Head direction
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

General informationEdit

Kanduadas (natively, Kaduatas [ˈkäⁿdwɐdɐs]) is the official language and a national language of the country Kanduai (Kaduae) on the moon Chesnon (Tsyesnae), which orbits the giant planet Mamrun (Mamrą) around the star Benja (Bedrya).

Chesnon is the name in English of the moon as well as the species. They call themselves Tsyesnarenem [tʃɐʃˈnäɾe̞nɐm] (lit. "soul-having ones", singular: Tsyesnaren).


  • The standard language is based on the dialect of Makyóroun [mɐˈcɤ̞ɾɯŋ] (great-unique-city, the Kanduaians are very literal namers).


Bilabial Dentialveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal mˠ mʲ (n) ɲ ŋ
Plosive pˠ pʲ t d c ɟ k (ʔ)
Prenasal ᵐbˠ ᵐbʲ ⁿd ᶮɟ ᵑg
Fricative s ʃ h
Affricate ts
Approximant (ɹ) j w
Lateral ɫ ʎ
Flap ɾ
  1. [n] is an allophone of /ŋ/ adjacent to an alveolar consonant and is in free variation with the regular pronunciation of /ŋ/ intervocalically.
  2. /d/ only contrasts with /t/ intervocalically. Same for /c/ and /ɟ/.
  3. /ʔ/ only appears in a few conservative dialects.
  4. [ɹ] is an allophone of /r/ when word-initial or adjacent to /m/, /ŋ/, or /s/.
  5. /s/ and /ts/ cannot be present in the same word as /ʃ/ and /tʃ/. The first one of these sounds present in a word spreads its place of articulation to any other sibilants in the word.


Front Central Back
High i (y) ə̃ (ɵ̞̃) (ɯ) u
Low e̞ (ø̞) ä (ɒ̈) (ɤ̞) o̞
  • The sounds are rounded or unrounded according to the rules of roundness harmony. A vowel, usually the first vowel (that isn't /ə̃/) or the stressed vowel, dictates the roundness of a whole word.
  • [ɨ̃] and [ʉ̃] are the allophones of /ə̃/ before the reduced vowel [ɐ] or when stressed.
  • The legal diphthongs are /ai/, /au/, /ei/, /eu/, /oi/, and /ə̃u/.
  • /e/ and /a/ are reduced to [ɐ] in the syllable before the stressed one, in a word-final unstressed syllable, and for /a/, in diphthongs.


Stress is placed on the antepenultimate syllable unless otherwise indicated by an acute accent in the romanizations.

Writing SystemEdit

Native script Edit

The Kanduadas orthography, Pakaduasyel, is an abugida.

Writing direction Edit

Pakaduasyel is written right-to-left in rows running top-to-bottom.

Native ordering Edit

Consonants: 0, L, S, P, M, B, R, T, D, H, K, N, G, U

Vowel marks: -e, -i, -o, -a, -ǫ, -ą, -į, -ai, -0


This page is written with the Latin transliteration (Spokaduasyel) shown below.

Letter A Ą B D E G H
Sound /a/ /ə̃/ /ᵐbˠ/, /ᵐbʲ/ /ⁿd/, /ᶮɟ/ /e/ /ᵑg/, /ᶮɟ/ /h/
Letter I Į K L M N O
Sound /(ʲ)i/, /j/ /ʲə̃/ /k/, /c/ /ɫ/, /ʎ/ /mˠ/, /mʲ/ /ŋ/, /ɲ/ /o/
Letter Ǫ P R S T U Y
Sound /ə̃/ /pˠ/, /pʲ/ /r/, /j/ /s/, /ʃ/ /t/, /d/, /c/, /ɟ/ /w/ /ʲ/
  • Digraphs: <ts> (/ts/, /tʃ/), <ou> (/u/)


Nouns decline according to case, gender, and number.

