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Kaläämi

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*On this page, it's mainly used the grammar of Modern Standard Kaläämi.

IntroductionEdit

Kaläämi or Peruuta Kaläämi is the standard variety spoken mainly in Riogran and everywhere on the Aurora Planet. Its grammar is largely agglutinative. The Peruuta Kaläämi is the purest variety of Kaläämi, and it has very few loanwords(or none at all), while other varieties like Jordarsk Kaläämi, Perulme Kaläämi and Landau Kaläämi were influenced by human languages when humans arrived in Aurora. It comes from Proto-Aurora and is the unique Auroran language that is currently spoken actively. Proto-Aurora is still used in Bibles and other sacred books and in churchs.

  • Proto-Auroran
    • Old Kaläämi
      • Standard Kaläämi
    • Colloquial Kaläämi
      • Jordarsk Kaläämi
      • Perulme Kaläämi
      • Landau Kaläämi

Although grammar is almost the same between the varieties, vocabulary, syntax and phonology are slightly different because they had been influenced by different Earth languages. Jordarsk Kaläämi variety has been influenced largely by Germanic languages(English, German, High German, Norwegian and Icelandic) and is the most distant variety, its grammar is very similiar to Modern Standard Kaläämi(MSK) but syntax and vocabulary have been largely influenced by Germanic languages. Perulme Kaläämi variety has been largely influenced by Romance languages(French, Italian, Catalan to some extent and largely by Latin and Greek(Greek is not a Romance language)). Landau Kaläämi variety has been influenced by Slavic, however the differences between Modern Standard Kaläämi and Landau Kaläämi are very few comparated to Perulme and Jordarsk Kaläämi.

PhonologyEdit

Modern Standard Kaläämi has a phonetic inventory with something between 29-32 phonemes. It contains 16 vowels and 13 consonants. Main stress is largely different among the varieties, but in Standard Kaläämi the main stress is placed on the first syllable. The vowels could be short, long and very long. Short and long vowels aren't doubled but very long vowels are usually written doubled.

Bi-Labial

Labio-Dental

Dental

Alveolar Post-Alveolar Velar Glottal

Plosive

p t d k g

Nasal

m n

Trill

r
Fricative v s h
Latteral Approx. l
Front Central Back
Short Long Short Long Short Long
Close i y iː yː u
Close-Mid e ø eː øː o
Open-Mid ɛ ɛː 
Open a

OrthographyEdit

Kaläämi is written with the Cyrillic and Paalit script, both with 22 letters(A Ä D E G H I J K L M N O Ö P R S T U V Y Õ). The letters {B C F Q W X Z} aren't part of the alphabet.

MorphologyEdit

Morphological Cases Edit

Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives and Numbers are declined in 16 cases and they have lost the singular-plural and masculine-feminine-neuter distinctions. All nouns, pronouns, adjectives and numbers follow the declension table shown bellow:

Case Vowel Stem Consonant Stem
Ergative -k -ek
Absolutive
Dative -m -em
Partitive -nd -end
Genitive -sii -esii
Inessive -ndii -undii
Elative -nta -onta
Illative -lla -olla
Adessive -nnu -unnu
Ablative -kkä -ekkä
Allative -kii -ukii
Essive -nna -onna
Translative -st -ost
Instrumental -stii -osta
Abessive -ksi -uksi
Comitative -la -ula

Pronouns Edit

Personal Pronouns Edit

Män Hën Kän Om Oli Sen
I You He We You(Plur.) They
Singular Plural
Ergative mänek hänek känek omek olik senek
Absolutive män hän
Dative mänem hÄnem
Partitive mänend hënend
Genitive mänesii hënesii
Inessive mänundii hënundii
Elative mänonta hënonta
Illative mänolla hënolla
Adessive mänunnu hënunnu
Ablative mänekkä hënekkä
Allative mänukii hënukii
Essive mänonna hënonna
Translative mänost hënost
Instrumental mänosta hënosta
Abessive mänuksi hënuksi
Cominative mänula hënula

Reflexive and Reciprocal Pronoun Edit

Nouns Edit

Numbers Edit

Adjectives Edit

Adverbs Edit

Verbs Edit

Kaläämi verbs have 2 moods(Indicative and Conditional) and 2compound moods(Subjunctive, Imperative-Jussive), and the verbs change by person, number, aspect and mood. Verbs usually ends in consonant and there's almost none irregular verb(except the auxiliar verbs that are irregular)

Number Singular Plural
Person 1S 2S 3S 1P 2P 3P
Tenses/Moods Indicative Imperfect -õn -õni -õne -õnid -õnem -õneel
Perfect -yn -uni -ynu -ynit -ynim yniil
Conditional Imperfect -ef -efi -efin -efit -efim -efääl
Perfect -yf -yfi -õfi -öfit -ofim -õfeel

Subjunctive Edit

The subjunctive is formed using the particle innä + perfect/imperfect.

Imperative-Jussive Edit

Imperative and Jussive moods have merged into just one mood called Minõsa-Põlääm(Imperative-Jussive).

To form the imperative mood, you place the pronoun after the verb. The personal pronoun should come after the verb and in the Absolutive case.

Ex: Hän ingelsõni You write > Ingelsõni hän! Write!

Copula/Auxiliar verbs Edit

Jõnd = to be is not required to form simple sentences and can be omited. It can only be found in very formal texts and poetry.

Number Singular Plural
Person 1S 2S 3S 1P 2P 3P
Tenses/Moods Indicative Imperfect jõnd jõni jõne jõnid jõnem jõneel
Perfect jyn juni jynu jynit jynim jyniil
Conditional Imperfect jef jefi jefin jefit jefim jefääl
Perfect jyf jyfi jõfi jöfit jofim jõfeel

Velmõd = to have itcan be used to form the past tense or to show the existense of an object.

Number Singular Plural
Person 1S 2S 3S 1P 2P 3P
Tenses/Moods Indicative Imperfect -õn -õni -õne -õnid -õnem -õneel
Perfect -yn -uni -ynu -ynit -ynim yniil
Conditional Imperfect -ef -efi -efin -efit -efim -efääl
Perfect -yf -yfi -õfi -öfit -ofim -õfeel

Postpositions Edit

Conjunctions Edit

Articles Edit

Interjections Edit

Käälii: Yes

Kiitos: No

Syntax

Constituent orderEdit

Noun phraseEdit

Verb phraseEdit

Sentence phraseEdit

Dependent clausesEdit

Example textsEdit

Other resourcesEdit

Phrasebook Edit

Hello: Karlunda

Yes: Jo

No: Ei

Please: Keepis

Thank you: Eligõno

Sorry: Psiprosia

Goodbye: Prjä

Left: Vanda

Right: Ämpar

Where is the bank?: Jõlanda endä?

Where are the suitcases?: Jõlanda mettosis?

Where can I buy a ticket?: Jõlanda mänek lyllõn parlõnd kappuut?

Where is the chemist?: Jõlanda parmasiika?

Please, speak more slowly: Keepis huandõni hän prupoksia?

One: Albän

Two: Peilä

Three: Hõdri

Water: Kuliis

Beer: Viip

Wine: Vendra

Coffee: Gapää

Woman's toilet: luulmasii kahdepse

Man's toilet: hutaarsii kahdepse

Hospital: Ventanula

Aspirine: Lirris

Taxi: Mpusää

Passport:

Car: Mund

Bus: Lolli

Airplane: Omendoria

Train: Lutam

Beach: Korräm

Hotel: Pussy


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