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Kanduadas
Kaduatas
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Tripartite
Head direction
left
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Kanduadas (natively, Kaduatas [ˈkäⁿdwɐdɐs]) is the official language and a national language of the country Kanduai on the moon Chesnon. Chesnon is the name in English of the moon as well as the species. They call themselves Tsyesnem [ˈtʃe̞ʃnɐm] (singular: Tsyesnon).

PhonologyEdit

  • The standard language is based on the dialect of Makyór [mɐˈcɤ̞ɾ] (great-city, the Kanduaians are very literal namers).

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Dentialveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal mˠ mʲ (n) ɲ ŋ
Plosive pˠ pʲ t d c ɟ k (ʔ)
Prenasal ᵐbˠ ᵐbʲ ⁿd ᶮɟ ᵑg
Fricative s ʃ h
Affricate ts
Approximant (ɹ) j w
Lateral ɫ ʎ
Flap ɾ
  1. [n] is an allophone of /ŋ/ adjacent to an alveolar consonant and is in free variation with the regular pronunciation of /ŋ/ intervocalically.
  2. /d/ only contrasts with /t/ intervocalically. Same for /c/ and /ɟ/.
  3. /ʔ/ only appears in a few conservative dialects.
  4. [ɹ] is an allophone of /r/ when word-initial or adjacent to /m/, /ŋ/, or /s/.
  5. /s/ and /ts/ cannot be present in the same word as /ʃ/ and /tʃ/. The first one of these sounds present in a word spreads its place of articulation to any other sibilants in the word.

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
High i (y) ə̃ (ɵ̞̃) (ɯ) u
Low e̞ (ø̞) ä (ɒ̈) (ɤ̞) o̞
  • The sounds are rounded or unrounded according to the rules of roundness harmony. A vowel, usually the first vowel (that isn't /ə̃/) or the stressed vowel, dictates the roundness of a whole word.
  • [ɨ̃] and [ʉ̃] are the allophones of /ə̃/ before the reduced vowel [ɐ].
  • The legal diphthongs are /äj/, /äw/, /e̞j/, /e̞w/, /o̞j/, and /ə̃w/.
  • /e/ and /a/ are reduced to [ɐ] in the syllable before the stressed one, word-finally in an unstressed syllable, and for /a/, in diphthongs.

StressEdit

Stress is placed on the antepenultimate syllable unless otherwise indicated by an acute accent in the romanizations.

Writing SystemEdit

Native script Edit

The Kanduadas orthography, Pakaduasyel, is an abugida.

Writing direction Edit

Pakaduasyel is written right-to-left in rows running top-to-bottom

Native ordering Edit

Consonants: 0, L, S, P, M, B, R, T, D, H, K, N, G, U

Vowel marks: -e, -i, -o, -a, -ǫ, -ą, -į, -ai, -0

TransliterationEdit

This page is written with the Latin transliteration (Spokaduasyel) shown below.

Letter A Ą B D E G H
Sound /a/ /ə̃/ /ᵐbˠ/, /ᵐbʲ/ /ⁿd/, /ᶮɟ/ /e/ /ᵑg/, /ᶮɟ/ /h/
Letter I Į K L M N O
Sound /(ʲ)i/, /j/ /ʲə̃/ /k/, /c/ /ɫ/, /ʎ/ /mˠ/, /mʲ/ /ŋ/, /ɲ/ /o/
Letter Ǫ P R S T U Y
Sound /ə̃/ /pˠ/, /pʲ/ /r/, /j/ /s/, /ʃ/ /t/, /d/, /c/, /ɟ/ /w/ /ʲ/
  • Digraphs: <ts> (/ts/, /tʃ/), <ou> (/u/)

NounsEdit

Nouns decline according to case, gender, and number.

UolEdit

# Absolutive Ergative Accusative Dative Ablative
1 -0 -0 -i -(i)s -ibe
2 -on -0 -i -(i)s -ibe
3* -oun -ou -oui -ous -oube
  • Many nouns are singulare tantum, meaning they have no plural form. The third Uol declension can be used to force a singular reading, usually implying a specific singular object.

ex. Kyor [co̞ɾ], city (singulare tantum)

# Absolutive Ergative Accusative Dative Ablative
sg kyor kyor kyori kyoris kyoribe

MrapinEdit

# Absolutive Ergative Accusative Dative Ablative
1 -o -om -o -os -obe
2 -ąm -ąs -ąbe
4 -in -im -ya -yas -yabe

ex. Paso [pˠäsɤ̞], sauce

# Absolutive Ergative Accusative Dative Ablative
sg paso pasom paso pasos pasobe
pl pasoum pasoui pasousyo pasouis pasouibe

