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Keldar

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Keldar
'
Type
Alignment
Nominative-Topical
Head direction
Strictly left branching
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
2
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

This page needs a lot of work.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ (ng)
Plosive b t, d k, g
Fricative v ð (dh) s, z ʒ (zh) ç (ch) h
Affricate tʃ (tch), dʒ (j)
Approximant
Trill r
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l ʎ (ll)
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i, y (û) u
Near-close
Close-mid e (é), ø (ô) o
Mid ə (è)
Open-mid ɛ (ê)
Near-open
Open a

Additionally, Keldar has a rhotic vowel, r.

AlphabetEdit

The spelling system of Keldar is a syllabic block type, similar to Hangeul. For the purposes of this article, a Romanized system will be used.

PhonotacticsEdit

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes
Nouns Yes Yes No No Yes No No No
Adjectives Yes Yes No No Yes No No No
Numbers No Yes No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


Verbs.

Each verb has an infinitive form. Besides that, the least marked form is the regular imperfective form, also known as the non-past form. Past events are usually expressed in the perfective. There are several moods or modes, voices and aspects.

Moods: Indicative, used for declarative sentences. Subjunctive, conditional and imperative, used for irrealis. Interrogative, used for asking questions.

Voices: There are three voices, which are the active, passive and middle voice.

Aspects: The two voices are the imperfective and the perfective.

Regular Verbs.

Regular verbs take the infinitive prefix m(a)-. The regular ending for imperfective verbs is zero, while perfective verbs end in -u, often with gemination taking place on the preceding consonant(s). Voices besides active are indicated with the use of passive and middle voice pronouns. Subjunctive mood is done by adding the ending -e, often along with vowel changes in the verbal stem. Imperative and interrogative moods are both expressed with a raw stem, with vowel changes talking place in some verbal stems in the interrogative. The conditional mood is expressed with the suffix -iat.

Example regular verbs.

Infinitive Imperfective Perfective Subjunctive Impf. Subjunctive Perf. Conditional English Gloss
matuk tuk tukku tûke tûkku tukiat die
machês chês chêssu chése chéssu chêsiat think about
makind kind kinddu kûnde kûnddu kindiat to want to have
matorn torn tornnu tuern tuernnu torniat to eat


Substantives.

All nouns and adjectives inflect for gender and person, as well as grammatical case. Additionally, pronouns have different forms dependent upon number. Numerals also agree in case with the object they refer to.

Keldar being a nominative-topical language, those are usually the first two cases given. Other cases include the accusative, the dative and the directive. Keldar notably does not have a genitive case, with possession being indicated in other ways. Keldar also indicates the person of all substantives, although the most common person (the 3rd person) is marked by zero.

Example substantives.

nak sep rek zan kuit teo da zart all
Topicative naki sepi reki zani kuiti teoi dai zarti alli
Nominative naka sepa reka zana kuita teoa daa zarta alla
Accusative nako sepo reko zano kuito teoo dao zarto allo
Dative nake sepe reke zane kuite teoe dae zarte alle
Directive nakai sepai rekai zanai kuitai teoai daai zartai allai
English Gloss dog house tree ball window fruit good pretty just

Other variations also exist. For example, in formal speech it's typical to form the topicative by adding the word "oné" after the bare stem of the head noun. For example, a pretty house can be spoken of as a "zarti sepi" or a "zart sep oné".

It's very easy to form simple phrases with just these two elements, the verb and the substantive.

Dai reki kind. (Someone) wants a good tree, a good tree is needed.

Zarta naka kuite chês. The pretty dog is thinking about the window.

As you can see from these simple examples, Keldar is strictly left-branching. This means that the verb is the last element in a clause, and modifiers come before what's modified.

Often the choice of whether to use the Topicative or the Nominative case is entirely up to the speaker. However, some verbs have such a valency configuration that they give the Topicative to what seems pragmatically more like an object than a subject. These are known as reversed valency verbs, and must be memorized. The most common reverse valency verb is mallel, which means "to give:"

Teoi huna nake llelu. The man gave a fruit to the dog.

fruit.top man.nom dog.dat give.perf

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1IContionary_Wiki
2you (singular)Contionary_Wiki
3heContionary_Wiki
4weContionary_Wiki
5you (plural)Contionary_Wiki
6theyContionary_Wiki
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatContionary_Wiki
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


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