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Kanduadas

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Kanduadas
Kaduatas
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Tripartite
Head direction
left
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
4
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Kanduadas (natively, Kaduatas [ˈkäⁿdwɐdɐs]) is the official language and a national language of the country Kanduai on the moon Chesnon. Chesnon is the name in English of the moon as well as the species. They call themselves Tsyesnem [ˈtʃe̞ʃnɐm] (singular: Tsyesnon).

PhonologyEdit

  • The standard language is based on the dialect of Makyór [mɐˈcɤ̞ɾ] (great-city, the Kanduaians are not the most creative namers).

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Dentialveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal mˠ mʲ (n) ɲ ŋ
Plosive pˠ pʲ t d c ɟ k (ʔ)
Prenasal ᵐbˠ ᵐbʲ ⁿd ᶮɟ ᵑg
Fricative s ʃ h
Affricate ts
Approximant (ɹ) j w
Lateral ɫ ʎ
Flap ɾ
  1. [n] is an allophone of /ŋ/ adjacent to an alveolar consonant and is in free variation with the regular pronunciation of /ŋ/ intervocalically.
  2. /d/ only contrasts with /t/ intervocalically. Same for /c/ and /ɟ/.
  3. /ʔ/ only appears in a few conservative dialects.
  4. [ɹ] is an allophone of /r/ when word-initial or adjacent to /m/, /ŋ/, or /s/.
  5. /s/ and /ts/ cannot be present in the same word as /ʃ/ and /tʃ/. The first one of these sounds present in a word spreads its place of articulation to any other sibilants in the word.

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
High i (y) ə̃ (ɵ̞̃) (ɯ) u
Low e̞ (ø̞) ä (ɒ̈) (ɤ̞) o̞
  • The sounds are rounded or unrounded according to the rules of roundness harmony. A vowel, usually the first vowel (that isn't /ə̃/) or the stressed vowel, dictates the roundness of a whole word.
  • [ɨ̃] and [ʉ̃] are the allophones of /ə̃/ before a schwa.
  • the legal diphthongs are /äj/, /äw/, /e̞j/, /e̞w/, /o̞j/, and /ə̃w/.
  • /e/ and /a/ are reduced to [ɐ] in the syllable before the stressed one, in a final unstressed syllable, and for /a/, in diphthongs.

StressEdit

Stress is placed on the antepenultimate syllable unless otherwise indicated by an acute accent in the romanizations.

Writing SystemEdit

TransliterationEdit

The Kanduadas orthography, Pakaduasyel, is an alphasyllabary. This page is written with the Latin transliteration (Spokaduasyel) shown below.

Letter A Ą B D E G H
Sound /a/ /ə̃/ /ᵐbˠ/, /ᵐbʲ/ /ⁿd/, /ᶮɟ/ /e/ /ᵑg/, /ᶮɟ/ /h/
Letter I Į K L M N O
Sound /(ʲ)i/, /ʲ/, /j/ /ʲə̃/ /k/, /c/ /ɫ/, /ʎ/ /mˠ/, /mʲ/ /ŋ/, /ɲ/ /o/
Letter Ǫ P R S T U Y
Sound /ə̃/ /pˠ/, /pʲ/ /r/, /j/ /s/, /ʃ/ /t/, /d/, /c/, /ɟ/ /w/ /ʲ/
  • Digraphs: <ts> (/ts/, /tʃ/), <ou> (/u/)

Native orderingEdit

Consonants: 0, L, S, P, M, B, R, T, D, X, H, K, N, G, U

Vowel marks: -e, -i, -o, -a, -ǫ, -ą, -į, -ai, -0

NounsEdit

Nouns decline according to case, gender, and number.

UolEdit

# Absolutive Ergative Accusative Dative Ablative
1 -0 -0 -i -(i)s -ibe
2 -on -0 -i -(i)s -ibe
3* -oun -ou -oui -ous -oube
  • Many nouns are singulare tantum, meaning they have no plural form. The third Uol declension can be used to force a singular reading, usually implying a specific singular object.

ex. Kyor [co̞ɾ], city (singulare tantum)

# Absolutive Ergative Accusative Dative Ablative
sg kyor kyor kyori kyoris kyoribe

MrapinEdit

# Absolutive Ergative Accusative Dative Ablative
1 -o -om -o -os -obe
2 -ąm -ąs -ąbe
4 -in -im -ia -ias -iabe

ex. Paso [pˠäsɤ̞], sauce

# Absolutive Ergative Accusative Dative Ablative
sg paso pasom paso pasos pasobe
pl pasoum pasoui pasousio pasouis pasouibe

