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Keltsvian

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Progress 56%
Keltsvian
Kelcvjae
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Nominative-Acussative
Head direction
First
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



Keltsvian is a conlang that mixes an original grammar with Latin, Germanic and Slavic vocabulary. It is a declined language, but declensions are easy to apply because they work in a simple pattern.

General informationEdit

Keltsvian is a language spoken in Keltsvia, it has Latin, Germanic and Slavic influence.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Interdental Alveolar Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative β f v ð s z x ɣ h
Approximant w j
Trill r
Flap or tap ɾ
Lateral l

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close i u
Close-mid e o
Open a

AlphabetEdit

Keltsvian uses officially the Latin alphabet although it also has its equivalent Cyrillic alphabet equivalence, but that alphabet has no official use.

Keltsvian letter Letter name Example [IPA] (meaning) English equivalent
Aa А vatu ['vatu] (father) hat
Bb Be slobe ['sloβe] (word)
erstablekerz [erstable'kerz] (to restore)
aber (but in German)
aback
Cc Ce konsicaz [konsi'tsaz] (to finish) tsunami
Dd De kredez [kre'ðez] (to trust)
nikakda [nikak'da] (never)
this
daddy
Ee E njebare [nje'baɾe] (representative) play
Ff Fe nufre ['nufre] (number) fill
Gg Ge organizatje [organi'zatje] (organization)
orpege [or'peɣe] (progress)
gaggle
liegen (to lie in Dutch)
Hh He pwehwe ['pwehwe] (authority) high
Ii I raditeljex [raði'teljex] (parents) free
Jj Je radje ['raðje] (happiness) you
Kk Ke registreke [reɣis'treke] (registered) kiss
Ll Le religje [re'liɣje] (religion) let
Mm Me rivreme [ri'vreme] (time) him
Nn Ne sajnez [saj'nez] (to look like)
sangez [saŋ'gez] (to change)
nice
sing
Oo O sindosez [sindo'sez] (to adopt) yawn
Pp Pe sipe ['sipe] (peace) pack
Rr Re skriz ['skriz] (to write)
solidaritje [solida'ɾitje] (solidarity)
perro (dog in Spanish)
better
Ss Se somne ['somne] (dream) sand
Tt Te sporte ['sporte] (sport) tick
Uu U studez [stu'ðez] (to study) boot
Vv Ve valokde [va'lokde] (head) valve
Ww We wakje ['wakje] (centre) weep
Xx Xe xlote ['xlote] (bread) ojo (eye in Spanish)
Zz Ze zemlje ['zemlje] (land, earth) size

Keltsvian Cyrillic alphabetEdit

а (a), б (b), в (v), г (g), д (d), е (je), ё (jo), з (z), и (i), й (j), к (k), л (l), м (m), н (n), о (o), п (p), р (r), с (s), т (t), у (u), ф (f), х (x), ҳ (h), ц (c), э (e), ю (ju) and я (ja).

Phonemes in Keltsvian and orthographyEdit

ConsonantsEdit
  • Phonemes /f/, /h/, /l/, /m/, /p/, /s/, /t/, /v/, /x/ and /z/ always correspond with letters f, h, l, m, p, s, v, x and z respectively. Letter v cannot be written as the last letter of a word or before a fricative consonant, in those cases the letter f is used.
  • The phoneme /β/ is pronounced when b is written between vowels. Letter b cannot be written as the final letter of a word, instead we write p.
  • Phonemes /j/ and /w/ always correspond with letters j and w. They are considered “weak vowels”.
  • The phoneme /ð/ is pronounced when d is written between vowels. Letter d cannot be written as the final letter of a word, instead we write t.
  • The phoneme /ŋ/ is pronounced when letter n is written before a glottal consonant, in the rest of cases is pronounced as /n/.
  • The phoneme /g/ is pronounced when letter k is written before a fricative consonant, in the rest of cases is pronounced as /k/.
  • Phonemes /r/ and /ɾ/ are related with letter r. The first one is only used when a word starts with r and when r is written after an alveolar consonant.
  • The phoneme /ɣ/ is pronounced when g is written between vowels. Letter g cannot be written as the final letter of a word, instead we write k.
  • The letter c is represented with the phoneme /ts/.
  • The same consonant cannot be doubled.
  • The digraph sz is pronounced as a "long s" /s:/, it is mainly used in the conditional mood.
  • Only verbs finish with z, with the exception of borrowed words.
  • The following letters are never used in Keltsvian: q and y.
VowelsEdit
  • The five used vowels (a, e, i, o and u) correspond with their IPA forms, like in Spanish, Japanese or Basque.
  • Letters j and w are considered vowels, as explained before.
  • The same vowel cannot be doubled, letter h is used for separate them, like in kohoperatje (Keltsvian for "cooperation").
  • Some letters cannot be written together, like i with j or u with w. For separate them h is also used.

PhonotacticsEdit

Consonant clusters are not very strict in Keltsvian, because it is common to see rare combinations if you compare with other languages, for example: mrwe ['mrwe] (law), tlomrawle [tlo'mrawle] (lawyer) or hrone ['hrone] (honor). But is not possible to double the same consonant. There is also a digraph "sz": as in piszine [pi's:ine] (swimming pool).

The only vowel clusters not allowed are to double the same vowel or to write together a soft vowel and its strong vowel counterpart or viceversa. So are not allowed: aa, ee, ii, oo, uu, ij, uw, ji and wu. There are not allowed also the contact of "pure strong vowels" (a, e and o) and "simple strong vowels" (i and u), when they are in contact, "simple strong vowels" become "weak vowels": ai becomes aj, au becomes aw, uo becomes wo...

When two "simple strong vowels" stay in contact, any of them became a "weak vowels" arbitrarily:

  • iu as in siwodnja (today) or juxne (council).
  • ui as in kruhuje (discrimination) or wiboz (to know).

DiphthongsEdit

There are fifteen possible diphthongs in Keltsvian and all of them correspond with their IPA forms: aj, aw, ej, ew, oj, ow, uj, ja, je, jo, ju, wa, we, wi and wo.

Stressed syllablesEdit

Stressed syllables follow a strict pattern. All words have as their stressed syllable, the syllable before to any suffix, it can be a declension, gender or number suffix. But when a word has a diphthong, the stressed syllable corresponds with the "strong vowel" of the diphthong. If a word contains more than one diphthong, the stressed syllable is located in the last diphthong unless is the diphthong is part of a suffix. In verbs, the stressed syllable is always the last one.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No Yes No No
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Participles Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

Basic word orderEdit

The basic word order is verb-subject-object (VSO), with the exception of interrogative sentences, in that case is object-subject-verb (OSV).

Example: Legez-Joanu brolce (John reads a book, but literally Reads John a book), Brolce Joanu legeziz? (Is John reading a book?, literally A book John is reading?).

*In the example we can read the word brole (book) in its acussative case.

NounsEdit

GenderEdit

There are three genders in Keltsvian: masculine, feminine and neutral. Each gender has its suffixes and almost all nouns use a gender suffix.

  • Masculine suffix (-u): baropu (man), drugu (male friend), kanu (male dog). The suffix -u has to be written -w when it is the "weak vowel" of a diphthong respecting the orthography rules.
  • Feminine suffix (-a): baropa (woman), druga (female friend), kana (female dog).
  • Neutral (-e): barope (human being), druge (friend of unknown/unspecified gender), kane (dog, as an animal specie or with unknown/unspecified gender).
    • Neutral gender is used for "non-living nouns" or "living nouns" with unknown or unspecified gender.

Some words have no gender: colors and almost all toponyms.

  • Colors use their own suffix, the color suffix (-gal), like in higal (blue) or vugal (green).
  • The majority of toponyms have no gender, no matter that they finish like any gender suffix: like Anglja (England), Kitaj (China), Kanada (Canada) or Egipte (Egypt). But some toponyms have gender as in Gurpekfewtex (United States), Gurpekrolje (United Kingdom) or Gurpekarabjaemiratex (United Arab Emirates); because they use words that originally have gender: fewtex (states), krolje (kingdom) and emirate (emirate).

NumberEdit

For writing the plural form of a noun we have to add the plural suffix, -x, after the gender suffix (-a, -e or -u). For example: baropax (women), baropex (human beings), baropux (men).

AdjectivesEdit

In this language, adjectives are used like a prefix of the noun. The noun gives us information about gender and number so the adjective does not have any of these suffixes when is added to a noun. For example:

  • busbuseke (deep) + freje (sea) = busbusekfreje (deep sea).

The adjective dropped its neutral gender suffix when merged with the noun. We can add more than one adjective to the same noun and the order between adjectives is very important, it could change the meaning. For example:

  • higal (blue) + busbuseke (deep) + freje (sea) = higalbusbusekfreje (blue deep sea). That means that the color of the deep sea is blue.
  • busbuseke + higal + freje = busbusekhigalfreje (deep blue sea). That means that the blue sea is deep.

Adjectives can be written without a noun. Then, we have to use the gender and the plural suffixes (the last one only in necessary cases).

AdverbsEdit

The way to create an adverb is to drop the gender and plural suffixes from an adjective and to add the adverb prefix vot-. For example: bujstre (quick) becomes votbujstr (quickly).

Personal pronounsEdit

Personal pronouns are the only existing pronouns in Keltsvian language and they have a simple pattern: the first person starts with sov-, the second person with det- and the third person with kup-. And then we add the gender suffix and the plural suffix, the last one only if it is necessary.

SingularEdit

  • 1st person: sovu (I, masculine), sova (I, feminine) and sove (I, neutral).
  • 2nd person: detu (you, masculine), deta (you, feminine) and dete (you, neutral).
  • 3rd person: kupu (he), kupa (she) and kupe (it).

PluralEdit

  • 1st person: sovux (we, masculine), sovax (we, feminine) and sovex (we, neutral).
  • 2nd person: detux (you, masculine plural), detax (you, feminine plural) and detex (you, neutral plural).
  • 3rd person: kupux (they, masculine), kupax (they, feminine) and kupex (they, neutral).
Neutral plural pronouns are used also for mixed groups (male and female) and it does not matter their proportion.

Grammatical casesEdit

The declension of this language consists in fourteen grammatical cases and only nouns, adjectives and pronouns can be declined.

NominativeEdit

This case indicates the subject of the verb and consists in the bare form of the word. Example: Kwariz-sovex butikxe (We went to the store).

AccusativeEdit

This case indicates the direct object of the verb. We just add the morpheme -c- before the gender suffix. In this example, we can read this case in the word televizje (television): Sivez-sovex televizice (We watch the television).

DativeEdit

This case indicates the indirect object of the verb. We just drop the gender suffix. In this example, we can read this case in the word kupa (she): Kwadaz-kupu padarokce kup (He gave her a present).

Ablative caseEdit

This case indicates the movement from a place to another or change from a situation from another. We just add the morpheme -tak- before the gender suffix. In this example, we can read this case in the word tome (home): Kwariz-kupu tomtake butixke (He went from home to the store).

GenitiveEdit

This case indicates the owner of the following word. We just add the suffix -lur at the end of the word. In this example, we can read this case in the given name Joanu (John): Joanulur brole (John's book).

CausativeEdit

This case indicates the cause of the sentence, is the Keltsvian counterpart of the English word because. We just add the morpheme -kas- before the gender suffix. In this example, we can read this case in the word samaljote (airplane): Riz-sovex taret samaljotkase (We are late because of the airplane).

ComitativeEdit

This case is equivalent to the English word with. we just add the morpheme -zat- before the gender suffix. In this example, we can read this case in the word tarbe (brother): Kjeriz-sove plajxe tarbzate (I will go the the beach with brother; this is a literal translation).

InstrumentalEdit

This case is equivalent to the English word by and it can be also used to explain a method used at the sentence's action, for example, the use of a tool or a language... We just add the morpheme -vaj- before the gender suffix. In this example, we can read this case in the word pajezde (train): Riz-sovex tomxe pajezdvaje (We go to home by train).

LativeEdit

This case indicates the arrival from a place to another or change to a new situation from another. We just add the morpheme -x- before the gender suffix. In this example, we can read this case in the word butike (store): Kwariz-kupu tomtake butixke (He went from home to the store).

LocativeEdit

This case indicates an specific place or localization. We just add the morpheme -h- before the gender suffix. In this example, we can read this case in the toponym Kitaj (China): Vudez-kupex Kitajh (They live in China; remember that most of the toponyms have no gender, so there is no gender suffix in that word).

PrivativeEdit

This case is equivalent to the English word without. We just add the morpheme -bez- before the gender suffix. In this example, we can read this case in the word dete (you, in singular): Njok pwez-sove vudez detbeze (I cannot live without you).

TemativeEdit

This case is equivalent to the English word about. We just add the morpheme -rep- before the gender suffix. In this example, we can read this case in the word detu (you, in singular): Labweziz-sove detrepu (I'm talking about you).

TemporaryEdit

This case is similar to locative case but it is used for indicate a specific time instead of a specific space. We just add the suffix -t at the end of the word. In this example, we can read this case in the word janwarje (January): Kjesivez-sove sovx janwarjet (We will see each other in January).

VocativeEdit

This case indicates who is the receiver of the sentence's message. Is used for greet or in the imperative verbal mood. We just add the suffix -f at the end of the word. In this example, we can read this case in the given name Joanu (John): Ej, Joanuf! (Hi, John!).

PrepositionsEdit

There are six prepositions and they help to build understandable sentences. With prepositions this prepositions is not necessary to decline the affected words. Here is a list with examples:

  • bus: Getuz-sovu bus frekihe (I'm under the sea).
  • kwakje: Kjegetuz-kupe mikrisce kwakje detu e sovu (It will be a secret between you and me).
  • mest: Getuz-sovex-fsa gelecex mest Mrwe (We are all the same in front of the Law).
  • redjuk: Getuz-frekje higalc redjuk sovulur vatu (The sea is blue according to my father).
  • semt: Getuz-sovu semt deta (I'm behind you).
  • tas: Tyson tas Holyfield (Tyson against/versus Holyfield).

ConjunctionsEdit

Coordinating conjunctionsEdit

There are five:

  • ale: Pibiz-kupex ale njok kuriz-kupex (They drink but they do not smoke).
  • e: Pibiz-kupex e kuriz-kupex (They drink and they smoke).
  • njoke: Njok pibiz-kupex njoke kuriz-kupex (They do not drink nor do they smoke).
  • so: Njok kwapibiz-kupex so getuz-kupu siteku (He did not drink so he is thirsty).
  • ut: Kasuj dine, pibiz-kupex ut kuriz-kupex (Every day they drink or they smoke).

Subordinating conjunctionsEdit

There are three:

  • fi: Kjegetuz-kupa rada fi ritiz-detu tomxe (She will be happy if you come back to home).
  • kje: Kjeritiz-sovu kje rabote (I will come back after working).
  • kwa: Kwa, ritiz-detu kwagetuz-sovex radex (Before you were back, we were happy).

VerbsEdit

Keltsvian verbs are only conjugated according to the mood and the tense and combining both you can obtain any conjugation. It does not matter the person, the number, the gender...

MoodsEdit

There are five grammatical moods:

  • Indicative: uses the suffix -z, as in laz (to sing).
  • Gerund (but in Keltsvian is called "active"): uses the suffix -ziz, as in laziz (singing).
  • Conditional: uses the suffix -sz, as in lasz (would sing).
  • Imperative: shares the same suffix than indicative, is used with the vocative grammatical case and when is written is necessary to use an exclamation mark; for example: Laz-Albertu! (Sing Albert!).
  • Interrogative: uses any of the previous suffixes, but only changes the word order from VSO to OSV.

TensesEdit

There are three tenses:

  • Present: used in all moods and it does not add any prefix.
  • Past: used in all moods unless imperative and it adds to the verb the prefix kwa-.
  • Future: used in all moods unless imperative and it adds to the verb the prefix kje-.

