä, e, and i and strong vowels are a and u. Weak vowel nouns lose their final vowel when case endings with an initial vowel are applied.

case consonant weak vowel strong vowel
abs -o -0 -0
erg-gen -s -s -s
dat -ey -ey -w
inst-com -ed -ed -d
loc -dä -d -d
equ -ug -ug -gu
adv -ut -ut -tu
voc -i -i -0

ExamplesEdit

case "spirit" "person" "mother" "froth" "ability" "screw"
abs ahaśo gero dädä faroźi kanu cq'ara
erg-gen ahaśs gels dädäs faroźis kanus cq'aras
dat ahaśey gerey dädey faroźey kanuw cq'araw
inst-com ahaśed gered däded faroźed kanud cq'arad
loc ahaśdä geldä dädäd faroźid kanud cq'arad
equ ahaśug gerug dädug faroźug kanugu cq'aragu
adv ahaśut gerut dädut faroźut kanutu cq'aratu
voc ahaśi geri dädi faroźi kanu cq'ara

CasesEdit

  • Absolutive: marks the absolutive argument of a verb (mother)
  • Ergative-genitive: marks the ergative argument of a verb, genitives, and possession (mother's)
  • Dative: marks the destination of an action or object (to/for mother)
  • Instrumental-comitative: marks accompaniment and what is used to complete an action (with mother)
  • Locative: marks the location of something (near mother)
  • Equative: marks what an object is like (like mother)
  • Adverbial: marks what something is as and marks adverbs (as a mother)
  • Vocative: marks what is directly referred to (mother!)

Adjectives Edit

Adjectives have a similar declension scheme to consonant-final nouns regardless of what they end in, except that the absolutive, ergative-genitive, and vocative cases receive no ending.

case "enjoyable"
abs -0 orokan
erg-gen -0 orokan
dat -ey orokaney
inst-com -ed orokaned
loc -dä orokandä
equ -ug orokanug
adv -ut orokanut
voc -0 orokan

PronounsEdit

The personal pronouns decline like regular nouns, with the exception that the consonant-final pronouns have no absolutive -o.

sg pl
1ex fan gaga
1in iśal
2 śu eśe
3prox di zäri
3dist ho zäno

VerbsEdit

Infinitive/Supine: a-root-a

Personal prefixesEdit

sg pl
1ex f- ga-
1in fa-
2 w/u- uxa-
3 0- al/el/il-

Evidence/Generalness suffixesEdit

EPIS GNO
direct -e -ne
reportative -źe -niźe
inferential -te -nite
  • The <i> in the gnomic reportative and inferential endings is typically not pronounced except in poetry.

Negation Edit

Negation is expressed using the prefix zi- which is placed immediately before the root. ex. fdaye "I did it" > fzidaye "I didn't do it", ukanune "you can" > uzikanune "you can't"

ExamplesEdit

Direct Reportative Inferential
sg pl sg pl sg pl
Episodic 1ex f-e ga-e f-źe ga-źe f-te ga-te
1in fa-e fa-źe fa-te
2 w/u-e uxa-e w/u-źe uxa-źe w/u-te uxa-te
3 0-e al/el/il-e 0-źe al/el/il-źe 0-te al/el/il-te
Gnomic 1ex f-ne ga-ne f-niźe ga-niźe f-nite ga-nite
1in fa-ne fa-niźe fa-nite
2 w/u-ne uxa-ne w/u-niźe uxa-niźe w/u-nite uxa-nite
3 0-ne al/el/il-ne 0-niźe al/el/il-niźe 0-nite al/el/il-nite

adaya "to do"

Direct Reportative Inferential
sg pl sg pl sg pl
Episodic 1ex fdaye gadaye fdayźe gadayźe fdayte gadayte
1in fadaye fadayźe fadayte
2 udaye uxadaye udayźe uxadayźe udayte uxadayte
3 daye aldaye dayźe aldayźe dayte aldayte
Gnomic 1ex fdayne gadayne fdayniźe gadayniźe fdaynite gadaynite
1in fadayne fadayniźe fadaynite
2 udayne uxadayne udayniźe uxadayniźe udaynite uxadaynite
3 dayne aldayne dayniźe aldayniźe daynite aldaynite

aoroa "to like"

Direct Reportative Inferential
sg pl sg pl sg pl
Episodic 1ex foroe gaoroe foroźe gaoroźe forote gaorote
1in faoroe faoroźe faorote
2 woroe uxaoroe woroźe uxaoroźe worote uxaorote
3 oroe aroroe oroźe aroroźe orote arorote
Gnomic 1ex forone gaorone foroniźe gaoroniźe foronite gaoronite
1in faorone faoroniźe faoronite
2 worone uxaorone woroniźe uxaoroniźe woronite uxaoronite
3 orone arorone oroniźe aroroniźe oronite aroronite

Syntax Edit

Sentence-level word order Edit

Modal particles-Verb-Object-Subject

Noun phrases Edit

Genitives-Noun-Adjectives

VocabularyEdit

NumeralsEdit

The Jxosledus count in the unheard of base-14 (tetradecimal), rather than base-ten (decimal). This is because the Aethos have eight fingers and six toes.

# name 14+# #*14 #*196
0 gośś disg
1 al areddis disg jäsgä
2 ced cededdis dijed cedjäsgä
3 taro tareddis ditaro tarojäsgä
4 fidda fiddaddis difidda fiddajäsgä
5 yu yuddis diyu yujäsgä
6 iśä iśeddis diiśä iśäjäsgä
7 äqxd äqxdeddis diäqxd äqxdjäsgä
8 oriśä oriśeddis dioriśä oriśäjäsgä
9 ollu olluddis diollu ollujäsgä
10 offidda offiddaddis dioffidda offiddajäsgä
11 oldaro oldareddis dioldaro oldarojäsgä
12 oljed oljededdis dioljed oljedjäsgä
13 oral orareddis dioral oraljäsgä
14 disg dijed jäsgä disjäsgä
  • ex. yudiyuyujäsgä (555) =1055
  • dijedtarojäsgä (320) =616
  • ceddiäqxd (72) =100

ColorsEdit

The Aethos are trichromats, meaning they have three primary colors, but their primary colors are different than the Human red, green, and blue. They have orange, green, and violet

Primary colors Edit

  • dise [tɪ.se.]: orange
  • hetu [he.t’ɤ.]: green
  • asuqli [ɑ.sɯ̽q.lɪ.]: violet

Dark primary colors Edit

  • dise hauj [tɪ.se.hɑ.ɯʈʂ.]: brown
  • hetu hauj [he.t’ɤ.hɑ.ɯʈʂ.]: dark green
  • asuqli hauj [ɑ.sɯ̽q.lɪ.hɑ.ɯʈʂ.]: near-UV

Secondary colors Edit

  • śifdo [ɕɪɬ.tɤ.]: greenish yellow
  • neo [ne.ɤ.]: cyan-blue
  • sago [sɑ.k̟ɤ.]: "orange-violet", red, pink

Neutral colors Edit

  • haujo [hɑ.ɯ.ʈʂɤ.]: black
  • wayo [ɰ̙ɑ.jɤ.]: white
  • zore [zɤ.ɽe.]: gray

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