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Kasiro

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Kasiro
Kasīrō
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Nominative-accusative
Head direction
Head-initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
2
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



SummaryEdit

The Kasīrō language is a medieval language once spoken by the imperial court of a certain powerful empire, having evolved from a pre-imperial form known as Ancient Kasīrō. Trade and military conquest brought this language to a zenith of prestige in the 1300s, but it gradually disappeared with the collapse of its patron empire. Regional dialects of Kasiro branched off and eventually became distinct modern languages that are still spoken today.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Labial Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m (m) n  (n) ŋ  (ng)
Plosive

p   (b)
pʰ  (p)

t  (d)
tʰ  (t)

k  (g)
kʰ  (k)

Fricative f  (f) s  (s) ʂ  (sh)

ɣ  (gh)
x  (kh)

Affricate

ts   (z)
tsʰ  (ts)

tʂ   (zh)
tʂʰ  (ch)

Flap ɾ  (r)
Approximant j  (y) w  (w)
Lateral app. l  (l)

VowelsEdit

Vowel chart
Front Central Back
Long Short Long Short Long Short
Close /i:/
Ī
/i/
I
/u:/
Ū
/u/
U
Middle /e:/
Ē
/o:/
Ō
Open /a:/
Ā
/a/
A

AlphabetEdit

Kasiro has its own writing system, but a modified Latin alphabet is used for the purposes of study. This modified Latin alphabet contains 22 consonants:

B b   Ch ch   D d   F f   G g   Gh gh   K k   Kh kh   L l   M m   N n   Ng ng   P p   R r   S s   Sh sh   T t   Ts ts   W w  Y y   Z z   Zh zh

as well as 5 long vowels and 3 short vowels, making 8 vowels altogether:

Ā ā   Ē ē   Ī ī   Ō ō   Ū ū   A a   I i   U u

PhonotacticsEdit

Kasiro does not allow any multiconsonantal onsets aside from a consonant and a semivowel (C + y/w). Only certain consonants, including aspirated plosives and nasals, may be codas. The largest possible syllable is, thus, CAVC, where A is a semivowel.

Diphthongs are not allowed in the standard dialect; vowels may not be adjacent to one another except across syllable lines. In fast speech or local dialect, however, adjacent vowels may be merged to form diphthongs.

GrammarEdit

Kasiro is primarily a subject-verb-object (SOV) language, though SOV and VSO may be used as poetic devices. The following focuses on the grammar of Literary Kasiro, the standard dialect used by officials of the imperial court.

VerbsEdit

Kasiro verbs are conjugated according to number, tense, aspect, mood, and voice. Person and gender are not marked. Verbs must agree with the noun on the number (singular or plural). There are three aspects: simple (i.e. "I write"), continuous (i.e. "I am writing"), and perfect (i.e. "I have written"). The verbs can be conjugated in active or passive voice.

Active voiceEdit

Active Voice: Singular
Indicative Subjunctive Potential Conditional Imperative
Present simple -sā -sāgh -san -sat -(sā)
continuous -sō -sōgh -sōn -sōt --
perfect -sī -sīgh -sin -sit --
Past simple -tā -tāgh -tan -tat -(tā)
continuous -tō -tõgh -tōn -tōt --
perfect -tī -tīgh -tin -tit --
Future simple -pā -pāgh -pan -pat -(pā)
continuous -pō -pōgh -pōn -pōt --
perfect -pī -pīgh -pin -pit --
Active Voice: Plural
Indicative Subjunctive Potential Conditional Imperative
Present simple -chasa -kēsa -kisa -tasa -shā
continuous -chasō -kēsō -kisō -tasō --
perfect -chasi -kēsi -kisi -tasi --
Past simple -chata -kēta -kita -tata -dā
continuous -chatō -kētō -kitō -tatō --
perfect -chati -kēti -kiti -tati --
Future simple -chapa -kēpa -kipa -tapa -bā
continuous -chapō -kēpō -kipō -tapō --
perfect -chapi -kēpi -kipi -tapi --
Infinitive Gerund Present participle Past participle
-ra -sē -kā -chi

Passive voiceEdit

Verbs can be inflected to passive voice by simply inserting the infix "--" between the verb stem and the inflectional ending. For example, "had been written" (perfect past passive voice) would be sunamūtī, comprising of suna- (stem of "to write"), -mū-, and -tī (perfect past indicative singular ending).

