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K'êaaka
Type
polysynthetic
Alignment
hierarchical
initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
No
Genders
4
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

## GeneralEdit

Salty Kadarh is the most widely spoken of the Downstream Kadarh dialects. It itself is made up of several subdialects that vary insignificantly amongst each other. The central, core variety spoken in the middle of the dialect zone is taken as the intermediate form and is going to make up all the examples in this article unless explicitly written as not so.

Salty Kadarh is spoken in a living community. It is one of the few Kadarh dialects that actually have a written orthographic standard (based off the Ktarh open orthography), and it has a rich tradition of both oral and written literature. It has a language standard put in place by a Ktarh board, with basis in the central variety of the dialect. The use of the standard, written in a Ktarh alphabet, is actively encouraged by the Ktarh authorities.

It is a highly inflected language, with considerable polysynthetic elements. It has an argument hierarchy based on animacy where the most animate argument always fills the agent argument of the verb and the least animate argument fills the patient argument; other arguments may be filled with nouns of any animacy.

## PhonologyEdit

The phonology of Salty Kadarh is typologically fairly unremarkable for its area: it has a semi-vertical vowel system and a marked scarcity of labials. It exhibits no tone, though it does have vowel length.

It has eighteen consonants, all of which can be geminated. It has an extremely unusual phoneme, the sole true retroflex /ɖˡ/, that quite thoroughly stands out from the rest of the system. Its most abundant source was the Proto-Downstream-Kadarh /*l/ and it corresponds to laterals in other dialects most of the time.

Labial Alveolar Retroflex Velar Postvelar Glottal
Tenuis Glottalised Tenuis Glottalised Tenuis Glottalised Tenuis Glottalised
Plosives t (t) t' (t') ɖˡ (d) k (k) k' (k') q (q) q (q') ʔ (x)
Fricatives s (s) s' (s') ħ (h)
Nasals m (m) mˤ (m') n (n) nˤ (n')
Approximants r (r) j (j)
ɰ (g)

The consonants /ɰ/ and /j/ may respectively be realised as [ɣ~ɻˠ] and [ɻʲ]; these allophones are unconditioned and in free variation with the regular realisations. Otherwise, the consonants in isolation generally tend to be close to the values prescribed by their IPA transcriptions.

It has seven vowel qualities and fourteen vowels: all vowels can be both short and long. Its vowel system is partly vertical.

Front Central Back
High i (î) ɨ (i) ʉ (u) u (û)
Mid ɛ (ê) ɜ (e)
Low a (a)

### Allophony and MorphophonologyEdit

Salty Kadi has some thorough and widespread allophony that involves clusters with /j/ that change into a unitary phone.

Postalveolar Palatoalveolar Retroflex
Tenuis Glottal. Tenuis Glottal. Tenuis Glottal.
Affricate *tj, *tsj
*t'j, ts'j
tʃ'
*kj
*kj'
tɕ'
*ɖˡj
*ɖˡj
ɖʐ
Fricative *sj
ʃ
*s'j
ʃ'
*kj
ɕ
*kj'
ɕ'
*rj
ʒ
*ɰj
ʑ
*rj
ʐ
Nasal *nj
ɲ
*nˤj
ɲˤ

Several allophones are in free variation, such as [ʒ~ʐ] for /rj/. These do not have a conditioning environment.

Salty Kadi also has a regressive voicing assimilation process: any cluster of obstruents will agree in voicing with its last member. Assimilation does not apply if an obstruent is followed by a non-obstruent: voicing is untouched there. Ejective obstruents lose their ejectivity and become tenuis voiced in environments that promote voicing.

There is also a closely correlated ejectivisation spread, by which all clusters of obstruents that have an ejectivity distinction will follow a simple distribution rule: if an ejective is present in the cluster, the entire cluster is treated as an ejective and all members of the cluster lose their ejectivity, which is transferred to the final member of the cluster. For demonstrative purposes, a cluster of /at'ka/ will be realised as [atk'a].

The glottal stop is a glottalised, ejective voiceless stop for the purposes of assimilation. Whenever it follows a tenuis consonant, it assimilates to it wherever possible and is realised as a glottalisation feature on the consonant to which it assimilated.

The phoneme /ɖˡ/ has the voiceless and ejective counterparts in [ʈˡ] and [ʈ'].

## GrammarEdit

Salty Kadi is a polysynthetic language with a relatively low level of marking compared to other such polysynthetic languages. It is It has verbs of a high and nouns of a lower morphological complexity. It has an unusual hierarchical morphosyntactic alignment and argument system, and its verbs undergo direct-inverse marking due to the alignment. Its adjectives are full verbs, and it has weak and strong forms of pronouns.

### NounsEdit

Salty Kadi nouns are morphologically moderately complex. They decline for case, number and animacy.

The structure of a Salty Kadi noun is:

root derivation number case
stem

They decline for the direct, benefactive, possessive, vocative, instrumental, lative and locative cases, and can be singular, dual or plural, with the singular commonly being the default number.

The animacy system is sorted into a hierarchy of four elements:

1. Divine
2. Oktarh
3. Animals
4. Inanimates

Nouns have an inherited lexical animacy that can only be changed with derivation or determiners. Case-number declension is simple in that number and case are different suffixes. Some combinations have fused together as a result of sound change. The suffixes for case and tense, along with their irregular combinations, are:

Case Singular (sg) Dual (du) Plural (pl)
Direct (dir) -$\varnothing$ -(a)s -(a)k
Benefactive (ben) -tee -(a)s-tee -(a)k-tee
Possessive (pos) -um' -(a)s-um' -(a)k-um'
Vocative (voc) -rê -dê -(a)k-rê
Instrumental (ins) -geaa -heaa -k'eaa
Lative (lat) -xat -(a)s-xat
-(a)s'at
-(a)k-xat
-(a)k'at
Locative (loc) -(e)n -(a)s-en -(a)k-en

### VerbsEdit

Verbs in Salty Kadi are of a polysynthetic nature: they have polypersonal agreement and feature the rough beginnings of an incorporation system.