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Keiphyos

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Keiphyos
Keiϼyos
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Nominative-Accusitive
Head direction
First
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
12
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Keiphyos is fusional language spoken on the planet Halonia, and it is also the name of the sentient clockwork robots who comprise the largest base of its speakers. There are also non-Keiphyos speakers, including both free and enslaved humans, and members of the other sentient robots. The Keiphyos are also known as Tinkers, which is sometimes useful to seperate them from their language.

Some of the phonology and morphology of the language were inspired by Italic and Hellenic languages.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative ɸ β θ ð s z x h
Affricate ts dz
Approximant j w
Liquid r

Geminates are permitted of bilabial and alveolar nasals and plosives, and alveolar fricatives.

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close ij u
Near-close ɪ
Close-mid e
Mid ø ə o
Open-mid ɛ
Near-open æ
Open ä ɑ

Phonemic diphthongs are [ij] and [ai].

AlphabetEdit

The Keiphyos language is written in a unique two-line alphabet, with the vowels sitting atop their preceeding consonant. (Images forthcoming.)

The romanized typing system follows the IPA with a few exceptions.

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative ϼ ƀ ħ đ s z x h
Affricate ƾ ᵹ c
Approximant y w
Liquid l r

ϼ and ƀ are sometimes written f and v.

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close y u
Near-close i
Close-mid ei
Mid œ œ o
Open-mid e
Near-open æ
Open a a

PhonotacticsEdit

  • Syllable nucleus must be a vowel
  • Onsets and codas may be complex, following sonority hierarchy
  • Hiatus is generally avoided

Regular sound changes

  • t, d → ts, dz /_V [-back]
  • k, g → tš, dž /_V [-back], j
  • n → m /_V [+round]
  • V [+round] → ∅ /V [+round]_
  • V [-round] → ∅ /V [-round]_

Non-standard dialect changes


These changes have developed in some human speakers, and there is resistance against them by the Keiphyos. Their language has been frozen with little historical change for generations until now.

  • n → ŋ /_velar
  • n → ɲ /_j, ij, e
  • x → š /_j, ij, e
  • c → š /k_, _#
  • velar → [+round] /_V [+round]

Grammar OverviewEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes No Yes No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


Keiphyos has a relatively free word order due to its solid case-marking morphology. However its morphology is rather complex; with a twelve-gender (really animacy) system, four grammatical numbers, and four cases, there are a number of criterion for morphology to cover. On top of that, the morpho-syntactic interface is quite extreme, and there is much affix-hopping involved.

Nouns and ArticlesEdit

The nominal phrase must be marked for definitiness, animacy, number, and case. However, this job is split between both nominal morphology and the determiner system; case and definiteness are both marked by the interface between the determiner and the noun.

DeclensionEdit

One number/animacy-bearing unit is the noun. Here, animacy and number declensions are marked overtly with one particle, which is generally a suffix, but also often a circumfix or prefix.

Nominal declension affixes
class sing. dual plural mass
inanimate -a -oϼ -os ϼa-
natural se- -el se- -ol -al sa- -il
human -on -o -om na-
animal -ol -el -et la- -it
plant ћæ- -el ћei- -il -al ћa- -il
Keiphyos -ot -os ka-
aureli -o -ik -i ra-
silici -ek -am -ek ra-
deity bes- -et pas- -et pas- pa- -et
action -akar -akur -ak ka-
idea ta/ -alit ta-
general un/ -us a-
Examples
class example sing. dual plural mass root
in house yusa yusoϼ yusos ϼayus yus
na sand setæsel setæsol tæsal satæsil tæs
hu slave keirison keiriso keirisom nakeiris keiris
an horse isanol isanel isanet lasanit isan
pla grape ћæcurosel ћeicurosil curosal ћacurosil curos
K Xirian xiryat xiryatot xiryatos kaxiryat xiryat
au young aurel biriso birisik birisi rabiris biris
si zeilik zailek zailam zailek razail zail
d creator besulumet pasulumet pasulum pulumet ulum
ac painting taϼakar taϼakur taϼak kataϼ taϼ
id love ƀeneđi ƀeneđi ƀeneđalit taƀeneđ ƀeneđi
gen day ƾuna ƾuna ƾunus aƾuna ƾuna

(Aureli (sg 'aurel') and silici (sg 'silek') are the two other robot 'species' that live on Halonia; a zeilik are the particular subspecies of the silici that have the most cognitive function. Xiria is a country where the majority of inhabitants are Keiphyos.)

Some of these classes seem as though they would have very limited members, but there are a number of roots that can apply cross-categorically, e.g. often in the same manner that English has both 'waiter' and 'waitress.' So it is often true that names of professions may take human, Keiphyos, aureli, or silici agreement; on the other hand, anatomical features such as 'teeth' may belong to humans or animals.

There is some grey-area between 'inanimate' and 'natural.' Generally they are differentiated on whether or not they can pertain to one of the four classical elements of Western alchemy - earth, air, fire, or water - which are 'natural,' versus things like features of the land (mountains, deserts), buildings, tools, and other manufactured items.

