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Kanduadas

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Kanduadas
Kaduatas
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Tripartite
Head direction
left
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Kanduadas (natively, Kaduatas [ˈkäⁿdwɐdɐs]) is the official language and a national language of the country Kanduai on the moon Chesnon. Chesnon is the name in English of the moon as well as the species. They call themselves Cesnon (singulative: Cesnem).

PhonologyEdit

  • The standard language is based on the dialect of Makiór [mɐˈcɤ̞ɾ] (great-city, the Kanduaians are not the most creative namers).

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Dentialveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal mˠ mʲ (n) ɲ ŋ
Plosive pˠ pʲ t d c k (ʔ)
Prenasal ᵐbˠ ᵐbʲ ⁿd ᶮɟ ᵑg
Fricative s ʃ h
Affricate (ts)
Approximant (ɹ) j w
Lateral ɫ/lʲ
Flap ɾ
  1. [n] is in free variation with the regular pronunciation of /ŋ/ intervocalically.
  2. /d/ only contrasts with /t/ intervocalically.
  3. /ʔ/ only appears in a few conservative dialects.
  4. [ts] is an allophone of /tʃ/ in alveolar-dominant words.
  5. [ɹ] is an allophone of /r/ when word-initial or adjacent to /m/, /ŋ/, or /s/.
  6. /l/ varies as [ɫ] and [lʲ] depending on the surrounding vowels and consonants.

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
High i (y) ə̃ (ɵ̞̃) (ɯ) u
Low e̞ (ø̞) ä (ɒ̈) (ɤ̞) o̞
  • The sounds are rounded or unrounded according to the rules of roundness harmony. A vowel, usually the first vowel (that isn't /ə̃/) or the stressed vowel, dictates the roundness of a whole word.
  • [ǝ] and [ɵ̞] are the unstressed, word-final allophones of /a/ and /e/.
  • [ɨ̃] and [ʉ̃] are the allophones of /ə̃/ before a schwa.
  • the legal diphthongs are /äj/, /äw/, /e̞j/, /e̞w/, /o̞j/, and /ə̃w/.
  • /e/ and /a/ are reduced to [ɐ] in the syllable before the stressed one, in a final unstressed syllable, and for /a/, in diphthongs.

StressEdit

Stress is placed on the antepenultimate syllable unless otherwise indicated by an acute accent in the romanizations.

Writing SystemEdit

TransliterationEdit

The Kanduadas orthography, Pakaduaxel, is an alphasyllabary. This page is written with the Latin transliteration (Spokaduaxel) shown below.

Letter A B C D E G H I K L
Sound /a/ /ᵐbˠ/, /ᵐbʲ/ /tʃ/ /ⁿd/, /ᶮɟ/ /e/ /ᵑg/, /ᶮɟ/ /h/ /i/ /k/, /c/ /l/
Letter M N O P R S T U V X
Sound /mˠ/, /mʲ/ /ŋ/, /ɲ/ /o/ /pˠ/, /pʲ/ /r/, /j/ /s/, /ʃ/ /t/, /d/, /c/ /u/ /ə̃/ /ʃ/, /s/

Native orderingEdit

Consonants: 0, L, S, P, M, B, R, T, D, X, H, K, N, G, C, U

Vowels: -e, -o, -a, -i, -v, -u, -0

NounsEdit

Nouns decline according to case, gender, and number. The left side of a slash is the collective number, the right is for the singulative.

UolEdit

# Absolutive Ergative Accusative
1 -0/em -0/i -i/ei
2 -on/em -0/i -i/ei
3 -un/uem -u/ui -ui/uxo

ex. Kior [co̞ɾ], cities

# Absolutive Ergative Accusative
col kior kior kiori
sgv kiorem kiori kiorei

MrapinEdit

# Absolutive Ergative Accusative
1 -o/oim -om/oi -o/oie
2 -u/vu -um/vum -vu/vue
3 -in/vu -im/vum -ia/vue
4 -an/am -v/vu -v/vue

ex. Paso [pˠäsɤ̞], sauce

# Absolutive Ergative Accusative
col paso pasom paso
sgv pasoim pasoi pasoie

DralaEdit

# Absolutive Ergative Accusative
1 -a/am -a/ae -ao/axo
2 -e/am -ea/ae -i/axo

ex. Criba [tʃjiᵐbˠə], horns

# Absolutive Ergative Accusative
col crimba crimba crimbao
sgv crimbam crimbae crimbaxo

CaseEdit

The cases are:

Absolutive, which used for the argument of an intransitive verb, Ergative, which used for the subject of an transitive verb, and Accusative which used for the object of an transitive verb.