DralaEdit

# Absolutive Ergative Accusative Dative Ablative
1 -a -a -ao -as -abe
2 -e -e -ea -es -ebe

ex. Tsriba [tʃjiᵐbˠǝ], horn

# Absolutive Ergative Accusative Dative Ablative
sg tsriba tsriba tsribao tsribas tsribabe
pl tsribam tsribai tsribasyo tsribais tsribaibe

PluralEdit

# Absolutive Ergative Accusative Dative Ablative
1 -em -ei -esyo -eis -eibe
2 -am -ai -asyo -ais -aibe
3 -oum -oui -ousyo -ouis -ouibe
  • In general, the first plural is for Uol and Mrapin, the second for Drala, and the third for some Mrapin; however, this pattern is broken frequently.

ex. Galem [ᵑgäɫɐm], eyes (plurale tantum)

# Absolutive Ergative Accusative Dative Ablative
pl galem galei galesyo galeis galeibe

Noun usage Edit

Case Edit

Absolutive Edit

The absolutive case is primarily used for the sole argument of an intransitive verb. It is also used for the subject of a ditransitive verb.

Ergative Edit

The ergative case is primarily used for the subject of an transitive verb. It is also used for the direct object of a ditransitive verb.

Accusative Edit

The accusative case is primarily used for the object of an transitive verb. It is also used with locative postpositions.

Dative Edit

The dative case is primarily used to force a venitive reading of locative postpositions. It is also used for the indirect object of a ditransitive verb.

Ablative Edit

The ablative case is primarily used to force an andative reading of locative postpositions. It is also used next to other nouns to mark compositional words.

Gender Edit

Gender is an interesting topic when talking about the Chesnon or their languages. They have three genders: Uol, Mrapin, and Drala. And this is reflected in Kanduadas.

Chesnon are of course assigned the proper gender. Inanimate nouns are seemingly assigned at random or based on derivational suffixes, and loanwords by form.

Number Edit

The Kanduaian grammatical number system has quite a few quirks, most notably:

  1. Nouns changing gender between numbers, ex. soulą (m) "a throw" vs. soulam (d) "some throws"
  2. Nouns having multiple plural or singular forms (sometimes with slightly different meanings), ex. tsriba "a horn" vs. tsriboun "horn separate from a body"
  3. High numbers of singulare and plurale tantum nouns, ex. kior (sg) "city" & galem (pl) "eyes"

PronounsEdit

ERG ABS ACC DAT ABL
1s ue ou ous uebe
1p dya dou dous dyabe
2s tekea teka tekas tekabe
2p ryekea ryeka ryekas ryekabe
3s.u be bei bes beibe
3s.m leum leu leus leube
3s.d ha hao has habe
3p apei apem apesyo apeis apeibe
  • ex. Tekea ou pausén!
  • [ˈte̞ke̞ɐ ˈu pˠäwˈse̞ŋ]
  • 2s.ERG 1s.ACC hit-2s.PRET
  • You hit me!

VerbsEdit

Thematic vs. Athematic verbsEdit

There are two conjugation classes in Kanduadas, thematic and athematic verbs. Thematic verbs, like mikuau "eat" are conjugated exclusively by endings which commonly contain the vowel a. Athematic verbs, like tsou "read" are conjugated with vowel changes and endings which do not feature the a so common in thematic endings.

Ablaut Edit

There are two ablauts that athematic verbs go through in circumstances described in the full conjugation section. They are labeled first and second ablaut. Some second ablauts have an alternate form used after a consonant or vowel which can't be palatalized.

  • a>eu>ya/a
  • ą>ąu>į
  • o>a>i
  • ǫ>ą>į/ǫ
  • ou>a>ye/i
  • i>au>i
  • į>ąu>į/ą

TMA systemEdit

  • Nonpast: used for current events.
  • Past: used for past events.
  • Hypothetical: used for hypothetical events.
  • Presumptive: used for events that the speaker supposes/supposed happen(ed). When combined with the nonpast, it forms one of the two future tenses.
  • Volitive: used for events that the speaker wants/wanted to happen. When combined with the nonpast, it forms the other future tense.
  • Imperative: used for commands and requests.