Passive Voice: Singular
Indicative Subjunctive Potential Conditional Imperative
Present simple -mūsā -mūsāgh -mūsan -mūsat -mūsā
continuous -mūsō -mūsōgh -mūsōn -mūsōt --
perfect -mūsī -mūsīgh -mūsin -mūsit --
Past simple -mūtā -mūtāgh -mūtan -mūtat -mū(tā)
continuous -mūtō -mūtõgh -mūtōn -mūtōt --
perfect -mūtī -mūtīgh -mūtin -mūtit --
Future simple -mūpā -mūpāgh -mūpan -mūpat -mūpā
continuous -mūpō -mūpōgh -mūpōn -mūpōt --
perfect -mūpī -mūpīgh -mūpin -mūpit --
Passive Voice: Plural
Indicative Subjunctive Potential Conditional Imperative
Present simple -mūchasa -mūkēsa -mūkisa -mūtasa -mūshā
continuous -mūchasō -mūkēsō -mūkisō -mūtasō --
perfect -mūchasi -mūkēsi -mūkisi -mūtasi --
Past simple -mūchata -mūkēta -mūkita -mūtata -mūdā
continuous -mūchatō -mūkētō -mūkitō -mūtatō --
perfect -mūchati -mūkēti -mūkiti -mūtati --
Future simple -mūchapa -mūkēpa -mūkipa -mūtapa -mūbā
continuous -mūchapō -mūkēpō -mūkipō -mūtapō --
perfect -mūchapi -mūkēpi -mūkipi -mūtapi --
Infinitive Gerund Present participle Past participle
-mūra -mūsē -mūkā -mūchi

CausativeEdit

A verb can be derived into causative form using the prefix "wi-". For example, "to cause to write" would be wisunara, comprising of wi-, -suna- (stem of "to write"), and -ra (infinitive ending).

ReflexiveEdit

The reflexive form of a verb may be expressed by placing the word tsu (lit. "-self") after the verb without needing to repeat the pronoun, such as Saō kutusātsu ("I see myself").

SupineEdit

The supine form is expressed with the preposition na ("for") with the gerund form of a verb. For example, one says Saō mōsā na sunasē ("I read to write," lit. "I read for writing").

CopulaEdit

A copula links the subject of a sentence with the predicate, or subject complement. Kasiro uses two verb-like copulae, "tara" and "sura", both of which correspond to the English copula "to be."

"Tara"Edit

Tara expresses identity, membership, or a subset relationship, and is used when both the subject and the complement are noun phrases. For example, the sentence "I am a human" would be rendered Saō ta guma.

For the irregular conjugation of tara, see the Contionary entry.

"Sura"Edit

Sura expresses emotion, property, relation, or position, whether temporary or permanent. It is used when the complement is an adjective or a dependent clause. For example, the sentence "I am sad" translates to "Saō su daba".

For the irregular conjugation of sura, see the Contionary entry.

NounsEdit

Declension of Kasiro nouns is subject to gender and number. The two genders for nouns (and adjectives) are strong and weak, and words are rather arbitrarily placed in either category according to whether the word ends in a consonant (strong) or vowel (weak). As Kasiro does not have any definite or indefinite articles, the noun kasan may mean either "a bird" or "the bird".

Strong nouns are made plural by adding the suffix "-ē", i.e. kasanē ("birds") from kasan.

Weak nouns are made plural by adding the suffix "-mu", i.e. parumu ("skills") from paru.

Although grammatical case is not marked, the genitive form of a noun is formed with the possessive suffix "-fi" or "-ī". The noun marked should be the possessor, not the possessed, similar to the English "'s".

AdjectivesEdit

Kasiro adjectives usually precede the nouns they modify. An adjective must agree with its noun in gender and number. Most adjectives, by default, end in -u (singular strong ending) and are inflected thus:

Singular Plural
Strong -u
Weak -a -i

ComparisonEdit

Adverbs for comparison precede the adjectives being modified.

  • nwa means "more"
  • ōnā means "most"
  • tibu means "less"
  • tēbu means "least"

Ngar is a verb used for comparisons that translates roughly to "is... than". For example:

[X] ngar nwa [Y] [A]
object X "is ____ than" "more" object Y A

where X and Y are objects being compared, and A is the adjective; the sentence translates to "X is more A than Y." Notice that ngar does not have an exact English translation, but rather is a verb used specifically for comparisons.