GenderEdit

Gender is an interesting topic when talking about the Chesnon or their languages. They have three genders. And this is reflected in Kanduadas. The grammatical genders are: uol (with 3 declension classes), mrapin (4 classes), and drala (2 classes).

Chesnon are of course assigned the proper gender. Inanimate nouns are seemingly assigned at random or based on common derivational suffixes, and loanwords by form.

NumberEdit

The two grammatical numbers of Kanduadas may be of some interest to English speakers. The reason why is that the most basic and unmarked number is the one referring to multiple entities, called the collective. The number used for a single entity, the singulative, is more marked and is not used in compounds.

PronounsEdit

ERG ABS ACC
1c dia du
1s ue u
2c riakea riaka
2s takea taka
3c.u be bv
3s.u apim apin apia
3c.m lu
3s.m leum leu
3c.d ha hao
3s.d hae ham haxo
  • ex. Takea pausén u!
  • [ˈtäke̞ǝ pˠäwˈse̞ŋ ˈu]
  • 2s.ERG hit-2s.PRET 1s.ACC
  • You hit me!

VerbsEdit

Thematic vs. Athematic verbsEdit

TMA systemEdit

nonpast: used for current events.

preterite: used for past events that are complete or viewed as a single action.

imperfect: used for past events taking place over a period of time or happening many times.

conditional: used for events that may happen given certain conditions

presumptive: used for events that the speaker supposes/supposed happen(ed). When combined with the nonpast, it forms one of the two future tenses.

volitive: used for events that the speaker wants/wanted to happen. When combined with the nonpast, it forms the other future tense.

imperative: used for commands and requests.

NonpastEdit

col sgv
1 -(a)o -(a)ne
2 -(a) -(a)n
3 -(a)s

PreteriteEdit

Oral stems:

col sgv
1 -éo -éne
2 -én
3 -és

Nasal stems:

col sgv
1 -v́o -v́ne
2 -v́ -v́n
3 -v́s

ImperfectEdit

col sgv
1
2
3

ConditionalEdit

col sgv
1
2
3

PresumptiveEdit

VolitiveEdit

ImperativeEdit

1 -(a)ome
2 -(a)r

Nonfinite formsEdit

Gerund -pa -ing (noun)
Active participle -(a)k -ing
Passive participle -(a)ren -ed/en
Contemporary transgressive -(a)c while -ing
Anterior transgressive -uxe having -ed/en
Supine -(a)(t)ti for -ing/in order to
Connegative -u not

Dictionary formsEdit

The lemma is the connegative form, typically ending in -u. Also provided in standard dictionaries are the theme type, stem type, and stem itself.

ex. Sulvu (athematic; regular nasal stem sulv-), "throw"

Full conjugationEdit

Nonpast Preterite Imperfect Conditional Imperative
IND 1col -(a)o -éo -(a)xo -tt(a)o -(a)ome
1sgv -(a)ne -éne -(a)xne -ttane
2col -(a) -(a)x -t(ta) -(a)r
2sgv -(a)n -én -(a)nx -ttan
3 -(a)s -és -(a)xes -ttas
PRSM 1col -b(a)o -béo Gerund -pa
1sgv -bane -béne Active -(a)k
2col -b(a) -bé Passive -(a)ren
2sgv -ban -bén Contemporary -(a)c
3 -bas -bés Anterior -uxe
VOL 1col -l(a)o -léo Supine -(a)(t)ti
1sgv -lane -léne Connegative -u
2col -l(a) -lé
2sgv -lan -lén
3 -las -lés

NegationEdit

Negation is shown with a connegative plus the negative verb.