DralaEdit

# Absolutive Ergative Accusative Dative Ablative
1 -a -a -ao -as -abe
2 -e -e -ea -es -ebe

ex. Tsriba [tʃjiᵐbˠǝ], horn

# Absolutive Ergative Accusative Dative Ablative
sg tsriba tsriba tsribao tsribas tsribabe
pl tsribam tsribai tsribasio tsribais tsribaibe

PluralEdit

# Absolutive Ergative Accusative Dative Ablative
1 -em -ei -esio -eis -eibe
2 -am -ai -asio -ais -aibe
3 -oum -oui -ousio -ouis -ouibe
  • In general, the first plural is for Uol and Mrapin, the second for Drala, and the third for some Mrapin; however, this pattern is broken frequently.

ex. Galem [ᵑgäɫɐm], eyes (plurale tantum)

# Absolutive Ergative Accusative Dative Ablative
pl galem galei galesio galeis galeibe

CaseEdit

The cases are:

  • Absolutive, which used for the argument of an intransitive verb,
  • Ergative, which used for the subject of an transitive verb,
  • Accusative which used for the object of an transitive verb,
  • Dative which is used for the recipient or destination, and
  • Ablative which is used for the origin or composition

GenderEdit

Gender is an interesting topic when talking about the Chesnon or their languages. They have three genders. And this is reflected in Kanduadas. The grammatical genders are: Uol (with 3 declension classes), Mrapin (3 classes), and Drala (2 classes).

Chesnon are of course assigned the proper gender. Inanimate nouns are seemingly assigned at random or based on common derivational suffixes, and loanwords by form.

NumberEdit

The Kanduaian grammatical number system has quite a few quirks, most notably:

  1. Nouns changing gender between numbers, ex. soulą (m) "a throw" vs. soulam (d) "some throws"
  2. Nouns having multiple plural or singular forms (sometimes with slightly different meanings), ex. tsriba "a horn" vs. tsriboun "horn separate from a body"
  3. High numbers of singulare and plurale tantum nouns, ex. kior (sg) "city" & galem (pl) "eyes"

PronounsEdit

ERG ABS ACC
1s ue ou
1p dya dou
2s ryekea ryeka
2p tekea teka
3s.u be bei
3s.m leum leu
3s.d ha hao
3p apei apem apesyo
  • ex. Tekea pausén ou!
  • [ˈte̞ke̞ɐ pˠäwˈse̞ŋ ˈu]
  • 2s.ERG hit-2s.PRET 1s.ACC
  • You hit me!

VerbsEdit

Thematic vs. Athematic verbsEdit

TMA systemEdit

nonpast: used for current events.

past: used for past events.

conditional: used for events that may happen given certain conditions

presumptive: used for events that the speaker supposes/supposed happen(ed). When combined with the nonpast, it forms one of the two future tenses.

volitive: used for events that the speaker wants/wanted to happen. When combined with the nonpast, it forms the other future tense.

imperative: used for commands and requests.

NonpastEdit

sg pl
1 -(a)ne -(a)o
2 -(a)n -(a)
3 -(a)s

PastEdit

Oral stems:

sg pl
1 -éne -éo
2 -én
3 -és

Nasal stems:

sg pl
1 -ǫ́ne -ǫ́o
2 -ǫ́n -ǫ́
3 -ǫ́s

ConditionalEdit

sg pl
1
2
3

PresumptiveEdit

VolitiveEdit

ImperativeEdit

1 -(a)ome
2 -(a)r

Nonfinite formsEdit

Gerund -(e)pa -ing (noun)
Active participle -(a)k -ing
Passive participle -(a)ren -ed/en
Contemporary transgressive -(a)ts while -ing
Anterior transgressive -(o)usi having -ed/en
Supine -(a)(t)ti for -ing/in order to
Connegative -ou not

Dictionary formsEdit

The lemma is the connegative form, typically ending in -(o)u. Also provided in standard dictionaries are the theme type, stem type, and stem itself.

ex. Souląu (athematic; regular nasal stem soulą-), "throw"

Full conjugationEdit

Nonpast Preterite Imperfect Conditional Imperative
IND 1p -(a)o -éo -(a)so -tt(a)o -(a)ome
1s -(a)ne -éne -(a)sne -ttane
2p -(a) -(a)s -t(ta) -(a)r
2s -(a)n -én -(a)ns -ttan
3 -(a)s -és -(a)ses -ttas
PRSM 1p -b(a)o -béo Gerund -(e)pa
1s -bane -béne Active -(a)k
2p -b(a) -bé Passive -(a)ren
2s -ban -bén Contemporary -(a)ts
3 -bas -bés Anterior -(o)usi
VOL 1p -l(a)o -léo Supine -(a)(t)ti
1s -lane -léne Connegative -(o)u
2p -l(a) -lé
2s -lan -lén
3 -las -lés

NegationEdit

Negation is shown with a connegative plus the negative verb.