ArticlesEdit

The other form that may carry gender and number is the determiner of the noun in question.

Articles
class singular dual plural mass
in ϼo ϼot ϼos ϼe
na so sot os se
hu mol mot nas ne
an let les lei
pla ћo ћol ћas ћe
K ko kot keis ke
au ro res ril re
si rat ret rel rei
de bo pet pes pe
act a at al ke
id to tat ta te
gen u ut un tu

Case & DefinitenessEdit

Keiphyos has both definite and indefinite marking, and a four-case system of nominative, accusitive, genitive and instrumental. However, the nominal case system is only two-way, and the markers are broadly categorized as nominative and accusative; instrumental and dative cases are formed in nouns with accusative marking and an adposition. The two number-bearing particles (articles and declension affixes) interact to show the case and definiteness of the relevant noun in a somewhat confusing manner.

Case
definite indefinite
nominative no article declined article declined
accusative article not declined no article not declined

With this paradigm established, it is now possible to show the full declension table for a noun.

Example: kiri 'cheeta'
definite indefinite
Sg Dual Plural Mass Sg Dual Plural Mass
nom kiril kirit kiret lakirit læ kiril let kirit les kiret lei lakirit
acc læ kiri let kiri les kiri lei kiri kiri
  • kiril ceira 'the cheetah runs'
  • kirit ceira 'the two cheetahs run'
  • læ kiri ceira 'a cheetah runs'
  • let kirit ceira 'two cheetahs run'

This system makes it impossible to impart the number or animacy of the indefinite object, which results in its occasional translation as a partitive or mass noun when it is not.

Example: rot 'apple'
definite indefinite
Sg Dual Plural Mass Sg Dual Plural Mass
nom ħærotel ħeirotil rotal ħarotil ħo ħærotel ħol ħeirotil ħas rotal ħe ħarotil
acc ħo rot ħol rot ħas rot ħe rot rot
  • ħo rot inar 'the apple is eaten'
  • ħas rot inar 'the apples are eaten'
  • rot inar 'apple is eaten'
  • kiril rot nar 'the cheeta eats apple'
  • ħas rot læ kiril inar 'the apples are eaten by a cheetah'

Pronouns and VerbsEdit

Keiphyos verbs can be said to certainly conjugate for tense, aspect, mood, and voice. To a lesser extent, they also indicate number - if there is a pronominal suffix, the argument is singular, and in this case its person is also obvious; if there is no pronominal, then there is more than one actor.

PronominalsEdit

Pronouns may be free in sentences, or they may be suffixes to the verb. This is determined by the number of the person in question; the suffixes are always singular. In other cases, the pronoun detatches itself from the verb so that the number affix has something to attach to.

The 12 word classes are somewhat collapsed in the pronouns, with only one form for first person, three for second (sentient, deity, other), and four for third (sentient, deity, natural, and other). However, when the standalone pronoun is used, it is still declined with its exact animacy.

In the following chart, forms before a slash indicate the standalone pronoun.

Pronouns
person animacy nominative accusative dative genitive
1 any bas/ -ab pas/ -ap kubas/ -ep bi
2s h, K, au, s dos/ -oᵹ tos/ -oƾ kusƾos/ -œƾ di
2d deity lus/ -ol tus/ -ut kustos/ -ot di
2o other des/ -oᵹ tes/ -eƾ kusƾes/ -eƾ di
3s h, K, au, s ces/ -ec zes/ -ez kusces/ -eic ci
3d deity leis/ -eil yeis/ -eiy kuleis/ -es li
3n pla, an, n ћas/ -aћ đas/ -ađ kuƾћes/ -æћ ћi
3o other as/ -a os/ -os kusas/ -is i
  • xinek 'to sing'
  • xinakab 'I sing'
  • xinakoƾ 'You (sentient) sing'
  • bas xinak 'I sing' [rarely used]
  • basom xinak 'We (human) sing'
  • basos xinak 'We (Keiphyos) sing'
  • basos xinakos 'We (K) sing it'
  • basos ϼot bœla xinak 'We (K) sing the two songs'

Tense-AspectEdit

There are nine tense-aspect forms for verbs in Keiphyos (as well as additional aspects indicated by clitics). Generally simply called 'tense,' it is indicated by the form of the last syllable nucleus (usually just a vowel) in the word - which is often not word-final. The bare infinitive has e.

Tense-marking vowels
Past Present Future
Simple o a u
Progressive œ æ i
Perfect eis ys
  • xinak 'sing'
  • xinok 'sang'
  • xinuk 'will sing'
  • xinukab 'I will sing'
  • xinæk 'is singing'
  • xinœk 'was singing'
  • xinik 'will be singing'
  • xineisk 'have/has been singing'
  • xinysk 'will have been singing'

Determiners and AdpositionsEdit

While most determiners in Keiphyos take the form of articles (seen above in the 'nouns and articles' section), there are also demonstratives, possessives, and quantifiers. Adpositions may also take the place of determiners, although sometimes one of each is required.

DemonstrativesEdit

Demonstratives attach to articles if present, but otherwise to the noun.

