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Kaliro

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Kaliro
Type
Alignment
Head direction
Tonal No
Declensions No
Conjugations No
Genders
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator FRSVLT


Classification and DialectsEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive b t ; d k
ʔEdit
Fricative v ð ; θ s ʃ ; ʒ x h
Affricate t͡ʃ ; d͡ʒ
Approximant l j w
Trill r
Flap or tap ɾ
Lateral fric.
Lateral app.
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open

PhonotacticsEdit

Writing SystemEdit

Letter k y r m n s l h b t ð þ
Sound /k/ /j/ /ɾ/ ; /r/ /m/ /n/ /s/ /l/ /h/ ; /x/ /b/ ; /v/ /t/ /ð/ /θ/
Letter š č ž ř d w i ī u ū ė é
Sound /ʃ/ /t͡ʃ/ /d͡ʒ/;/ʒ/ /hɾ/
/d/Edit
/w/ /i/ /i:/

/u/;/ʊ/ (final)

/u:/ /e/ /e:/
Letter ę è ö ò ō o ô a ā '
Sound /ɛ/ /ɛ:/ /ə/ ; /ɶ/ ; sometimes mute /ɒ/;/ɔ/ /ɔ:/ /o/ /o:/ /a/ /a:/
/ʔ/Edit

Letter combinations:

yi: [j] after a vowel ; yi: [ji] at the beginning of a word ; yī : [jiː]

iy: [j] if followed by a short vowel, otherwise [ij] ; īy: [ij] ; if /iy/ is followed by a seemingly long vowel, then there is no diphthong, and the last vowel in the phoneme is shortened

owu: [ɔw] ; same diphthong process if /wu/ is preceded by other vowels, except for /i/ and /ö/, and all long vowels ; if /wu/ is preceded (or followed in the case of a long /u/) by a seemingly long vowel, then there is no diphthong, and the first (or last in the case of a final /u/) vowel in the phoneme is shortened

uw: [w] ; if /uw/ is followed (or preceded in the case of a long /u/) by a seemingly long vowel, then there is no diphthong, and the final (or first in the case of an initial /u/) vowel in the phoneme is shortened

Note: Those letter combinations appear in the latin alphabet transcription of the language, due to the nature of the native Kaliro writing system, that doesn't admit for two vowels to follow each other (/w/ and /y/ act as buffers of sorts in the diphthong). They could be omitted in the transcription, but reflect the native orthography better.

Glottal stop: Edit

The glottal stop (/ʔ/) is always present if a vowel is not preceded by a consonent. It will be marked by /'/ if such a situation occurs in the middle of a word, but will not be marked if at the begining of a word. Therefore, though all vowel-initial words start with the glottal stop, it will never be noted in the orthography but should be taken into account when pronouncing the words.

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Personnal pronouns:Edit

EN

Meaning

Sg.

Pl.

I

ho

see : we

You

Singular, family, friend, or younger person

(considered disrespectful if missused)

su

sun

He / You

(elder or respected person ;

used as 2nd as well as 3rd person)

akayīk

akayīn

She / You

(elder or respected person ;

used as 2nd as well as 3rd person)

sokadęl

sokadèn

He

(Usually used between adults ;

used as 2nd as well as 3rd person)

ayīk

ayīn

She

(Usually used between adults ;

used as 2nd as well as 3rd person)

adęl

adèn

He

(younger person or friend, also used between children)

ayiki

ayikin

She

(younger person or friend, also used between children)

adi

adin

They

(neutral plural, when you don't know how many men or women there are,

regardless of statute)

ān

It

(animal)

òn

ōn

It

(plant)

ka

kan

It

(inanimate object)

luwa

lūn

We

inclusive

hòn

We

exclusive (when the group is mostly women)

hodin

We

exclusive (when the group is mostly men)

hokin

We

exclusive (when the group has as many men as women,

or when you don't know)

hoyān

Personal pronouns become possessive pronouns by adding /y/ if they start with a vowel.