Oudou [ˈuⁿdu], "don't" (athematic; irregular stem (h)ou(d)-)

Nonpast Preterite Imperfect Conditional Imperative
IND 1p ido adéo oudome
1s houne adéne
2p hou adé hir
2s houn adén
3 hous adés
PRSM 1p Gerund houpa
1s Active hak
2p Passive houren
2s Contemporary hats
3 Anterior oudouxe
VOL 1p Supine houtti
1s Connegative oudou
2p
2s
3
  • ex. Nimo mikuau hir!,
  • [ˈɲimˠɤ̞ ˈmʲikwɐw ˈhiɾ]
  • MPROX-ACC.mra eat-CONNEG NEG-2.IMP
  • "Don't eat that!"

ExamplesEdit

Tsou [ˈtsu], "read" (athematic; natural -ou type stem tso-)

Nonpast Preterite Imperfect Conditional Imperative
IND 1p tseu tsuéo tsome
1s tsone tsuéne
2p tso tsué tseur
2s tson tsuén
3 tsos tsués
PRSM 1p Gerund tsopa
1s Active tsouk
2p Passive tsoren
2s Contemporary tsouts
3 Anterior tsousi
VOL 1p Supine tsotti
1s Connegative tsou
2p
2s
3

Mikuau [ˈmʲikwäw], "eat" (thematic; -uau type stem miku-)

Nonpast Preterite Imperfect Conditional Imperative
IND 1p mikuao mikuéo mikuaome
1s mikuane mikuéne
2p mikua mikué mikuar
2s mikuan mikuén
3 mikuas mikués
PRSM 1p Gerund mikuepa
1s Active mikuak
2p Passive mikuaren
2s Contemporary mikuats
3 Anterior mikuausi
VOL 1p Supine mikuatti
1s Connegative mikuau
2p
2s
3

DemonstrativesEdit

There are no indefinite or definite articles. Instead, Kanduadas uses demonstratives. They decline as regular adjectives.

The Deictic positions are as follows:

Proximal: Anything that is close to the speaker.

Mesioproximal: Anything close to the listener.

Mesiodistal: Anything away from the speaker and the listener but still close by.

Distal: Anything away from the speaker and the listener and far away.

That There position
Soum Souka proximal
Nim Nika mesioproximal
Ryam Ryaka mesiodistal
Tem Teuka distal

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives typically come before nouns. They decline according to gender and case, not number. They are all regular.

abs erg acc dat abs
Uol -0 -0 -i -is -ibe
Mrabin -o -om -o -os -obe
Drala -a -a -ao -as -abe

ex. Sels, "joyous, friendly, chummy"

abs erg acc dat abs
uol sels sels selsi selsis selsibe
mrabin selso selsom selso selsos selsobe
ndrala selsa selsa selsao selsas selsabe

Adjectives also have positive and negative comparative (-ál/-óus) and superlative (-átel/-óutes) forms. ex. Tekea selsátela. "You are the most friendly one."

AdverbsEdit

QuestionsEdit

InterrogativesEdit

VocabularyEdit

Numerals Edit

Since the Chesnon have six fingers on each hand, it's fitting that most of their languages are base-12 (duodecimal/dozenal) instead of base-10, Kanduadas being no exception.

# name IPA 12+# IPA
0 dyǫta [ˈᶮɟə̃dɐ] samastą [ˈsämästə̃]
1 sou [su] samasou [ˈsämäsɯ]
2 pei [pˠe̞j] samapei [ˈsämäpˠe̞j]
3 go [ᵑgo̞] samago [ˈsämäᵑgɤ̞]
4 tiri [ˈciji] samatiri [ˈsämäciji]
5 tsya [tʃä] samatsya [ˈsämätsɐ]
6 pego [ˈpˠe̞ᵑgɤ̞] samapego [säˈmäpˠe̞ᵑgɐ]
7 sira [ˈʃiɾɐ] samasira [säˈmäsiɾɐ]
8 pettiri [ˈpˠe̞ciji] samapettiri [sämäˈpˠe̞ciji]
9 satal [ˈsädäɫ] samasatal [säˈmäsädäɫ]
10 petsya [ˈpˠe̞tʃɐ] samapetsya [säˈmäpˠe̞tsɐ]
11 sohe [ˈso̞hɞ̞] samasohe [säˈmäsɤ̞hɐ]
12 samastǫ [ˈsämästə̃] uiskoptǫ [ˈwiskɤ̞pˠtɐ]

Example textEdit

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