AdverbsEdit

Adverbs are not inflected. They usually precede the modified verb or adjective. An adverb is formed by changing the last vowel of an adjective to "".

DerivationsEdit

A number of derivational patterns exist in Kasiro, allowing the formation of new words.

  • adjective to noun (quality; -ness): "-wā"
  • adjective to noun (state or condition; -itude, -hood): "-shē"
  • adjective to noun (ability or inclination; ability): "-par"
  • adjective/noun to verb (-ize, -fy): "-ura"
  • adjective to adjective (somewhat; -ish): "-zhu"
  • noun to adjective (of or pertaining to; -al): "-wa"
  • verb to adjective (inclined or able to): "par-"
  • verb to noun (abstract; state, quality, condition; -ance, -ency): "-fat"
  • verb to noun (agent of an action; -er, -or): "-zhum"
  • verb to noun (result or process of action): "-nak"
  • "inhabitant of" (-ese, -an): "-gum"
  • "person relating to" (-an): "-gum"

ProformsEdit

Personal pronounsEdit

Kasiro personal pronouns are open-class, meaning that new pronouns may be used and current pronouns are not set in stone. Personal pronouns in Kasiro are subject to categorization according to degree of formality and/or level of respect. Some popular personal pronouns include:

First-person Notes
saō respectful; standard form in literature; considered the nominative counterpart to zua; plural form is saōm
zua respectful; considered the accusative counterpart to saō; plural form is zwam
pōzu humble; originates from archaic term pōzudu, meaning "slave"; plural form is pōzumu
humble
plain; generally used between friends or aggressively against strangers; plural form is fōmu
chō spoken by a superior (i.e. ruler, official, or parent) to inferior when referring to oneself
Second-person Style Notes
respectful standard form in literature; nominative counterpart to kōpē; plural form is gāmu
kōpē respectful accusative counterpart to ; plural form is kōpēmu
kan plain addressing equals or friends; plural form is kanē
iyā informal often spoken to family members or children; may be used to belittle or insult someone; plural form is iyāmu
fēda hostile originally a humble first-person pronoun; now used exclusively to show anger
wēdē very respectful spoken to an immediate superior, such as a minister to a ruler, etc.
dōwēra extremely respectful spoken to a high superior, i.e. the ruler; literally means "lord, master"
Third-person Style Notes
dāō respectful gender-neutral, though usually male; nominative; plural form is dāōm
sutā respectful gender-neutral, though usually male; accusative; plural form is sutām
tya informal male; a dude, a guy; plural form is tyam
ngāzhē respectful originates from archaic term for "woman"; plural form is ngāzhēm

In lieu of personal pronouns, many Kasiro speakers will instead use names or titles to refer to people where it may seem awkward in English. For example, a person named Mary may use "Mary" to refer to herself rather than saō or , and use "John" to directly address someone named John rather than or kan.

Reflexive pronouns are formed by the suffix "-tsu." As in English, reflexive pronouns may be used to emphasize the antecedent, i.e. Dāōtsu kututā "He himself saw [it]"). Tsu is placed after the verb if the intent is "He saw himself," or Dāō kututātsu.

Possessive adjectives are formed simply by using genitive suffixes "-fi" or "".

CorrelativesEdit

Table of correlatives
interrogative demonstrative quantifier
proximal distal existential elective universal negatory alternative
determiner arū
(what)
dē/dēm
(this/these)
asā/asām
(that/those)
ōru
(some)
mat
(any)
ghi
(all)
kut
(no)
kām
(another)
pronoun human rūsu
(who)
dēshu/dēshē
(this one/these ones)
sāshu/sāshē
(that one/those ones)
ōshu
(someone)
mashu
(anyone)
ghishu
(everyone)
kutshu
(nobody)
kāmshu
(another)
nonhuman rūdim
(what)
dēdim/dēdimmu
(this/these)
sādim/sādimmu
(that/those)
ōdim
(something)
madim
(anything)
ghidim
(everything)
kutdim
(nothing)
kāndim
(other)
out of many rūfa
(which)
dēfa/dēfam
(this/these)
sāfa/sāfam
(that/those)
ōfa
(some)
mafa
(either)
ghifa
(all;both)
kutfa
(none;neither)
kāmfa
(another)
pro-adverb location rūzhar
(where)
dēzar
(here)
sāzar
(there)
ōzar
(somewhere)
mazar
(anywhere)
ghizar
(everywhere)
kutzar
(nowhere)
kāmzar
(elsewhere)
time rūchat
(when)
dēchat
(now)
sāchat
(then)
ōchat
(sometime)
machat
(anytime)
ghichat
(always)
kutchat
(never)
kāmchat
(elsewhen)
manner rūting
(how)
dēting
(thus;hereby)
sāting
(thereby)
--- --- --- --- ---
reason rūlushē
(why)
dēlushē
(herefore)
sālushē
(therefore)
--- --- --- --- ---
amount rūmīgh
(how much)
dēmīgh
(this much)
sāmīgh
(that much)
ōmīgh
(some;a-bit)
mamīgh
(any amount)
ghimīgh
(all of it)
kutmīgh
(none of it)
---