Udu [ˈuⁿdu], "don't" (athematic; irregular stem (h)u(d)-)

Nonpast Preterite Imperfect Conditional Imperative
IND 1col ido adéo udome
1sgv hune adéne
2col hu adé hir
2sgv hun adén
3 hus adés
PRSM 1col Gerund hupa
1sgv Active hak
2col Passive huren
2sgv Contemporary hac
3 Anterior uduxe
VOL 1col Supine hutti
1sgv Connegative udu
2col
2sgv
3
  • ex. Nimo mikuau hir!,
  • [ˈɲimˠɤ̞ ˈmʲikwäw ˈhiɾ]
  • MPROX-ACC.mra eat-CONNEG NEG-2.IMP
  • "Don't eat that!"

ExamplesEdit

Coi [ˈtʃo̞j], "read" (athematic; -oi type stem co-)

Nonpast Preterite Imperfect Conditional Imperative
IND 1col ceu cuéo come
1sgv cone cuéne
2col co cué ceur
2sgv con cuén
3 cos cués
PRSM 1col Gerund copa
1sgv Active cuk
2col Passive coren
2sgv Contemporary cuc
3 Anterior coixe
VOL 1col Supine cotti
1sgv Connegative coi
2col
2sgv
3

Mikuau [ˈmʲikwäw], "eat" (thematic; -uau type stem miku-)

Nonpast Preterite Imperfect Conditional Imperative
IND 1col mikuao mikuéo mikuaome
1sgv mikuane mikuéne
2col mikua mikué mikuar
2sgv mikuan mikuén
3 mikuas mikués
PRSM 1col Gerund mikupa
1sgv Active mikuak
2col Passive mikuaren
2sgv Contemporary mikuac
3 Anterior mikuauxe
VOL 1col Supine mikuatti
1sgv Connegative mikuau
2col
2sgv
3

DemonstrativesEdit

There are no indefinite or definite articles. Instead, Kanduadas uses demonstratives. They decline as regular adjectives.

The Deictic positions are as follows:

Proximal: Anything that is close to the speaker.

Mesioproximal: Anything close to the listener.

Mesiodistal: Anything away from the speaker and the listener but still close by.

Distal: Anything away from the speaker and the listener and far away.

That There position
Xum Xuka proximal
Nim Nika mesioproximal
Riam Riaka mesiodistal
Tem Teuka distal

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives typically come before nouns. They decline according to gender and case, not number. They are all regular.

abs erg acc
uol -0 -0 -i
mrabin -o -om -o
ndrala -a -a -ao

ex. Selx, "joyous, friendly, chummy"

abs erg acc
uol selx selx selxi
mrabin selxo selxom selxo
ndrala selxa selxa selxao

Adjectives also have positive and negative comparative (-ál/-ús) and superlative (-átel/-útes) forms.

AdverbsEdit

QuestionsEdit

InterrogativesEdit

VocabularyEdit

Numerals Edit

Since the Chesnon have six fingers on each hand, it's fitting that most of their languages are base-12 (duodecimal/dozenal) instead of base-10, Kanduadas being no exception.

# name IPA 12+# IPA
0 divta [ˈᶮɟə̃də] samaxtv [ˈsämästə̃]
1 su [su] samasu [ˈsämäsɯ]
2 pei [pʲe̞j] samapei [ˈsämäpʲe̞j]
3 go [ᵑgo̞] samago [ˈsämäᵑgǝ]
4 tiri [ˈciji] samatiri [ˈsämäciji]
5 ca [tʃä] samaca [ˈsämätsǝ]
6 pego [ˈpʲe̞ᵑgǝ] samapego [säˈmäbʲe̞ᵑgǝ]
7 xera [ˈʃe̞ɾǝ] samaxera [säˈmäse̞ɾǝ]
8 pettiri [ˈpʲe̞ciji] samapettiri [sämäˈpʲe̞ciji]
9 satal [ˈsädäɫ] samasatal [säˈmäsädäɫ]
10 peca [ˈpʲe̞tʃǝ] samapeca [säˈmäpʲe̞tsǝ]
11 sohe [ˈso̞hɵ̞] samasohe [säˈmäsɤ̞hǝ]
12 samaxtv [ˈsämästə̃]

Example textEdit

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