Uol (α)Edit

# Absolutive Ergative Accusative Dative Ablative
1 -0 -0 -i -(i)s -ibe
2 -on -0 -i -(i)s -ibe
3* -oun -ou -oui -ous -oube
  • Many nouns are singulare tantum, meaning they have no plural form. The third Uol declension can be used to force a singular reading, usually implying a specific singular object.

ex. Kyor [co̞ɾ], "city" (singulare tantum)

# Absolutive Ergative Accusative Dative Ablative
sg kyor kyor kyori kyoris kyoribe

ex. Galatton [ᵑgäɫätɤ̞ŋ], "animal/beast"

# Absolutive Ergative Accusative Dative Ablative
sg galatton galatt galatti galattis galattibe
pl galattem galattei galattesyo galatteis galatteibe

Mrapin (β)Edit

# Absolutive Ergative Accusative Dative Ablative
1 -o -om -o -os -obe
2 -ąm -ąs -ąbe
4 -in -im -ya -yas -yabe

ex. Paso [pˠäsɤ̞], "sauce"

# Absolutive Ergative Accusative Dative Ablative
sg paso pasom paso pasos pasobe
pl pasoum pasoui pasousyo pasouis pasouibe

ex. Myasą [mʲäsə̃], "sword"

# Absolutive Ergative Accusative Dative Ablative
sg myasą myasąm myasą myasąs myasąbe
pl myasem myasei myasesyo myaseis myaseibe

Drala (γ)Edit

# Absolutive Ergative Accusative Dative Ablative
1 -a -a -ao -as -abe
2 -e -e -ea -es -ebe

ex. Tsriba [tʃjiᵐbˠǝ], "horn"

# Absolutive Ergative Accusative Dative Ablative
sg tsriba tsriba tsribao tsribas tsribabe
pl tsribam tsribai tsribasyo tsribais tsribaibe

ex. Ryoge [jo̞ᵑgɞ̞], "place"

# Absolutive Ergative Accusative Dative Ablative
sg ryoge ryoge ryogea ryoges ryogebe
pl ryogam ryogai ryogasyo ryogais ryogaibe


# Absolutive Ergative Accusative Dative Ablative
1 -em -ei -esyo -eis -eibe
2 -am -ai -asyo -ais -aibe
3 -oum -oui -ousyo -ouis -ouibe
  • In general, the first plural is for Uol and Mrapin, the second for Drala, and the third for some Mrapin; however, this pattern is broken frequently.

ex. Galem [ᵑgäɫɐm], "eyes" (plurale tantum)

# Absolutive Ergative Accusative Dative Ablative
pl galem galei galesyo galeis galeibe

Noun usage Edit

Case Edit

Absolutive Edit

The absolutive case is primarily used for the sole argument of an intransitive verb. It is also used for the subject of a ditransitive verb.

Ergative Edit

The ergative case is primarily used for the subject of an transitive verb. It is also used for the direct object of a ditransitive verb.

Accusative Edit

The accusative case is primarily used for the object of an transitive verb. It is also used with locative postpositions.

Dative Edit

The dative case is primarily used to force a venitive reading of locative postpositions. It is also used for the indirect object of a ditransitive verb.

Ablative Edit

The ablative case is primarily used to force an andative reading of locative postpositions. It is also used next to other nouns to mark compositional words.

Gender Edit

Gender is an interesting topic when talking about the Chesnon or their languages. They have three genders: alpha, beta, and gamma (Uol, Mrapin, and Drala in Kanduadas). And this is reflected in Kanduadas.

Alphas have large manes, Betas have curled horns, and Gammas have bright spots on their chest.

Chesnon are of course assigned the proper gender. Inanimate nouns are seemingly assigned at random or based on derivational suffixes, and loanwords by form. The gendering features of the Chesnon are not necessarily of the "correct" gender (ex. tsriba "horn").

Number Edit

The Kanduaian grammatical number system has quite a few quirks, most notably:

  1. Nouns changing gender between numbers, ex. soulą (m) "a throw" vs. soulam (d) "some throws"
  2. Nouns having multiple plural or singular forms (sometimes with slightly different meanings), ex. tsriba "a horn" vs. tsriboun "horn separate from a body"
  3. High numbers of singulare and plurale tantum nouns, ex. kior (sg) "city" & galem (pl) "eyes"

Nouns Derivations Edit

  • -ae: location. ex. Kaduae "Kanduai"
  • -aren: possessing, having. ex. palatįaren "beauty-having" > "model"
  • lyǫ-: whole. ex. lyǫproiną "whole-person" > "body"
  • ma-: great, large. ex. mamyasą "great sword"
  • -oun: one, alone, only, unique. ex. tsyesnoun "soul-only" > "soulmate, true love"
  • pa-: native, aboriginal, true. ex. paproinem "native-people" > "natives"
  • spo-: alternate, other, false. ex. spogalem "false-eyes" > "camera"
  • -syel: writing. ex. palatįsyel "beautiful-writing" > "calligraphy"
  • -tas: language. ex. Kaduatas "Kanduadas"


1s ue ou ous uebe
1p dya dou dous dyabe
2s tekea teka tekas tekabe
2p ryekea ryeka ryekas ryekabe
3s.α be bei bes beibe
3s.β leum leu leus leube
3s.γ ha hao has habe
3p apei apem apesyo apeis apeibe
  • ex. Tekea ou pausén!
  • [ˈte̞ke̞ɐ ˈu pˠäwˈse̞ŋ]
  • 2s.ERG 1s.ACC hit-2s.PRET
  • You hit me!


