Fandom

Conlang

Kagnian

3,197articles on
this wiki
Add New Page
Talk0 Share

Ad blocker interference detected!


Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.

Kagnian
Kanhapi /käɲäpi/
Type Agglutinative
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Mixed
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders Material and Abstract
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator [[User:|]]


Classification and DialectsEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ h
Affricates /t͡s/ /t͡ʃ/ /d͡ʒ/
Approximant j
Trill ʀ
Lateral app. l

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close i ɯ
Mid ɛ
Open ä ɒ

PhonotacticsEdit

Similar to many languages' vowel harmony, Kagnian has "consonant harmony." Words with soft consonants are material (in gender), whereas those with hard consonants are abstract. Neutral consonants can be in any word, although in situations where grammar differs between material and abstract words, spelling, syntax, etc. neutral consonants would be considered soft.

Soft Neutral Hard

/ b /

/ m /   / n /   / ɲ /

/ ŋ /   / h /   / j /

/ l /

/ p /

/ d / / t /
/ g / / k /
/ z / / s /
/ ʒ / / ʃ /
/ ʀ / / r̥ /

HookEdit

Hook modifies how a word is pronounced. There are two hooks: solid and humid. Solid is the regular pronunciation of a word, but humid words are pronounced slightly differently. They are said with a slight curve of the tongue up in the mouth, almost sounding like a retroflex approximant is being said under the word. The hook of a word can completely change its meaning. Take for example the words /däʒim/ (solid) and /däʒim/ (humid), meaning house and fish, respectively.

Solid: 
Solid
Humid: 
Humid

StressEdit

    Stress always falls on the penultimate (second to last) syllable. Consonants with diphthong are considered one syllable.

Writing SystemEdit

Letter TD PB KG SZ SHZH RHRR KagnianM KagnianN KagnianNG KagnianNY KagnianH KagnianY KagnianL PlaceHolder KagnianRepeat
Sound t or d p or b k or g s and z ʃ or ʒ r̥ or ʀ m n ŋ ɲ h j l placeholder reapeat
Letter KagnianA KagnianI KagnianE KagnianU KagnianO KagnianAU
Sound ä i ɛ ɯ ɒ

The Kaukatesi ( / kɒkätɛsi / ) writing system is an abugida/alphasyllabary* with five basic rules:

  1. Everything is written from left to right
  2. Whether or not a consonant is soft or hard can generally be determined from context and spelling
  3. Each of the six vowels can generally be fit into three patterns of how they interact with consonants: super-letter, sub-letter, and para-letter:
  • The only super-letter vowel is /ɛ/; the circular symbol is simply placed above its consonant. If it is being used with PB then the vowel attaches to the line in the middle: KagnianBE - /bɛ/
  • /ɯ/, /o̞/, and /ɒ/ are all sub-letter vowels. Their distinct curves at the bottoms of their default character are attached underneath their consonants. RHRR is somewhat irregular. If the word is material, the vowel attaches to the left line; if abstract, it's in the right. Examples: RhuKagnianZO, and KagnianMAW - /ʀɯ/, /zo̞/, and /mɒ/.
  • The para-vowels have more irregularities. For the KagnianI symbol, it is written or attached to the left of the consonant if it is in a material word and to the right if it is abstract: KagnianDIKagnianRRI - /di/, /r̥i/. As for the KagnianA symbol, if the word is material, the whole symbol is written to the left of its consonant (except for KG, see ahead), and if it's abstract, a curved line is written on the top. KG is irregular in the same way that RHRR is with sub-letter vowels. Examples: KagnianA SHZHKagnianKA, and KagnianTA - /ʃä/, /ka/, and /ta/.

4. The placeholder is used for vowels with no consonant preceding them and for diphthong. The repeat symbol is used when the consonant is          the same as the previous one.

5. Each word of two or more characters has a straight line underneath it inbetween the consonants and the sub-letter vowels.

  • A writing system where the vowel interacts and/or fuses with the consonant it proceeds. Vowels are less there own individual sounds, and more attributes of their corresponding consonants.