Nonfinite formsEdit

Gerund -apa -ing (noun)
Active participle -ak -ing
Passive participle -aren -ed/en
Contemporary transgressive -ats while -ing
Anterior transgressive -ausi having -ed/en
Supine -atti for -ing/in order to
Connegative -au not

Dictionary formsEdit

The lemma is the connegative form, typically ending in -(a/o)u. Also provided in standard dictionaries are the theme type, stem type, and stem itself.

ex. Souląu (athematic; regular nasal stem soulą-), "throw"

Full conjugationEdit

ThematicEdit

Nonpast Preterite Hypothetical Imperative
IND 1s -ane -éne -ttane -aome
1p -ao -éo -ttao
2s -an -én -ttan -ar
2p -a -tta
3 -as -és -ttas
PRSM 1s -bane -béne Gerund -apa
1p -bao -béo Active -ak
2s -ban -bén Passive -aren
2p -ba -bé Contemporary -ats
3 -bas -bés Anterior -ausi
VOL 1s -lane -léne Supine -atti
1p -lao -léo Connegative -au
2s -lan -lén
2p -la -lé
3 -las -lés

AthematicEdit

Nonpast Preterite Hypothetical Imperative
IND 1s -ne -ne -tne -ome
1p -o -o -tto
2s -n -n -tten -r
2p 0 0 -t
3 -s -s -ts
PRSM 1s -bne -bne Gerund -pa
1p -bo -bo Active -k
2s -ben -ben Passive -ren
2p -b -b Contemporary -ts
3 -bes -bes Anterior -(o)usi
VOL 1s -lne -lne Supine -ti
1p -lo -lo Connegative -(o)u
2s -ln -ln
2p -l -l
3 -ls -ls
  • Vowels in parenthesis appear on consonant final stems.
  • Past tense forms, the active participle, and the contemporary transgressive undergo first ablaut.
  • Presumptive and volitive future forms, conditional forms, and the 2nd person imperative undergo second ablaut.

NegationEdit

Negation is shown with a connegative plus the negative verb.

Oudou [ˈuⁿdu], "don't" (athematic; irregular stem (h)ou(d)-)

Nonpast Preterite Hypothetical Imperative
IND 1s houne adéne hitne oudome
1p oudo adéo hitto
2s houn adén hitten hir
2p hou adé hit
3 hous adés hits
PRSM 1s hibne habne Gerund houpa
1p hibo habo Active hak
2s hiben haben Passive houren
2p hib hab Contemporary hats
3 hibes habes Anterior oudousi
VOL 1s hilne halne Supine houtti
1p hilo halo Connegative oudou
2s hiln haln
2p hil hal
3 hils hals
  • ex. Nimo mikuau hir!,
  • [ˈɲimˠɤ̞ ˈmʲikwɐw ˈhiɾ]
  • MPROX-ACC.mra eat-CONNEG NEG-2.IMP
  • "Don't eat that!"

ExamplesEdit

Tsou [ˈtsu], "read" (athematic; natural -ou type stem tso-)

Nonpast Preterite Hypothetical Imperative
IND 1s tsone tsane tsitne tsoome
1p tsoo tsao tsitto
2s tson tsan tsitten tsir
2p tso tsa tsit
3 tsos tsas tsits
PRSM 1s tsibne tsabne Gerund tsopa
1p tsibo tsabo Active tsak
2s tsiben tsaben Passive tsoren
2p tsib tsab Contemporary tsats
3 tsibes tsabes Anterior tsousi
VOL 1s tsilne tsalne Supine tsoti
1p tsilo tsalo Connegative tsou
2s tsiln tsaln
2p tsil tsal
3 tsils tsals

Mikuau [ˈmʲikwäw], "eat" (thematic; -uau type stem miku-)

Nonpast Preterite Hypothetical Imperative
IND 1s mikuane mikuéne mikuettane mikuaome
1p mikuao mikuéo mikuettao
2s mikuan mikuén mikuettan mikuar
2p mikua mikué mikuetta
3 mikuas mikués mikuettas
PRSM 1s mikuebane mikuebéne Gerund mikuapa
1p mikuebao mikuebéo Active mikuak
2s mikueban mikuebén Passive mikuaren
2p mikueba mikuebé Contemporary mikuats
3 mikuebas mikuebés Anterior mikuausi
VOL 1s mikuelane mikueléne Supine mikuatti
1p mikuelao mikueléo Connegative mikuau
2s mikuelan mikuelén
2p mikuela mikuelé
3 mikuelas mikuelés

Copula Edit

There are two copulae, also known as linking verbs, in Kanduadas, divided by grammatical aspect into gnomic and episodic.

The gnomic copula is used in descriptions of things or other general statements of truth. All arguments of the gnomic copula are placed in the absolutive case. It is typically dropped in the present tense in the third person or if a pronoun is present as an argument.

The episodic copula is used in descriptions of events and actions or descriptions of a temporary nature (I am sick vs I am sickly). It is more commonly used following a verb in the active participle form to signify the progressive/continuative aspect. The episodic copula is never dropped.

DemonstrativesEdit

There are no indefinite or definite articles. Instead, Kanduadas uses demonstratives. The adjective forms decline as regular adjectives and the noun forms decline as class I drala nouns.

The Deictic positions are as follows:

Proximal: Anything that is close to the speaker.

Mesioproximal: Anything close to the listener.

Mesiodistal: Anything away from the speaker and the listener but still close by.

Distal: Anything away from the speaker and the listener and far away.

Adjective Noun position
Soum Souka proximal
Nim Nika mesioproximal
Ryam Ryaka mesiodistal
Tem Teuka distal

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives typically come before nouns. They decline according to gender and case, not number. They are all regular.

Declension Edit

abs erg acc dat abs
Uol -0 -0 -i -is -ibe
Mrabin -o -om -o -os -obe
Drala -a -a -ao -as -abe

ex. Sels, "joyous, friendly, chummy"

abs erg acc dat abs
uol sels sels selsi selsis selsibe
mrabin selso selsom selso selsos selsobe
ndrala selsa selsa selsao selsas selsabe

ex. Mesyour "famous"

abs erg acc dat abs
uol mesyour mesyour mesyouri mesyouris mesyouribe
mrabin mesyouro mesyourom mesyouro mesyouros mesyourobe
ndrala mesyoura mesyoura mesyourao mesyouras mesyourabe

Comparison Edit

Adjectives have comparative and superlative forms which also decline for polarity along with the usual gender and case forms.

Comparative Superlative
Positive -ál- "more" -átel- "most"
Negative -óus- "less" -óutes- "least"

ex. Galtson paso mesyourátelo paso Kaduasyo lį. "Galtson's sauce is the most famous sauce in Kanduai."

Adverbs Edit

Adverbs are unusual in Kanduadas as they conjugate to agree with verbs according to mood, tense, and finiteness.

Present
Preterite
Presumptive future
Presumptive past
Volitive future
Volitive past
Hypothetical
Imperative
Non-finite

Syntax Edit

Because of grammatical case and verbs showing person, Kanduadas is a pro-drop language and word order in Kanduadas is nearly completely free. Sentences are usually arranged Topic-Comment, but random ordering is used as a poetic device. Adjectives don't even have to be next to the nouns they modify, though they are generally placed immediately before the noun they modify.

Possession Edit

Possession is shown by simple apposition in the order possessor-possessed, even for pronouns. ex. Ou tsribam! "My horns!"

QuestionsEdit

InterrogativesEdit

Postpositions Edit

Postposition Meaning Case
"in" Accusative
"into" Dative
"out of" Ablative

VocabularyEdit

Conjunctions Edit

or (e), and (rį)

Numerals Edit

Since the Chesnon have six fingers on each hand, it's fitting that most of their languages are base-12 (duodecimal/dozenal) instead of base-10, Kanduadas being no exception.

# IPA 12*# IPA
0 dyǫta [ˈᶮɟə̃dɐ]
1 sou [su] samastą [ˈsämästə̃]
2 pei [pˠe̞j] samapei [ˈsämäpˠe̞j]
3 go [ᵑgo̞] samago [ˈsämäᵑgɤ̞]
4 tiri [ˈciji] samatiri [sɐˈmäɟiji]
5 tsya [tʃä] samatsya [ˈsämätsɐ]
6 pego [ˈpˠe̞ᵑgɤ̞] samapego [sɐˈmäpˠe̞ᵑgɤ̞]
7 sira [ˈʃiɾɐ] samasira [sɐˈmäsiɾɐ]
8 petiri [ˈpˠe̞ɟiji] samapetiri [sämɐˈpˠe̞ɟiji]
9 satal [ˈsädäɫ] samasatal [sɐˈmäsädäɫ]
10 petsya [ˈpˠe̞tʃɐ] samapetsya [sɐˈmäpˠe̞tsɐ]
11 sohe [ˈso̞hɞ̞] samasohe [sɐˈmäsɤ̞hɐ]
12 samastą [ˈsämästə̃] kyebious [ˈce̞ᵐbʲiɯs]

Combinations of multiples of twelve and a digit are placed in the opposite order of English. ex. pego-samastą "eighteen", literally "six (and a) dozen"

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