Otherwise, the particle "yi" is inserted within the first consonant or between the first and the second ones (except for "ho" that becomes "yowu") ; this leads to vowel length change in some cases:

ka(n) à kiyā(n) ; su(n) à siyu(n) ; sokadęl/sokadèn à soyikadęl/soyikadèn ; luwa/lūn à liyuwa/liyūn ; hòn à hòyīn ; hodin àhoyidin ; hokin à hoyikin ; hoyān à hôyan


Declension of nouns:Edit

Nouns are "declined" through the admixture of suffixes and prefixes. The list (non-exhaustive so far, as the language is still not 100% fixed) goes as follows:


-yò- / -sā- = of, belonging to (genitive)

nu- / ki- = to (whom, what) (indirect object)

ū- = in (locative)

yū- = to (where) (locative)

dā- = from (locative)

ę- = on (locative)

ön- = under (locative)

sarū- = over (locative)

kū[…](y)ò/sa[...]- = between [...] with (and) [...] (locative)

-(y)ò / -sa = with, using, with means of (instrumental)

do- = about, related to (for some verbs) ; prefix for direct object (accusative)


hė- […] -long vowel = vocative


Some forms have more than one suffix or prefix: which one to use depends on the phonetics of the specific word combination, as Kaliro speakers like to keep the sound of their language harmonious, for example by avoiding the repetition of a sound. Some sound repetition cannot be avoided, but most of the time, the language changed to allow for a grammatical solution to a sound issue.


VerbsEdit

SyntaxEdit

Asking a question: Edit

Yes or no question: Edit

The sentence will start with the word " āsėyò" (a contraction of the words for "yes" and "no"). The rest of the sentence will have a structure similar to a normal sentence: (S)OV. The tone in this question goes up at the end of the sentence.

Ex: Āsėyò dosiyuyarunasādoðęyu ? = Question-mark acc-your-mother-gen-horse? = Is it your mother's horse?

When answering a question in "āsėyò", "yes" is "aya", and "no" is "sėya".

A yes or no question can also be built in such a fashion that the expected answer is "no". In this case, the first word of the question will be "sėyę". The tone goes down at the end of the sentence, unless the word "ayu" is put after the verb (which is a possibility in speech but not in the written language).

Ex: Sėyę dosiyuyarunasādoðęyu ? = This isn't your mother's horse, is it?

When answering a question in "sėyę", the speaker has two choices: answering no, which means that the statement is correct, or answering yes, indicating that the statement isn't correct. In this case, "no" will be "sėyi" and "yes" will be "ayu".

Similarly, if the expected answer of a yes or no question is "yes", then it will be constructed with "ayę". The tone will also go down at the end of the sentence, but will rise if the word "sėyu" is put after the verb.

Ex: Ayę dosiyuyarunasādoðęyu ? = This is your mother's horse, isn't it?

The answer will then either be "ayi" (yes) or "sėyu" (no).

Wh- question words Edit

Question word

Meaning

Oka?

Who/what?

Doka?

Whom/what?

Noyika?

To whom/what?

Okawò? [ʔə'ka:ɔ]

~Whose?

Ūča?

Yūča?

Where?

To where?

Okatuha?

Why?

Òwuka? [ʔɒu'ka]

Karu?

With who/what?

How?

LexiconEdit

Numerals Edit

Numerals:

1:  tā

2:  lé

3:  kô

4:  nè

5:  yô

6:  čī

7:  mā

8:  sū

9:  hè

10:  žū

x10:  ðę

x100: da              (x10 000 = da'a  ; x1 000 000 = yada'a)

123: tādaléðękô

1x100, 2x10, 3


5684: yôðędačīdasūðęnè

5x10x100, 6x100, 8x10, 4

Example textEdit

Example of phrase structure: Edit

nuyowuhayišanin mayižu = [to my three little girls] [(I) speak] = I speak to my three little girls

doyowutaruwasāðęyun hėðiyu = [about my father's five horses (I) dream] = I'm dreaming about my father's five horses

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