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Kagan

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Kagan
Kaga
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Tripartite
Head direction
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
no
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Kagan is the ancient language of the upper Congo river basin area, belonging to an ancinet Hindu society in central Africa. It is the father of the Kagan languages. The language is thought to be related to the Eteopian languages, Gindanese, the Dravidian languages, & even Japanese.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Labio-Alveolar Alveolar Retroflex Labio-Retroflex Palatal Velar Labio-Velar Bilabial Glottal
Nasal n nw ng m
Plosive t d tw dw k g kw gw p b '
Fricative s z sh zh shw f v h
Affricate sw c j cw jw
Approximant r y w
Flap or tap
Lateral app. l

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i u
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid e o
Open-mid
Near-open
Open a

AlphabetEdit

PhonotacticsEdit

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


Kagan does not use prefixes.

NounsEdit

Root+Number+Case+Honorific

Singular Dual     Plural    Singular Honorific Dual Honorific Plural Honorific 
Dative -ngi -rangi -trungi -ngilu -rangilu -trungilu
Sociative -dan -radan -trudan -danulu -radanulu -trudanulu
Instrumental -ni -rani -truni -nilu -ranilu -trunilu
Locative -jan -rajan -trujan -janulu -rajanulu -trujanulu
Ablative -baju -rabaju -trubaju -bajulu -rabajulu -trubajulu
Partitive -ga -raga -truga -galu -ragalu -trugalu
Comitative -du -radu -trudu -dulu -radulu -trudulu

AdpositionsEdit

Kagan uses Postpostions. Neither the subject marker nor the object marker occurs in transitive sentences.

Subject Marker: gu

Object Marker: wim

Genitive: kwing

DemonstrativesEdit

Demonstratives do additionally use the honorific suffix "-lu".

Proximal Medial Distal Interrogative
Indefinate guri zuri hori duri
Definate gumu zumu homu dumu
Comparison gunta zunta honta dunta
Location gugu zugu hogu dugu
Direction gudra zudra hodra dudra
Manner guvi zuvi hovi duvi



Personal PronounsEdit

Personal Pronouns do additionally use the honorific suffix "-lu".

1st Person Singular 1st Person Plural Exclusive 1st Person Plural Inclusive 2nd Person Singular 2nd Person Plural 3rd Person Singular 3rd Person Plural
Plain pa paksa pali gesen gesentru guba gali
Dative pangi paksangi palingi gesenungi gesentrungi gubangi galingi
Sociative padan paksadan palidan gesendan gesentrudan gubadan galidan
Instrumental pani paksani palini geseni gesentruni gubani galini
Locative pajan paksajan palijan gesenjan gesentrujan gubajan galijan
Ablative pabaju paksabaju palibaju gesenubaju gesentrubaju gubabaju galibaju
Partitive paga paksaga paliga gesenuga gesentruga gubaga galiga
Comitative padu paksadu palidu gesendu gesentrudu gubadu galidu
Reflexive pam paksam palim gesenum gesentrum gubam galim



VerbsEdit

Root+Transitivity+Aspect+Negative+Person

To form a gerund, insert "n" after the root & then apply the appropiate nominal suffixes.

1st Person Intransitive 2nd Person Intransitive 3rd Person Intransitive 1st Person Transitive 2nd Person Transitive 3rd Person Transitive
Perfective -dabi -dadi -dagi -wadabi -wadadi -wadagi
Perfective Negative -danabi -danadi -danagi -wadanabi -wadanadi -wadanagi
Imperfective -gibi -gidi -gigi -wagibi -wagidi -wagigi
Imperfective Negative -ginabi -ginadi -ginagi -waginabi -waginadi -waginagi
Continuative -yubi -yudi -yugi -wayubi -wayudi -wayugi
Continuative Negative -yunabi -yunadi -yunagi -wayunabi -wayunadi -wayunagi

Kagan Also has a set a verbs used to mark tense & mood

Plain Conditional Potential Imperative Presumptive Hypothetical Evidential
Past pa ru wi ya ye ka
Present di dipa diru diwi diya diye dika
Future dru drupa druru druwi druya druye druka

SyntaxEdit

The language is verb final. Redublication is often used for emphesis.

The word "ge" is inserted at the start of a sentence to form a question.

"Na" is occasionaly put at the end of a sentence as well. It translates to "right?"

"Pai" is used to makes a command sound less rude. It is inserted at the start of the sentence.

VocabularyEdit

Kagan does borrow many loanwords from Sanskrit & Bantu languages. Typically, Sanskrit words are used for especially honorific things, such as the emperor.

Native Kagan Indian Kagan
batru kasa
butru duwo
midru taru
anda catar
jindi pinca
jarmu asa
nainu sita
edu sato
gadana niwa
katawa dasha

Example textEdit

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