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Khōbaḍų

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Khōbaḍų – 陣風語उँ
Morphological Type: Analytic ~ Fusional
Morphosyntactic Alignment: Fluid-S
Linguistic Head: Strong Head Initial
Word Order: SOV
Made by: Maxseptillion77

General InformationEdit

I'm getting more experimental with this one. I want to make a language heavily based in connotation and word specificity. 

Phonology and OrthographyEdit

PhonemesEdit

Labial Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m̥ʰ m mʱ n̥ʰ n nʱ ɳ̊ʰ ɳ ɳʱ ɲ̊ʰ ɲ ɲʱ ŋ̊ʰ ŋ ŋʱ
Plosive

p pʰ b bʱ

t tʰ d dʱ

ʈ ʈʰ ɖ ɖʱ

k kʰ g gʱ

Affricate

ts tsʰ dz dzʱ

ʈʂ ʈʂʰ ɖʐ ɖʐʱ 

tɕ tɕʰ dʑ dʑʱ

Fricative

f fʰ v vʱ

s sʰ z zʱ

ʂ ʂʰ ʐ ʐʱ

ɕ ɕʰ ʑ ʑʱ

x xʰ ɣ ɣʱ

h

Approximant

l̥ʰ l r

ɭ̥ʰ ɭ

j̥ʰ j

Front Central Back
High

i i: ĩ ĩ:

u u: ũ ũ:

Mid

ɛ ɛ: ɛ̃ ɛ̃:

o o: õ õ:

Low

a a: ã ã:

AllophonyEdit

The voiceless, apirated liquid/approx.'s often fortify to fricatives (i.e., [l̥ʰ > ɬʰ] , [ɭ̥ʰ > ꞎ̥ʰ] , [j̥ʰ > çʰ]). In unstressed syllables, the standard /a, a:, ã, ã:/ become /ɐ, ʌ:, ɐ̃, ʌ̃:/ or /ə, ʌ:, ə̃, ɐ̃:/ in respective open and closed syllables. Currently developing is the allophonic rendering of breathy-voice fricatives as implosives (i.e., [vʱ > b̺͡vˤ] , [zʱ > d͡zˤ] , [ʑʱ > d͡ʑˤ] , [ʐʱ > ɖ͡ʐˤ] , [ɣʱ > ʁˤ]) and breathy-voice plosives to pharyngealized plosives (i.e., [bʱ > bˤ] , [dʱ > dˤ] , [ɖʱ > ɖˤ] , [gʱ > ɢˤ]).

Writing SystemEdit

Kháubaḍu is written with devanagari (which functions as a kind of hiragana/katakana to the hanzi) and traditional hanzi characters. There is also an official romanization for Kháubaḍų. Note that devanagari as a writing system has many ligatures  in which letters combine. 

Abugida

Each consonant symbol is assumed to have the vowel /a/ as its base. As a place-holder consonant, ह, ha, will be used for vowels. The list for vowels will have the order: 1, devanagari full vowel, 2, devanagari diacritic, and 3, romanization (consonant will just have 2 and 3, re-labled as 1 and 2). 

Vowels
Front Central Back
High इ ई इँ ईँ हि ही हिँ हीँ i ī į į̄ उ ऊ उँ ऊँ हु हू हुँ हूँ u ū ų ų̄
Mid ए ऐ एँ ऐँ हे है हेँ हैँ e ē ę ę̄ ओ औ ओँ औँ हो हौ होँ हौँ o ō ǫ ǭ
Low अ आ अँ आँ ह हा हँ हाँ a ā ą ą̄
Consonants
Labial Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal Unaspirated m n ň ŋ ड़
Aspirated mħ mh मः म्ह़ nħ nh नः न्ह़ ṇħ ṇh णः ण्ह़ ňħ ňh ञः ञ्ह़ ŋħ ŋh ड़ः ड़्ह़
Plosive Unaspirated p b प ब t d त द ṭ ḍ ट ड k g क ग
Aspirated ph bh फ भ th dh थ ध ṭh ḍh ठ ढ kh gh ख घ
Affricate Unaspirated  ć ź त्स़  ज्स़ ċ j तृ दृ č ǰ च ज
Aspirated ćh źh थ्स़ झ्स़ ċh jh थृ धृ čh ǰh छ झ
Fricative Unaspirated f v फ़ व s z स ज़ ṣ ẓ शृ दृ़ š ž श झ़ x ğ ख़ घ़
Aspirated fh vh प़्ह व्ह़ sh zh स्ह ज्ह़ ṣh ẓh श्हृ ध़ृ šh žh श्ह़ झ्ह़ xh ğh ख़्ह घ़्ह h ह
Approximant Unaspirated l r ल र y
Aspirated lh ल्ह़ ḷh ळ्ह़ yh य्ह़
Characters

As Japanese does with hiragana and kanji, Kháudaḍų uses traditional hanzi characters to represent full words. 