Thematic vs. Athematic verbsEdit

There are two conjugation classes in Kanduadas, thematic and athematic verbs. Thematic verbs, like mikuau "eat" are conjugated exclusively by endings which commonly contain the vowel a. Athematic verbs, like tsou "read" are conjugated with vowel changes and endings which do not feature the a so common in thematic endings.

Ablaut Edit

There are two ablauts that athematic verbs go through in circumstances described in the full conjugation section. They are labeled first and second ablaut. Some second ablauts have an alternate form used after a consonant or vowel which can't be palatalized.

  • a>eu>ya/a
  • ą>ąu>į
  • o>a>i
  • ǫ>ą>į/ǫ
  • ou>a>ye/i
  • i>au>i
  • į>ąu>į/ą

TMA systemEdit

  • Nonpast: used for current events.
  • Past: used for past events.
  • Hypothetical: used for hypothetical events.
  • Presumptive: used for events that the speaker supposes/supposed happen(ed). When combined with the nonpast, it forms one of the two future tenses.
  • Volitive: used for events that the speaker wants/wanted to happen. When combined with the nonpast, it forms the other future tense.
  • Imperative: used for commands and requests.

Nonfinite formsEdit

Gerund -apa -ing (noun)
Active participle -ak -ing
Passive participle -aren -ed/en
Contemporary transgressive -ats while -ing
Anterior transgressive -ausi having -ed/en
Supine -atti for -ing/in order to
Connegative -au not

Dictionary formsEdit

The lemma is the connegative form, typically ending in -(a/o)u. Also provided in standard dictionaries are the theme type, and stem.

ex. Souląu (athematic; soulą-), "throw"

Full conjugationEdit


Nonpast Preterite Hypothetical Imperative
IND 1s -ane -éne -ttane -aome
1p -ao -éo -ttao
2s -an -én -ttan -ar
2p -a -tta
3 -as -és -ttas
PRSM 1s -bane -béne Gerund -apa
1p -bao -béo Active -ak
2s -ban -bén Passive -aren
2p -ba -bé Contemporary -ats
3 -bas -bés Anterior -ausi
VOL 1s -lane -léne Supine -atti
1p -lao -léo Connegative -au
2s -lan -lén
2p -la -lé
3 -las -lés


Nonpast Preterite Hypothetical Imperative
IND 1s -ne -ne -tne -ome
1p -o -o -tto
2s -n -n -tten -r
2p 0 0 -t
3 -s -s -ts
PRSM 1s -bne -bne Gerund -pa
1p -bo -bo Active -k
2s -ben -ben Passive -ren
2p -b -b Contemporary -ts
3 -bes -bes Anterior -(o)usi
VOL 1s -lne -lne Supine -ti
1p -lo -lo Connegative -(o)u
2s -ln -ln
2p -l -l
3 -ls -ls
  • Vowels in parenthesis appear on consonant final stems.
  • Past tense forms, the active participle, and the contemporary transgressive undergo first ablaut.
  • Presumptive and volitive future forms, conditional forms, and the 2nd person imperative undergo second ablaut.


Negation is shown with a connegative plus the negative verb.

Oudou [ˈuⁿdu], "don't" (athematic; (h)ou(d)-)

Nonpast Preterite Hypothetical Imperative
IND 1s houne adéne hitne oudome
1p oudo adéo hitto
2s houn adén hitten hir
2p hou adé hit
3 hous adés hits
PRSM 1s hibne habne Gerund houpa
1p hibo habo Active hak
2s hiben haben Passive houren
2p hib hab Contemporary hats
3 hibes habes Anterior oudousi
VOL 1s hilne halne Supine houtti
1p hilo halo Connegative oudou
2s hiln haln
2p hil hal
3 hils hals
  • ex. Nimo mikuau hir!,
  • [ˈɲimˠɤ̞ ˈmʲikwɐw ˈhiɾ]
  • "Don't eat that!"