VocabularyEdit


No. English Keltsvian
1Isovu, sova or sove
2you (singular)detu, deta or dete
3hekupu
4wesovux, sovax or sovex
5you (plural)detux, detax or detex
6theykupux, kupax or kupex
7thisvot
8thatidjo
9heregwabja
10theretam
11whoni
12whatnu
13wherena
14whenne
15howjew
16notnjok
17allfsa
18manyxek
19somedovolne
20fewpuk
21othernje
22onei
23twoihi
24threeihihi
25fourive
26fiveve
27biguke
28longlongeke
29wideampleke
30thickgroseke
31heavyukseke
32smallmeke
33shortnilongeke
34narrownjampleke
35thinnigroseke
36womanbaropa
37man (adult male)baropu
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childtarabarope
40wifemuza
41husbandmuzu
42mothermata
43fathervatu
44animalzivotne
45fishpece
46birdocele
47dogkane
48lousekapebe
49snakeserpente
50wormzemlibe
51treedartre
52forestdartrje
53sticklubke
54fruitfrukte
55seedgonje
56leaffole
57rootgonse
58barkpele
59flowerflore
60grassgrebe
61roperafe
62skinpele
63meatcibe
64bloodfujle
65bonehose
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggoje
68horngorne
69tailginfe
70featherblume
71hairkapelex
72headvalokde
73earojge
74eyegloze
75nosenase
76mouthgehe
77toothdinte
78tonguelabwe
79fingernailnagle
80footpede
81legupede
82kneewawpede
83handlawe
84wingadane
85bellyzapane
86gutsinzapane
87neckhale
88backmeste
89breastpekte
90heartgerce
91liverafwe
92drinkpibiz
93eatjesterz
94bitedintez
95sucksawgez
96spitboerz
97vomitvomitiz
98blowdusiz
99breathedusez
100laughlagez
101seesivez
102hearzotiwez
103knowwiboz
104thinkmedulez
105smellnasez
106fearofnez
107sleepzorez
108livevudez
109diemarwolez
110killdamarwolez
111fightzritz
112huntjagez
113hitkulpez
114cutcaz
115splittajlez
116stabstexez
117scratchkracez
118digklodez
119swimnadez
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkpedez
122comeriz
123lieljegez
124sitsicez
125standmitenez
126turntornez
127fallfolz
128givedaz
129holdmitenez
130squeezewasguz
131rubtrintiz
132washolkiz
133wipesixuz
134pulldetrahez
135pushtrahez
136throwpljaz
137tieligaz
138sewkonsez
139countkomputaz
140saydiksiz
141singlaz
142playigraz
143floatflotaz
144flowfluksez
145freezegelez
146swellindusiz
147sunsole
148moonlune
149starzvezde
150waterakwe
151rainpluvje
152riverreke
153lakelake
154seafrekje
155saltsale
156stonestajne
157sandarene
158dustzemdusje
159earthzemlje
160cloudvolke
161fognebule
162skynjebe
163windvozduxe
164snowvesnje
165icegelje
166smokekurje
167firefokje
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnfokez
170roaddaroge
171mountainroge
172redkogal
173greenvugal
174yellowsogal
175whitebegal
176blackepgal
177nightnoxte
178daydine
179yearjare
180warmkalideke
181coldfrigeke
182fullpljonwe
183newwene
184oldtarace
185goodguteke
186badploxeke
187rottenputriteke
188dirtybrudeke
189straightgradeke
190roundrotundeke
191sharprezkaeke
192dulltedeke
193smoothzoheke
194wethumideke
195dryarideke
196correctkorekteke
197nearpropeke
198farlexeke
199rightdekstre
200leftsinestre
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204ande
205iffi
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameimje

NumbersEdit

Cardinal numbersEdit

From 0 to 9Edit

0 (nule), 1 (i), 2 (ihi), 3 (ihihi), 4 (ive), 5 (ve), 6 (vej), 7 (vejhi), 8 (vejhihi) and 9 (ihe).

From 10 to 100Edit

10 (diks), 11 (diks i), 12 (diks ihi), 20 (ihi-diks), 30 (ihihi-diks), 50 (ve-diks) and 100 (sent).

More numbersEdit

1,000 (mil), 5,000 (ve-mil), 10,000 (diks-mil), 100,000 (sent-mil), 1,000,000 (miljon), 1,000,000,000 (miljart) and 1,000,000,000,000 (biljon).

Ordinal numbersEdit

Ordinal numbers can be declined and they work adding the gender suffix and the plural suffix to the cardinal number. For example:

  • Ju/ja/je (first), ihju/ihja/ihje (second), ihihju/ihihja/ihihje (third), vew/vea/vehe (fifth), diks ju/diks ja/diks je (eleventh)...
  • Jex minutex (the first minutes).

Example textEdit

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 1):
Xroz-baropex-fsa rifekex e geletex prjotekihe e mrwalhex. Aviz-kupex drjace e notrce e oblez trez-kupex nizatex tarbjelur dusihe(All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood).

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