PhonotacticsEdit

  1. Voiced plosives cannot end words
  2. Consonants of contrasting voicing cannot be placed adjecent to each other
  3. Aspired and breathy-voice consonants cannot be the first in a consonant cluster
  4. All consonants can be in a double consonant cluster (given they follow the above restrictions)
  5. Liquid/Approx. can still follow a double consonant cluster as long as there is a following syllable with a vowel and that is an open syllable
  6. {l , ɭ , n, m} can be syllabic 


Grammar Edit

NounsEdit

Nouns use a rudimentary suffix system to show relationships to the verb. Even more simple, adjectives do not take any suffixes or markers at all, other than that they must follow their head noun directly.  Declension is focused around Kháubaḍų's alignment, only determining who does what in relation to the verb. This can be interpreted as declining to 5 cases: nominative, accusative, ergative, absolutive, oblique. 

  • Oblique I: 
  • Oblique II: -∅ (voiced consonants are unvoiced finally)
  • Transitive
    • Ergative (agent) : -arū
    • Accusative (patient) : -az
  • Intransitive
    • Absolutive (subject + patient) : -ul
    • Nominative (subject + agent) : -ajuk

Oblique I is when a noun has no relation to the verb and is simply being pointed out (although, this could be interpreted as the agent to a copula), i.e., when no verb is present or in a prepositional phrase. Oblique II is used in copular constructions and when identifying a noun lexically.

Ergative and Accusative in transitive verbs lables which noun is which as, being a fluid-S language, either noun could be the subject depending on tone and position in the sentence.

Intransitive clauses without a labled subject insinuate that anyone could have done the action or the action was accidental. Absolutive, lables a noun in an intransitive clause that is related in some way to the action taking place but insinuates that the noun was not involved or did not cause the action taking place (the latter can also be a person). The Nominative is the subject and agent of the intransitive verb, insinuating intent of doing the verb and being the subject of it; conversely with Absolutive, the Nominative can also insinuate causative. 

In terms of plurality, nouns are divided into three classes:

  1. Adjective-based
  2. Form-based
  3. Alternate

Adjective-based nouns are those which have no plural form and require certain adjectives to express plurality.

Form-based nouns are those which change form depending on plurality, usually because their plural form can mean something different but are still recognizably similar.

Alternate nouns are those which have different stems for singular and plural forms. These are nouns which are understood as completely different from their singular counterparts. An example which is the same in English is the difference between I and We where I is considared a different word completely from We, although the latter is simply the plural of the former.

PronounsEdit

Personal
Singular
1st 2nd
Oblique I gvehų 我हँ xoyų 你युँ
Oblique II gvē 我ऐ xoyē 你ऐ
Agent gvehrū 我ह्रू xorū 你रू
Patient gvehz 我ह्ज़् xoz 你ज़्
Absolutive gvehul 我हुल् xol 你ल्
Nominative gvehjuk 我ह्दृुक् xojuk 你दृुक्


VerbsEdit

Verbs do not conjugate to person or number, tense is adverbial or by particle, aspect is by particle, voice is marked on nouns rather than verbs, and mood are, too, by particle. 

Tense is determined overall by adverbs which come after the verb. It is important to note that the past is considered the base tense, not needing an adverb, rather than the present as in English. Tense is not rigidly defined and new tenses can be created and synthesized from other adverbs. 

Particles
Present Past Future
Simple he "now" ṇħe umḍe
Hodiernal he vam "today" ṇħe vam "yesterday" umḍe vam "tomorrow"
Anterior ṇħe čhah'ṇħe umḍe čhah'ṇħe
Posterior ṇħe čhah'umḍe umḍe čhah'umḍe
Epic ṇħe khōn "historic past" umḍe khōn "far future"

Various aspects are indicated via particle. 

Particles
Perfect Continuous Progressive
Simple On-going pen "gnomic" sa sfay
Near-finished sat sfet
Historic On-going ṇħe sa "habitual" ṇħe sfay
Near-finished ṇħe sat ṇħe sfet
Inchoative On-going pokhe pen "momente" pokhe sa pokhe sfay
Near-finished pokhe sat pokhe sfet

Note that the difference between "continuous" and "progressive" here is that continuous means that the action is unevolving and stagnant whereas that progressive means that the actions is evolving and changing. "Historic" means that the actions had begun a while back, contrasting to "inchoative" which means that the action had begun at the moment of being said. "Near-finished" means that the action is close to being done at the moment of being said. 

Like Aspect, Mood is determined by particle. Each verb is required to have one.

  • Indicative: ∅
  • Obligatory/Imperative : ka
  • Optative/Desiderative/Volative : kyų 
  • Jussive/Hortative : bro
  • Potential/Epistemic/Permissive : će 

SyntaxEdit

PhrasesEdit

Noun Phrase

Kháubaḍų is strongly head-initial, meaning that the noun will always be the first word in a noun phrase. This is followed its modifiers, in the order of possessives, adjectives, and postpositions

1. haǰų     bak   bę̄ğa hō 
   boy.OBLI his   big  to
   子男उँ     बक्    大   हौ
   "to his big boy"

2. kǫmblų     ek    gḷhes hō  
   house.OBLI their red   to
   房家उँ       एक्    红    हौ
   "to their red house"
Adjective and Adverbial Phrases

As shown in Noun Phrase, adjectives will follow their head noun as a second order. However, Kháubaḍų prefers not to use more than two adjectives at a time, instead preferring to use secondary clauses or other constructions. Adverbs act in a similar manner in that they directly follow verbs (before tense, aspect, or mood markers). The first type of possible adverb is one which can only appear as an adverb (i.e., tense or mood markers, temporal adverbs, &c). The second, and most common, ones are those which come from adjectives; they are formed by taking the plain adjectives and adding the suffix -e, written at 式, to the end, replacing the vowel if it ends in a vowel and adding on to a final consonant. If there are multiple adverbs, the extras will go at the end of the entire verb phrase.

1. mraźų     gḷhes
   wall.OBLI red
   牆उँ       紅
   "the red wall"

2. mraźų     bę̄ğa gḷhes
   wall.OBLI big  red
   牆उँ        大   紅
   "the big, red wall"

3. mraźų     gąhu gḷhes l    pasteṣ
   wall.OBLI ugly red   and  big
   牆उँ        醜   紅    ल्    大
   "the big, red, ugly wall"

4. ǰarkha  bhae      nħe vam  pokhe sfay   
   run     quick.ADV PAST.HOD PROG.INCH.ONG
   跑      速式       नेःवम्      पखेस्फ़य्
   "[he] began to be running quickly"
Genitive Phrase

The possessee is regarded as the head and comes before the possessor. Possessor nouns take the oblique II case and are linked with the clitic ke, written as 的. "Ke" changes form depending on what starts the following word. 

  • vowel, approximants > k'
  • m, mh, n, nh, ɲ, ɲh, ŋ, ŋh > ŋi
  • k, g, kh, gh > x'
  • others > ke
1. haǰų     ke- funs     
   boy.OBLI GEN-ball.OBLII
   子男उँ     的  球
   "the boy's ball"

2. kǫmblų     ŋi- mrać     
   house.OBLI GEN-wall.OBLII 
   房家उँ       的  牆 
   "the house's walls"

3. ċānų     x'- gamta          
   dog.OBLI GEN-stick.OBLII
   犬उँ      的   棍    
   "the dog's stick"
Verbial Phrase

Verb phrases all consist of one to two verbs (two verbs will only appear in the same phrase if they are complementary verbs, which semantically combine) and an optional adverb directly after the verb. Passives are formed by, with an intransitive verb, putting the respective noun in the absolutive case. The copula functions to link two words together (be they noun or adjective); the structure is SVO, but all nouns take the Oblique II case. 

1. xojuk  banźū ṇħe  ya
   I.NOM  eat   PAST SIMP.NRF.PERF
   我दृुक्   食     नेः   य
   "I ate"
2. xorū  banźū ṇħe  ya
   I.ERG eat   PAST SIMP.NRF.PERF
   我रू    食    नेः   य
   "I ate fish"

3. xorū  gyaz     bhae      banźū ṇħe  ya
   I.ERG fish.ACC quick.ADV eat   PAST SIMP.NRF.PERF
   我रू   魚        速式       食    नेः    य
   "I ate the fish quickly"

4. gyul     banźū ṇħe  ya
   fish.ABS eat   PAST SIMP.NRF.PERF
   魚उल्     食     नेः   य
   "The fish was eaten"

5. hač      hā  bę̄ğa
   man.OBLI COP big
   男       是   大
   "The man is small

ClausesEdit

Independent Clause

Independent clauses necessitate only an NP (however, PP's, postpositional phrases, cannot be standalone). 

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