Tsou /ˈtsu/, "read" (athematic; tso-)

Nonpast Preterite Hypothetical Imperative
IND 1s tsone tsane tsitne tsoome
1p tsoo tsao tsitto
2s tson tsan tsitten tsir
2p tso tsa tsit
3 tsos tsas tsits
PRSM 1s tsibne tsabne Gerund tsopa
1p tsibo tsabo Active tsak
2s tsiben tsaben Passive tsoren
2p tsib tsab Contemporary tsats
3 tsibes tsabes Anterior tsousi
VOL 1s tsilne tsalne Supine tsoti
1p tsilo tsalo Connegative tsou
2s tsiln tsaln
2p tsil tsal
3 tsils tsals

Mikuau /ˈmʲikwaw/, "eat" (thematic; miku-)

Nonpast Preterite Hypothetical Imperative
IND 1s mikuane mikuéne mikuettane mikuaome
1p mikuao mikuéo mikuettao
2s mikuan mikuén mikuettan mikuar
2p mikua mikué mikuetta
3 mikuas mikués mikuettas
PRSM 1s mikuebane mikuebéne Gerund mikuapa
1p mikuebao mikuebéo Active mikuak
2s mikueban mikuebén Passive mikuaren
2p mikueba mikuebé Contemporary mikuats
3 mikuebas mikuebés Anterior mikuausi
VOL 1s mikuelane mikueléne Supine mikuatti
1p mikuelao mikueléo Connegative mikuau
2s mikuelan mikuelén
2p mikuela mikuelé
3 mikuelas mikuelés

Copula Edit

There are two copulae, also known as linking verbs, in Kanduadas, divided by grammatical aspect into gnomic and episodic.

The gnomic copula (pau) is used in descriptions of things or other general statements of truth. All arguments of the gnomic copula are placed in the absolutive case. It is typically dropped in the present tense in the third person or if a pronoun is present as an argument.

Pau /ˈpˠaw/, "be (gnomic)" (athematic; pa-)

Nonpast Preterite Hypothetical Imperative
IND 1s pane peune pyatne paome
1p pao peuo pyatto
2s pan peun pyatten pyar
2p pa peu pyat
3 pas peus pyats
PRSM 1s pyabne peubne Gerund papa
1p pyabo peubo Active peuk
2s pyaben peuben Passive paren
2p pyab peub Contemporary peuts
3 pyabes peubes Anterior pausi
VOL 1s pyalne peulne Supine pati
1p pyalo peulo Connegative pau
2s pyaln peuln
2p pyal peul
3 pyals peuls

The episodic copula (euau) is used in descriptions of events and actions or descriptions of a temporary nature (I am sick vs I am sickly). It is more commonly used following a verb in the active participle form to signify the progressive/continuative aspect. The episodic copula is never dropped. ex. Kyopresyo syolak euane. "I am washing the clothes."

Euau /ˈewaw/, "be (episodic)" (thematic; eua-)

Nonpast Preterite Hypothetical Imperative
IND 1s euane euéne euttane euaome
1p euao euéo euttao
2s euan euén euttan euar
2p eua eué eutta
3 euas eués euttas
PRSM 1s eubane eubéne Gerund euapa
1p eubao eubéo Active euak
2s euban eubén Passive euaren
2p euba eubé Contemporary euats
3 eubas eubés Anterior euausi
VOL 1s eulane euléne Supine euatti
1p eulao euléo Connegative euau
2s eulan eulén
2p eula eulé
3 eulas eulés


There are no indefinite or definite articles. Instead, Kanduadas uses demonstratives. The adjective forms decline as regular adjectives and the noun forms decline as class I drala nouns.

The Deictic positions are as follows:

Proximal: Anything that is close to the speaker.

Mesioproximal: Anything close to the listener.

Mesiodistal: Anything away from the speaker and the listener but still close by.

Distal: Anything away from the speaker and the listener and far away.

Adjective Noun position
Soum Souka proximal
Nim Nika mesioproximal
Ryam Ryaka mesiodistal
Tem Teuka distal


Adjectives typically come before nouns. They decline according to gender, case, and number to match the noun they modify. They are all regular.

Declension Edit

abs erg acc dat abs
α -0 -0 -i -is -ibe
β -o -om -o -os -obe
γ -a -a -ao -as -abe
pl -em -ei -em -eis -eibe

ex. Sels, "joyous, friendly, chummy"

abs erg acc dat abs
α sels sels selsi selsis selsibe
β selso selsom selso selsos selsobe
γ selsa selsa selsao selsas selsabe
pl selsem selsei selsem selseis selseibe

ex. Mesyour "famous"

abs erg acc dat abs
α mesyour mesyour mesyouri mesyouris mesyouribe
β mesyouro mesyourom mesyouro mesyouros mesyourobe
γ mesyoura mesyoura mesyourao mesyouras mesyourabe
pl mesyourem mesyourei mesyourem mesyoureis mesyoureibe

Comparison Edit

Adjectives have comparative and superlative forms which also decline for polarity along with the usual gender and case forms.