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

    Nouns have no plural form or articles, however there are eight noun cases aside from those.

Case Suffix Usage Example Meaning
Nominative - the default noun zean fish
Accusative -al marks the direct object zeal (acts upon) the fish
Dative -i marks the indirect object zeani to/for the fish
Genitive -aem of, 's zeaem --- of the fish
Ablative -an (moving away) from zean away from the fish
Locative -oz at, on, by, with zeanoz on the fish
Intrumental -ab with, using, via zeab using the fish
Translative -age (turn) into zeage (turn) into a fish

    Notice how when the final vowel of a noun is the same as the vowel of the case suffix, the final consonant is simply replaced. Similarly, if the noun ends in the same consonant, then the vowel is replaced with the suffix's vowel. Also realize that when inflecting abstract nouns, the locative and instrumental cases' suffixes would become -os and -ap respectively.

    When inflecting nouns that end in a vowel, things change a little bit. A suffix is added to the noun stem, which is found by replacing the final vowel with /ä/, /i/, or /ɯ/ (short) if it is /ɒ/, /ɛ/, or /o̞/ (long). Otherwise is is simply the noun unchanged (ɲ will be represented with ñ; ɒ - "aw").

Case Suffix Usage Example Meaning
Nominative - the default noun gaño sea
Accusative -l marks the direct object gañul (acts upon) the sea
Dative -ni marks the indirect object gañuni to/for the sea
Genitive

-aem*

of, 's gañaem the sea's, of the sea
Ablative -n (moving away from) gañun away from the sea
Locative -z at, on, by, with gañuz by the sea
Instrumental -ab with, using, via gañuab via the sea
Translative -awge (turn) into gañawge (become) a sea
  • these suffixes replaces the whole final vowel

AdjectivesEdit

    Adjectives merely follow the noun they describe if said noun is abstract and precede should it be material. Adjectives must agree with their nouns in gender and in case. Adjectives can even describe pronouns to show how someone feels about something; "angry me got into a fight" would mean something along the lines of "I was angry and/so I got into a fight."

AdverbsEdit

    As strange as it sounds, adverbs don't exist in Kagnian. Rather, adjectives are used; "the man walks happily down the street" would simply be reformed into the sentence "the happy man walks down the street."

PronounsEdit

    There are only two pronouns in Kagnian: personal and impersonal. Personal is simply first person, and impersonal is everything else, covering second and third person (ʃ/ʒ will be represented with "sh"/"zh")

Material Abstract
Personal zha sha
Impersonal deve tefe
Case Personal Impersonal
Nominative zha deve
Accusative la del
Dative zhi devi
Genitive zhem dem
Ablative nawz deven
Locative za devz
Instrumental zhab debv
Translative zhawge dege

VerbsEdit

    Almost every verb in Kagnian can be divided into either material (eat, build, talk, etc.), with soft consonants, and abstract (believe, want, think), with hard consonants. Some verbs, most of which are sensory based, are caught inbetween (read, watch, hear) and can be used in either form indiscriminantly.

ConjugationEdit

    There are a few verb categories in Kagnian depending on the ending of the infinitive: -(c)a -ba/-pa, -ska, and -(v)a verbs.

  • for -(c)a verbs, the "a" is removed to form the stem: "meada" becomes "mead-"
  • the stem of -ba/-pa verbs is made by replacing the -ba/-pa with "v"/"f": "zawneba" becomes "zawnev-"
  • for -ska verbs, which are only ever abstract, replace the -ska with "l": "paska" becomes "pal-"
  • -(v)a verbs drop their "a," and their vowel becomes its short vowel counterpart: "sonea" becomes "soni-"

    The main tenses are non-past (present and future in one tense) and past.

Personal Impersonal
Material Abstract Material Abstract
Non-past -ez -es -av -af
Past -el -ahen

    Habitual actions are marked by adding the suffix -mi to the verb ending (-ezmi, -ahenmi), and actions are made perfect (had/have done) by adding the suffix -te/-de in the same fashion (-afte, -elde).

SyntaxEdit

Lexicon


Example textEdit

Also on Fandom

Random Wiki