Demonstratives
prox to speaker far from speaker
prox to listener đel- ye-
far from listener di- la-
  • ħærotel 'the apple (nom)'
  • ħo rot 'the apple (acc)'
  • đelħærotel 'this apple (nom)'
  • đelħo rot 'this apple (acc)'
  • yeħo rot 'that apple (acc) near you'
  • diħo rot 'this apple (acc) near me'
  • laħo rot 'that apple (acc)'
  • ħo ħærotel 'an apple (nom)'
  • đelħo ħærotel 'one of these apples (nom)'
  • yeħo ħærotel 'an apple near you (nom)'
  • diħo ħærotel 'an apple near me (nom)'
  • laħo ħærotel 'an apple over there (nom)'
  • đelrot 'some of this/these apple(s) (acc)'
  • đelħas rotal 'some of these apples (nom)'

VocabularyEdit


No. English Keiphyos
1I-ab
2you (singular)-oᵹ, -ol, -eᵹ
3he-ec, -eil, -aћ, -a
4webas
5you (plural)dos, lus, des
6theyces, leis, as, ћas
7thisđel-, di-
8thatye-, la-
9herekai
10theretei
11whoga
12whatge
13wherexeit
14whenxis
15howximot
16notke
17allxalik
18manygoxem
19somegexyn
20fewlatt
21otherciƀæs
22onea
23twoħei
24threepei
25fourϼal
26fivelam
27bigᵹai
28longħeiza
29wideœks
30thicklambat
31heavyludræ
32smallim
33shortkođ
34narrowseir
35thinlinz
36womanaz numkyt
37man (adult male)kam numkyt
38man (human being)næmos
39childboriđ
40wifeaz ᵹæmt
41husbandkam ᵹæmt
42motheraz comyha, comyhaz
43fatherkam comyha, comykam
44animallakiħ
45fishdineis
46birdmeidd
47doglemda
48lousetarœ
49snakegattœ
50wormkarkar
51treeđorin
52foresthaly
53sticknalo
54fruitænna
55seedpasry
56leaflybna
57rootkor
58barkasel
59flowerzelma
60grassseim
61ropelus
62skinsakrei
63meattađ
64bloodcewa
65bonedamsat
66fatuel
67egg
68hornbutei
69tailkep
70featherħœnæ
71hairkelp
72headyeidda
73earsuma
74eyesom
75nosenelt
76mouthboz
77toothceiđa
78tongueelar
79fingernailkap
80foothempya
81legxazzet
82kneekœl
83handwyl
84winghassœ
85bellyomzy
86gutsulu ulu
87neckᵹæn
88backϼota
89breastxebim
90heartƾosa
91livergleb ulu
92drinksœge/ isœge
93eatner/ iner
94biteæmket/ æmiket
95suckutye/ utyye
96spittuϼe/ tyuϼe
97vomiturleg/ urileg
98blowxame/ ikame
99breathehel/ ikel
100laughtæϼe/ tyæϼe
101seezure/ izure
102heargzel/ gizel
103knowđume/ đyume
104thinkattælem/ atisælem
105smellnænge/ nyænge
106fearhigœe/ ikigœ
107sleepzoen/ zywen
108livexeime
109dieætten
110killcotte/ gutte
111fightgosse/ igosse
112hunthlet/ hilet
113hittæppe/ tyæppe
114cuthep/ ikep
115splitcæfte/ guæfte
116stabddexe/ dizexe
117scratchælme/ ælime
118digutore/ yutore
119swimflœce/ filœce
120flysawe/ isawe
121walkmæħe/ imæħe
122comeħere/ ħyere
123lierœze/ ryœze
124sitplenc/ pilenc
125standbres/ bires
126turnlamure/ yamure
127fallset/ iset
128givesoƀe/ isoƀe
129holdares/ yares
130squeezebles/ biles
131rubmasse/ imasse
132washᵹude/ dizude
133wipesleme/ sileme
134pullemse/ emise
135pushpurze/ ipurze
136throwpose/ ipose
137tiedicame/ dyicame
138sewzœnna/ izœnna
139counthele/ ikele
140sayhæke/ ikæke
141singxinek/ ikinek
142playᵹuge/ dizuge
143floathalya/ ikalya
144flowwurue/ uwure
145freezekeiket/ ceiket
146swelllatex/ yatex
147sunalæl
148moonƾum
149starhælo
150wateragul
151rainhatul
152riverħoræs
153lakegomma
154seakaliđ
155saltsteiro
156stonebut
157sandtæs
158dustdeiba
159earthhort
160cloudbar
161fogƾeles
162skynæħæ
163windħætæk
164snowicip
165icekissil
166smokeϼmugo
167fireħænos
168ashteissem
169burngalwet
170roadruϼ
171mountaingom
172redcar
173greenleđ
174yellowᵹan
175whiteacæ
176blackneir
177nighttæpry
178dayƾuna
179yearkemđ
180warmnanna
181coldeilun
182fullpemz
183newxwen
184oldikdan
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightinsa
200leftgænt
201at-đa
202in-wem
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


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