Comparative Superlative
Positive -ál- "more" -átel- "most"
Negative -óus- "less" -óutes- "least"

ex. Galtson paso mesyourátelo paso Kaduasyo lį. "Galtson's sauce is the most famous sauce in Kanduai."

Adverbs Edit

Adverbs are unusual in Kanduadas as they conjugate to agree with verbs according to mood, tense, and finiteness. The two conjugations differing whether or not the final consonant can be palatalized. If the root ends in a vowel, then an r is added to make it conjugatable.

palatalizable unpalatalizable
Present -y -i
Preterite -yé -ié
Presumptive future -iby
Presumptive past -byé
Volitive future -ily
Volitive past -lyé
Hypothetical -it
Imperative -yor -ior
Non-finite -ya -ia

ex. Grary /ᵑgɾaj/ "loudly"

Present grary
Preterite graryé
Presumptive future grariby
Presumptive past grabyé
Volitive future grarily
Volitive past gralyé
Hypothetical grarit
Imperative graryor
Non-finite grarya

Syntax Edit

Because of grammatical case and verbs showing person, Kanduadas is a pro-drop language and word order in Kanduadas is relatively completely free. Sentences are usually arranged Topic-Comment, but random ordering is used as a poetic device. Adjectives don't even have to be next to the nouns they modify, though they are generally placed immediately before the noun they modify.

Possession Edit

Possession is shown by simple apposition in the order possessor-possessed, even for pronouns. ex. Ou tsribam! "My horns!"



Postpositions Edit

Postposition Meaning Case
"in" Accusative
"into" Dative
"out of" Ablative
da "on" Accusative
"onto" Dative
"off of" Ablative


Conjunctions Edit

or (e), and (), but/contrast (dem), for/rationale (byor), so/consequence ()

Numerals Edit

Since the Chesnon have six fingers on each hand, it's fitting that most of their languages are base-12 (duodecimal/dozenal) instead of base-10, Kanduadas being no exception.

# IPA 12*# IPA
0 dyǫta [ˈᶮɟə̃dɐ]
1 sou [su] samastą [ˈsämästə̃]
2 pei [pˠe̞j] samapei [ˈsämäpˠe̞j]
3 go [ᵑgo̞] samago [ˈsämäᵑgɤ̞]
4 tiri [ˈciji] samatiri [sɐˈmäɟiji]
5 tsya [tʃä] samatsya [ˈsämätsɐ]
6 pego [ˈpˠe̞ᵑgɤ̞] samapego [sɐˈmäpˠe̞ᵑgɤ̞]
7 sira [ˈʃiɾɐ] samasira [sɐˈmäsiɾɐ]
8 petiri [ˈpˠe̞ɟiji] samapetiri [sämɐˈpˠe̞ɟiji]
9 satal [ˈsädäɫ] samasatal [sɐˈmäsädäɫ]
10 petsya [ˈpˠe̞tʃɐ] samapetsya [sɐˈmäpˠe̞tsɐ]
11 sohe [ˈso̞hɞ̞] samasohe [sɐˈmäsɤ̞hɐ]
12 samastą [ˈsämästə̃] kyebious [ˈce̞ᵐbʲiɯs]
  • Combinations of multiples of twelve and a digit are placed in the opposite order of English. ex. pego-samastą "eighteen", literally "six (and a) dozen"

Body parts Edit

Where the translations come in pairs, the first is singular and the second plural.

  • body: lyǫproiną β
  • chest/abdomen: tago β
  • head: dail/dailem α
  • mouth/snout: balton/baltoum α
  • tongue: ligous/ligousem α
  • tooth: tasya/tasyam γ
  • rhinarium:
  • nostrils: nogoum pl
  • eyes: galem pl
  • outer ears:
  • inner ear:
  • horn: tsriba/tsribam γ
  • mane:
  • neck: nretsrya/nretsryam γ
  • back:
  • skin: kalin β
  • fur:
  • overcoat: satoumin β
  • undercoat: matoumin β
  • stripes:
  • arm: groue/grouam γ
  • hand:
  • finger:
  • thumb:
  • thigh:
  • knee:
  • lower leg/foot:
  • hoof toe: