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Karuslnko

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Karuslnko is heavily influenced by Catalan, Italian, Swahili, Swedish, and Japanese while containing words from Serbo-Croatian, Czech, Polish, Icelandic, Danish, Norwegian, Finnish,(and very light influence of),Ukrainian, Galician, Hungarian, Kongo, Igbo, and Yoruba.

Originally I intended for this language to be an auxiliary language but I decided to give its own unique flare to the language and I wanted to not always rely on Wikipedia to provide all the words for me.

I have also created an official website for Karuslnko  as the language and culture develops.


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Name: [[]]

Type:

Alignment:

Head Direction:

Number of genders: Yes

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes Yes No No No
Nouns Yes No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes No No Yes No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article Yes Yes No Yes No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


SettingEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labiode. Dental Alveol. Postalve. Retrofl. Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn. Epiglot. Glottal
Plosives p b n t d c ɟ k g ʔ2
Affricates tz dz x ɦ h
Fricatives f v s z

χ ʁ
Lateral Fricatives ʃ ʒ
Lateral Affricates ʎ
Nasals m ŋ ɲ
Trills r w
Flaps / taps ɾ
Glides Approxim. l ɭ j
Lateral Appr.
Co-art. approx.

VowelsEdit

Front Near front Central Near back Back
Close i ʏ y u
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid e ø o
Open-mid ɔ
Near-open æ ɛ
Open ɑ

PhonotacticsEdit

CVC, CVV, CVVC, VC, V, VV, CVCC, VVC and VCC, CCV, CCVC, CCVCC, CCVV, CCVVC, CCCV, CCCVC and CCCVCC.

Stress and Pitch: Always primarily stressed on the first word. Secondary stress falls on the first syllable on non-initial parts of compounds. Irregular stress with usually be marked with an accent.

Vowel Harmony: Vowels U, O, A are realized as either back [u, o, a] or front [y, ø, æ] inside a single word. From vowel harmony it follows that the initial syllable of each single (non-compound) word controls the frontness and backness of the entire word. Non-initially the neutral vowels are transparent to and unaffected by vowel harmony.

Neutral Front Back
High i y u
Mid e ö o
Low ä a

1) A back vowel causes all the non-initial syllables to be realized with back (or neutral) vowels.

2) A front vowel causes all the non-initial syllables to be realized with front (or neutral) vowels.

3) A neutral vowel acts like a front vowel but doesn't control the frontness or backness of the word: if there are back vowels in non- initial syllables then the word acts like it began with back vowels even if they came from derivation endings.

Diphthongs:

Ei /eɪ/

Ai /aɪ/

Au /aʊ/

Äu /ɔɪ/

Iu /iju/

Ou /ɔu/

Io /jɔ/

Ui /uj/

Öi /øʏ/

Ju /jʉ/

Consonant Combinations:

Ch /x/

Dž /dʒ/

Ng /ŋ/

Nj /ɲ/


Orthography

A /a/

B /b/

č /tʃ/

D /d/

E /ɛ/

F /f/

G /g/ before soft vowels in accent syllables: /j/ , before "t": /k/ in adjectival and adverbial endings -ig or -lig then it is silent unless a "t" is added and then it becomes /k/

H /h/ unless it is in the middle of a word then it is: /ɦ/

I /i/

J /j/

K /k/

L /l/

M /m/

N /n/

O /o/

P /p/

R /r/

S /s/

š /ʃ/

T /t/

U /u/

V /v/

Y /ʏ/

Z /ts/

ž /ʒ/

Ä /æ/

Ö /ø/

Å /ɔ/

Basic GrammarEdit

Personal Pronouns: Using "Uo", "Du" and "Nui" are optional in use. The personal endings of the verbs indicate who is talking and and therefore it is not always necessary to add personal pronouns. But they can be used for emphasis.

Personal Pronouns
1st Person Uo (Neuter) Aiú (Feminine) Eúi (Masculine) Nui (Plural)
2nd Person Du (Singular, informal) Vosú (Plural) Di (Formal)
3rd person Hani (Masculine) Ela (Feminine) Se (Things and animals)
3rd Person Plural Hanès (Masculine) Elas (Feminine) Iu (People only) Ou (Things and animals)


Irregular Verbs:

Olassare (To be): Present Tense

Uo/Aiú/Eúi- Olenu (Negative: Un ole)

Du- Oseit (Negative: Seit os)

Hani/Ela/Se- On (Ei olu)

Iu/Ou- Olittiamú (Mei oli)

Nui- Oliemei (Ei oli)

Vosú- Osa (Ei osa)

Hanès/Elas/Dei- Ovuno (Un ovu)

Di- Osiettu (Ettu os)

Imperfect/Simple Past

Uo/Aiú/Eúi- Olinu (Un olluutto)

Du- Osuit (Seit olluutto)

Hani/Ela/Se- Oli (Ei ollutto)

Iu/Ou- Ollitomú (Mei olluutto)

Nui- Olumme (Ei oleemo)

Vosú- Osú (Ei ollutto)

Di- Osita (Eittu olleetto)

Hanès/Elas/Dei- Ovini (Un oletto)

Perfect

Uo/Aiú/Eúi- Olen olehtu (Un ole olluutto)

Du- Oseit olehtu (Seit os olluutto)

Hani/Ela/Se- On olehtu (Ei olu ollutto)

Iu/Ou- Ollitiamú oluhtu (Mei oli olluutto)

Nui- Oliemei oluhtu (Ei oli oleemo)

Vosú- Osa oluhtu (Ei osa olluutto)

Di- Osiettu oluhtu (Eittu osita olleetto)

Hanès/Elas/Dei- Ovuno oluhtu (Un ovu oleeto)

Past Perfect

Uo/Aiú/Eúi- Olinu olehtu (Un olluutto olluutto)

Du- Osuit olehtu (Seit olluutto olluutto)

Hani/Ela/Se-Oli olehtu (Ei olluutto olluutto)

Iu/Ou- Olittomú oluhtu (Mei olluutto olluutto)

Nui- Olumme oluhtu (Ei olluutto olluutto)

Vosú- Osú oluhtu (Ei olluutto olluutto)

Di-Osita oluhtu (Eittu olleetto olleetto)

Hanès/Elas/Dei- Ovini oluhtu (Un oletto oletto)

Conditional

Uo/Aiú/Eúi- Olusin (Ei olusin)

Du-Olusit (Seit olusit)

Hani/Ela/Se- Olusi (Ei olusi)

Iu/Ou- Olusemme (Mei olusemme)

Nui- Olusiamo (Ei olusiamo)

Vosú- Olusiette (Ei olusiette)

Di- Olusitä (Eittu olusitä)

Hanès/Elas/Dei- Olusivato (Un olusivato)

Imperfect Subjunctive

Uo/Aiú/Eúi- Olusin olehtu (Ei olluutto olusin)

Du- Olusit olehtu (Seit olluutto olusit)

Hani/Ela/Se- Olusi olehtu (Ei olluutto olusi)

Iu/Ou- Olusemme oluhtu (Mei olluutto olusemme)

Nui- Olusiamo oluhtu (Ei olluutto olusiamo)

Vosú-Olusiette oluhtu (Ei olluutto olusiette)

'Di'- Olusitä oluhtu (Eittu olleetto olusitä)

'Hanès/Elas/Dei'- Olusivato oluhtu (Un oletto olusivato)

Let's do/Passive Present

Ola (Äkä ola)

Olkuu (Älkäu olku) Be

Olluun- Let's be

Ha- To have

Present: (All pronouns) Har

Past: (All Pronouns) Hadde

Past Participle' (All Pronouns)' Hatt

Negatives: Add "Ei", "Un", "Eittu, or "Mei" (Depending on the pronoun) and add before or after the pronoun.

Putere- To be able to/Can (Present)

Uo- Possu (Ei Possu)

Aiú- Possa (Ei Possa)

Eúi- Posso (Ei Posso)

Du- Puzos (Seit puzos)

Hani/Ela/Se- Puut (Ei puut)

Iu- Pudu (Mei pudu)

Ou- Puda (Mei puda)

Di- Pudem (Eittu pudem)

Hanès/Elas/Dei- Puden (Un puden)

Vosú- Pudeu (Ei pudeu)

Nui- Pedum (Ei pedum)

Imperfect

Uo/Aiú/Eúi- Pujaa (Ei pujaa)

Du- Pužajes (Ei pužajes)

Hani/Ela/Se- Puuja (Ei puuja)

Iu/Ou- Pattua (Mei pattua)

Nui- Pudöömuu (Ei pudöömuu)

Di- Pudiam (Eittu pudiam)

Vosú- Pödeu (Ei pödeu)

Hanès/Elas/Dei- Podun (Un podun)

Perfect

Har possatto (Ei har possatto) (All pronouns)

Past Perfect

Hadde possatto (Ei hadde possatto) (All pronouns)

Conditional

Uo/Aiú/Eúi- Possuin (Ei possuin)

Du- Puzuit (Seit puzuit)

Hani/Ela/Se- Putsui (Ei putsui)

Iu/Ou- Pusiamo (Mei pusiamo)

Nui- Pudomme (Ei pudomme)

Di- Pusitä (Eittu pusitä)

Vosú -Pusiette (Ei pusiette)

Hanès/Elas/Dei- Pusivato (Un pusivato)

Regular verbs: (Group 1)

Ajare- To drive (Present)

Uo/Aiú/Eúi- Ajan

Du- Ajaso

Hani/Ela/Se- Ajat

Iu/Ou- Aje

Nui- Ajamme

Di- Ajume

Vosú- Ajatte

Hanès/Elas/Dei- Ajavato

Past

Ajäun

Ajäuso

Ajäut

Ajäu

Ajäumme

Ajäumu

Ajäutte

Ajäuvato

Let's do /Passive

Ajeetaan

Perfect

Olenu ajanut

Oseit ajanut

On ajanut

Olittiamú ajaneeto

Oliemei ajaneeto

Osa ajanetto

Osiettu ajanetto

Ovuno ajanetto

Past Perfect

Olinu ajanut

Osuit ajanut

Oli ajanut

Olittomú ajaneeto

Olimi ajaneeto

Osú ajanetto

Osita ajanetto

Ovini ajanetto

Conditional: Add -ese- before the ending of the verb

Ajäsen

Ajäset

Ajesee

Ajäsemme

Ajäsette

Ajäsevato

Past Conditional

Ajäsenut

Ajäsenut

Ajäseneeto

Ajäsenetto

Group 2: Huska- To remember

Present: Huskar (All pronouns)

Past: Huskat (All pronouns)

Past Participle: Har huskat (All pronouns)

Group 3: Mutere- To lie

Uo-Muntu

Aiú- Munta

Eúi- Munto

Du-Munus

Iu/Ou- Musemme

Hani/Ela/Se- Muntut

Nui- Muntiamú

Vosú Muntiette

Di- Muntun

Hanès/Elas/Dei- Muntonu

Imperfect

Uo- Muntuvo

Aiú- Muntavo

Eúi- Muntovo

Du-Munivi

Iu/Ou- Musevo

Hani/Ela/Se- Muttuvo

Nui- Muntimmu

Vosú- Muntuvate

Di- Muntiste

Hanès/Elas/Dei- Muntovano

Past Participle (All pronouns)

Har muntidet

Past Perfect (All pronouns)

Hadde muntidet

Conditional (All pronouns)

Munebäinoni

Future: In order to express the future you need to use words like "Tomorrow", "In 5 minutes", "A few seconds ago", etc to determine how far into the future it is.

DictionaryEdit


No. English Karuslan
1IUo (Gender neutral), Áiu (Feminine), Eúi (Masculine)
2you (singular)Du (informal)
3heHani
4weNui
5you (plural)Vosú
6theyDei (neuter), Hanès (masculine), Elas (feminine)
7this
8thatSe (near the speaker), Auo (faraway from the speaker)
9hereChapa
10therePale
11whoKuka
12whatKosa
13whereKur
14whenKando
15howHur
16notEi
17allAlla
18manyMånge, Kanno
19somePukkö
20fewČačé
21otherAndra
22oneUuo
23twoDus
24threeTris
25fourKattoria
26fiveTanno
27bigUkwu
28longNagääi
29wideGaboro
30thickVåštåk
31heavyNehes
32smallČiisai
33shortKort, Rövid
34narrowSemai
35thinHosoi,Šamäiga,Kikådži
36womanKvinna
37man (adult male)Man
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childBarn
40wifeKona
41husbandEktaman
42motherMatga
43fatherÄuziez
44animalMnjama
45fishFisk
46birdFågel
47dogHund
48louseŠirami
49snakeNjåka
50wormOrm
51treeTrä
52forestTräluškoi
53stickZue
54fruitFrukt
55seedFrö
56leafTrämono
57rootFalgisä
58barkEsko
59flowerBlumma
60grassNjasi
61ropeNawa
62skinHud
63meatŠött
64bloodBlut
65boneHonei
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggEgg
68hornZuno
69tailRep
70featherFjer
71hairHår
72headAtama
73earMimi
74eyeGlaza
75noseHana
76mouthGuži
77toothTann
78tongueTunga
79fingernailKäsikynsi
80footAši
81legAši
82kneeKné
83handKäsi
84wingVinga
85bellyMakka
86gutsMaktarmkanal
87neckŠingo
88backSlina
89breastBröst
90heartJäärta
91liverJetra
92drinkDrikka
93eatSpisa
94biteKamu
95suckSugga
96spitHaku
97vomitKasta upp,
98blowBlåsa
99breatheHuhua
100laughAhahare
101seeUnåšiča
102hearHöra
103knowŠterua (fact, places), Šenna (People)
104thinkKangäere (think about)
105smellDofta (smell good)
106fearÅngst
107sleepSova
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimVatnallä käsiugokkare
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeKuoma
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countTella
140sayDire
141singKantare
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterVatna
151rainVatna ja Kumo, Pösumovat, Kumaris
152riverVaturis
153lakeVatellišö
154seaŠö
155saltSalz
156stoneGanseki
157sandSuna
158dustAčuri
159earthJord
160cloudKumo
161fogMagla
162skyPösun
163windKaze
164snowSnö
165iceIs
166smokeKemuri
167fireFuori
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnBränna, Brinna
170roadZesta
171mountainSan, Zan
172redAkai
173greenGrön
174yellowMadžango
175whiteŠiroii
176blackČarná
177nightNatt
178dayDag
179yearÄirås
180warmVarm
181coldZamui
182fullMaruha, -full
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldFurui
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenUgoj
188dirtyKitanääi
189straightRak
190roundRund
191sharpAgut(as a knife)
192dullBolze
193smoothGužulu
194wetMöje, Vått,
195dryČamu
196correctKorrekt, Rettur
197nearČiggai
198farDoj
199rightMigi
200leftChitali
201at-lla, llä
202inI
203withMit
204andNa
205ifSi
206becauseKoska, Sillä
207nameNumu

Example textEdit

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