SyntaxEdit

The basic word order is subject-verb-object (SVO). Adjectives and adverbs precede the words they modify. Kasiro is a pro-drop language, often omitting the object if redundant. Subjects are usually not omitted, as Kasiro verbs are not conjugated for person and dropping of the subject may cause confusion. The topic-comment form may be used for Kasiro, in which old information, a "topic," is presented initially and is followed by new information, or a "comment."

Negations of verbs, noun phrases, adverbs, adjectives, etc. are formed by placing the adverb "ku" ("not") in front of the word. For example, ku sunara means "to not write." Kasiro lacks negative concord; double negatives instead lead to the negation of a negation, as in standard English.

The particle "si," placed at the end of a sentence, is used to convert a statement into a yes-no (polar) question. Otherwise, non-polar questions (or wh-questions in English) are formed with interrogative words. Unlike English, the statement is not inverted when made into a question, so the statement "You are cold" becomes "You are cold?" rather than "Are you cold?"

Echo responses are often used when answering yes-no questions, but one-word adverbial answers may be used. In Kasiro, the "yes" and "no" words indicate agreement or disagreement with a sentence, rather than a positive or negative response as in English. As such, if Person A says, "Is she not pretty?", then Person B may respond, "No, she is pretty." In Kasiro, "yes" translates to "aya," while "no" translates to "ku."

Relative clausesEdit

Relative clauses are formed with a complementizer and a resumptive pronoun. For example, "The man that I saw yesterday went home" would be "The man [that I yesterday saw him] went home." The complementizer used in all cases, corresponding to the English "that," is "gha."

PrepositionsEdit

Kasiro prepositions must precede the noun phrase. As such, "preposition stranding" is not allowed. Common prepositions include:

Preposition Usage
ansē on, on top of
ari before (in time or space); in front of
atū because of, due to
gi in, inside of; within a period of time
khi toward, in the direction of; resulting in (via an action)
kuzāk despite, notwithstanding, in spite of
kwalē despite, notwithstanding, in spite of
mazar across, from or to the far side
from (a source or origin); (of a work) written, produced, or created by
na for, directed for; to (an indirect object)
ōdō concerning, regarding, about
ōnē except, excluding, with the exception of
rān with, alongside, in the company of; in addition to
sakē except, excluding, with the exception of
saku through, from one side of an opening to the other
shi by means of, with an instrument; caused by
swa near (in time, place, or quantity); approximately
tsūt between (in space, quantity, or degree); one of (multiple choices)
uda after (in time or space), in back of
umar around, following the perimeter of
usē against, in contray direction to
usēmazar opposite of, facing, across from
waō through, from one side of an opening to another
zīkhu next to, beside, alongside
at, in (a place); during, at the time or date of

ConjunctionsEdit

A conjunction is a grammatical particle that connects multiple words, sentences, phrases, or clauses together. Some common conjunctions include:

Conjunction Meaning
atū because, for (presents a reason)
ya, yang and
kha or
tsi but; however, although, nevertheless
dar, far however, although, nonetheless, but
kuzāk however, although, nonetheless, but
kwalē however, although, nonetheless, but
so; as a consequence
khat… khat… either… or…
kuwōn… shōtē… not only… but also…
ku… kut'ya… neither… nor…
ya… ya… both… and…
(lit. "and… and…", using the same grammatical construction as Russian, Latin, Turkish, etc.)
dak… khu… if… then…
rūsi… khu… if… then…
sakē except, with the exception that
ōnē except, with the exception that
shōtē as well as; and in addition; also

Vocabulary


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

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