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Kha Adana
Kha Mysqal
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Ergative-absolutive
Head direction
Mixed
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



Classification and DialectsEdit

Ka'adKha Adana or Kha Mysqan is a member of the Deyanic-Mysqic language family, spoken mainly in several dialects around the Mysqan peninsula. The 4 largest dialects spoken are Albarhal, Dizhdu'al Kapisekal, and Mokhevaikal. Of the four, Albarhal is the most spoken, though Dizhdu'an is the most conservative of the dialects, making it more similar to the Classical Mysqan language due to its common use under the rule of the Yasi'inan Emperors over a thousand years ago.

A noticeable difference in the southeastern dialects (Albarhal and Mokhevaikal) is the vowel shift from y to ɪ, while Kapisekal and Dizhdu'al retained the close front rounded vowel (y)

Kha Adana is believed to at one point have contained grammatical gender, though the majority of this has been dropped save for a handful of nouns.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p,b t,d k,g q, ɢ ʔ
Fricative f, v s,z ʃ, ʒ x h
Affricate ts, dz tʃ, dʒ χ, ʁ
Approximant ɹ
Trill
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

/ɹ/ is often vocalic and is treated as vowel by the writing system. Pronounciations of /ɹ/ depend on the speaker, and usually drift between /ɹʷ/, /ɹ/, /ɚ/, and /ɝ/. In the Latin script, it is written with [r]

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High i, y ~ ɪ ɯ
Near-high y ~ ɪ
High-mid
Mid
Low-mid ɛ ɔ
Near-low
Low a ɑ

PhonotacticsEdit

Writing SystemEdit

Letter a b d e g h i j k l m n
Sound a b d e g h i dzh x l m n
Letter o p q r s t u v y z ħ ʀ
Sound o p k ɾ s t u v y z ħ ʀ
Letter ŋ ch
Sound ŋ tsh

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

  • Case

Nouns inflect in five cases. The Ergative, Absolutive, Genitive, Dative, and Instrumental-Comitative case. In the Ergative case the base noun will be used with no added suffix unless the noun ends in a vowel, where if the noun is plural a -d will be added to the base noun so that the -eq plural suffix can be added. In the Absolutive case an -is suffix is added. If the noun ends in a vowel, the suffix will become -ris. If the noun already ends in -is the suffix will become -i'is and it will replace the -is in the base noun. The Genitive case is inflected by adding a -kan suffix. If a noun already ends in -kan the suffix will become -an. If the base noun ends in a voiced consonant, the suffix becomes -qan. Inflection in the Dative case is shown with a -yv suffix. If a vowel comes before the suffix, it will become -hyv. If the noun already ends in -yv the -v in the suffix will be replaced with -zh (yzh). More casual speech will usually group the Dative case with the Accusative unless the sentence would not make sense without a distinction between the two. Lastly, In the Instrumental-Comitative case a -mast suffix is added to the end of the noun. If a noun already ends in -mar the suffix will become -ast

  • Number

Nouns will inflect in four numbers. The Singular, Paucal, Plural, and Collective numbers. In the Singular form, no numeral suffix will be added to the noun. In the Paucal number, an -(a)kha suffix is added after the case suffix. In the Plural number, a -(d)ek suffix is added after the case suffix. For the Collective number, a -(j)os suffix

If adequate context is given, numeral inflection is not required for nouns, though case inflection still is

Articles will inflect with nouns for number, but not for case. The definite article (tsud) will become tsukha, tsudek, and tsudos.

Ex. 1: Sapidisek (Base: Sapī, Accusative Case: -ris, Plural: -eq) Translation: Mouse (ABS, PLURAL)

Ex. 2: Mëramast (Base: Meram, Instrumental Case: -mar, Singular: -) Translation: House (COM, SINGULAR)

Ex. 3: Anakha (Base: Ana, Nominative Case: -, Dual: -kha) Translation: River (ERG, PAUCAL, DEF)

VerbsEdit

This section is a major work in progress, will become more refined soon!

There are no infinitives, so the base form of a verb is usually shown with the gerund, identified with the suffix -m.

The Passive Voice is shown with the particle -pe being placed before the subject (patient), and though it is not required, the patient and agent switch places in the phrase, making the word order OSV.

SyntaxEdit

LexiconEdit

Example textEdit

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