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Keldar

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Keldar
'
Type
Alignment
Nominative-Topical
Head direction
Strictly left branching
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
2
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

This page needs a lot of work.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ (ng)
Plosive b t, d k, g
Fricative v ð (dh) s, z ʒ (zh) ç (ch) h
Affricate tʃ (tch), dʒ (j)
Approximant
Trill r
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l ʎ (ll)
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i, y (û) u
Near-close
Close-mid e (é), ø (ô) o
Mid ə (è)
Open-mid ɛ (ê)
Near-open
Open a

Additionally, Keldar has a rhotic vowel, r.

AlphabetEdit

The spelling system of Keldar is a syllabic block type, similar to Hangeul. For the purposes of this article, a Romanized system will be used.

PhonotacticsEdit

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes
Nouns Yes Yes No No Yes No No No
Adjectives Yes Yes No No Yes No No No
Numbers No Yes No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


Verbs.

Each verb has an infinitive form. Besides that, the least marked form is the regular imperfective form, also known as the non-past form. Past events are usually expressed in the perfective. There are several moods or modes, voices and aspects.

Moods: Indicative, used for declarative sentences. Subjunctive, conditional and imperative, used for irrealis. Interrogative, used for asking questions.

Voices: There are three voices, which are the active, passive and middle voice.

Aspects: The two voices are the imperfective and the perfective.

Regular Verbs.

Regular verbs take the infinitive prefix m(a)-. The regular ending for imperfective verbs is zero, while perfective verbs end in -u, often with gemination taking place on the preceding consonant(s). Voices besides active are indicated with the use of passive and middle voice pronouns. Subjunctive mood is done by adding the ending -e, often along with vowel changes in the verbal stem. Imperative and interrogative moods are both expressed with a raw stem, with vowel changes talking place in some verbal stems in the interrogative. The conditional mood is expressed with the suffix -iat.

Example regular verbs.

Infinitive Imperfective Perfective Subjunctive Impf. Subjunctive Perf. Conditional English Gloss
matuk tuk tukku tûke tûkku tukiat die
machês chês chêssu chése chéssu chêsiat think about
makind kind kinddu kûnde kûnddu kindiat to want to have
matorn torn tornnu tuern tuernnu torniat to eat


Substantives.

All nouns and adjectives inflect for gender and person, as well as grammatical case. Additionally, pronouns have different forms dependent upon number. Numerals also agree in case with the object they refer to.

Keldar being a nominative-topical language, those are usually the first two cases given. Other cases include the accusative, the dative and the directive. Keldar notably does not have a genitive case, with possession being indicated in other ways. Keldar also indicates the person of all substantives, although the most common person (the 3rd person) is marked by zero.

Example substantives.

nak sep rek zan kuit teo da zart all
Topicative naki sepi reki zani kuiti teoi dai zarti alli
Nominative naka sepa reka zana kuita teoa daa zarta alla
Accusative nako sepo reko zano kuito teoo dao zarto allo
Dative nake sepe reke zane kuite teoe dae zarte alle
Directive nakai sepai rekai zanai kuitai teoai daai zartai allai
English Gloss dog house tree ball window fruit good pretty just

Other variations also exist. For example, in formal speech it's typical to form the topicative by adding the word "oné" after the bare stem of the head noun. For example, a pretty house can be spoken of as a "zarti sepi" or a "zart sep oné".

It's very easy to form simple phrases with just these two elements, the verb and the substantive.

Dai reki kind. (Someone) wants a good tree, a good tree is needed.

Zarta naka kuite chês. The pretty dog is thinking about the window.

As you can see from these simple examples, Keldar is strictly left-branching. This means that the verb is the last element in a clause, and modifiers come before what's modified.

Often the choice of whether to use the Topicative or the Nominative case is entirely up to the speaker. However, some verbs have such a valency configuration that they give the Topicative to what seems pragmatically more like an object than a subject. These are known as reversed valency verbs, and must be memorized. The most common reverse valency verb is mallel, which means "to give:"

Teoi huna nake llelu. The man gave a fruit to the dog.

fruit.top man.nom dog.dat give.perf

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

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