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Kihā́mmic

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Kihā́mmic
kihāmatī́zô tárak
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Nominative-accusative
Head direction
Variable
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


pá mamūnám ontā́ bán : non nobis solum : not for ourselves alone

Kihā́mmic
kihāmatī́zô tárak
Spoken in: Kihāmát
Region: North America
Total speakers: 5,283,084 (native)
Ranking: 121
Genetic classification: Panlaffic languages
Official status
Official language in: Kihāmát
Regulated by: The Kihā́mmic Institute of Language and Linguistics
Language codes
ISO 639-1 kh
ISO 639-2 kih
SIL kih
See also: LanguageLists of languages

General informationEdit

Kihāmát

Kihāmát on Google Maps.

The Kihā́mmic language (Kihā́mmic Latin: Lố kihāmatī́zô tárak, [ˈlo kɪɦɑːmaˈtiːzo ˈtaɾak]) is the main language spoken in Kihāmát. It is an inflected fusional nominative-accusative language, which has two numbers, three genders and nine cases. There are over five million native speakers of Kihā́mmic at present; nearly seventy per cent of the country's population, the majority of the remaining thirty per cent speak Kihā́mmic fluently as their second language. The language belongs to the isolated family, which is indigenous to the eight islands that make up Kihāmát. There are six other extant Panlaffic languages, including the closely related Church Kihā́mmic, as well as a few more extinct languages.

Phonology and orthographyEdit

See also: Kihā́mmic phonology and IPA for Kihā́mmic.

The Kihā́mmic language can be written in either the native Panlaffic script, in which all Panlaffic languages are traditionally written, or in the Standardised Romanised Panlaffic Alphabet used below.

ConsonantsEdit

Grapheme IPA Description Notes
P p [p] voiceless bilabial plosive -
L l [l], [ɫ] alveolar lateral approximant, velarised alveolar lateral approximant [l] becomes [ɫ] before another consonant
M m [m], [ɱ] bilabial nasal, labiodental nasal [m] becomes [ɱ] before f and v
N n [n], [ŋ] alveolar nasal, velar nasal [n] becomes [ŋ] before g and k
D d [d] voiced alveolar plosive -
H h [h], [ɦ] voiceless glottal fricative, voiced glottal fricative [h] becomes [ɦ] before y, after k and between two vowels
K k [k] voiceless velar plosive -
R r [ɾ], [ɹ] alveolar tap, alveolar approximant [ɾ] becomes [ɹ] at the start of a word
B b [b] voiced bilabial plosive -
Þ þ [θ], [ð] voiceless dental fricative, voiced dental fricative -
V v [v] voiced labiodental fricative -
Z z [z] voiced alveolar fricative -
Ž ž [ʒ] voiced palato-alveolar fricative -
F f [f] voiceless labiodental fricative -
G g [g] voiced velar plosive -
S S [s] voiceless alveolar fricative -
Š š [ʃ] voiceless palato-alveolar fricative -
Č č [t͡ʃ] voiceless palato-alveolar affricate -
T t [t] voiceless alveolar plosive -
Y y [j] palatal approximant -

VowelsEdit

Grapheme IPA Description Notes
A a [a] open front unrounded vowel -
Ā ā [ɑː] long open back unrounded vowel -
E e [ɛ], [e] open-mid front unrounded vowel, close-mid front unrounded vowel [ɛ] becomes [e] at the end of a word for most speakers
O o [ɒ] open back rounded vowel -
Ô ô [o] close-mid back rounded vowel -
Ō ō [ɔː], [ɔ] long open-mid back rounded vowel, open-mid back rounded vowel, -
I i [ɪ], [i] near-close near-front unrounded vowel, close front unrounded vowel i only very rarely stands for [i]
Ī ī [iː] long close front unrounded vowel -
Ə ǝ [ǝ], [ɜ] mid-central vowel, open-mid central unrounded vowel [ǝ] becomes [ɜ] when stressed for most speakers
U U [ʊ] near-close near-back vowel -
Û û [u], [uː] close back rounded vowel, long close back rounded vowel [u] sometimes becomes lengthened when stressed
Ū ū [uː] long close back rounded vowel -

Digraphs and trigraphsEdit

Most of the consonant clusters and diphthongs are self-evident, however, the less obvious of these are shown below:

Grapheme IPA Description Notes
DZ dz [d͡z] voiced alveolar affricate -
[d͡ʒ] voiced palato-alveolar affricate -
DS ds [d͡z] voiced alveolar affricate -
KG kg [kː] geminated voiceless velar plosive -
KGH kgh [ç] voiceless palatal fricative -
GK gk [gː] geminated voiced velar plosive -
GKH gkh [ç] voiceless palatal fricative -
ÚI úi [wi] voiced labio-velar approximant, close front unrounded vowel -
TZ tz [t͡s] voiceless alveolar affricate -
TS ts [t͡s] voiceless alveolar affricate -

AlphabetEdit

Coat of Arms (transparent)

The Kihā́mmic Coat of Arms

As previously mentioned, all of the Panlaffic languages have traditionally been written in the Panlaffic alphabet, the chief variant of which is the Kihā́mmic one. However, use of the Romanised alphabet is increasing. This is mainly due to the Internet and other technologies and media, but also due to the fact that it is easier to write in Latin script.

The Panlaffic alphabet is a true alphabet. An example of its use is shown to left, on the Coat of Arms of Kihāmát. The word on the scroll spells "Kihāmát" in its native script.

Although in the past the Panlaffic script had two cases, a majuscule and a minuscule, only the majuscule is now generally used and the minuscule is never used in any official context.

Romanised alphabet
P p L l A a Ā ā M m N n E e D d H h K k O o Ô ô Ō ō R r B b Þ þ
[pe] [le] [a] [ɑː] [me] [ne] [e] [de] [he] [ke] [ɒ] [o] [ɔː] [ɹe] [be] [ɛθ]
I i Ī ī V v Ə ə Z z Ž ž F f G g S s Š š Č č U u Û û Ū ū T t Y y
[ɪ] [iː] [ve] [ə] [ze] [ʒe] [ɛf] [ge] [se] [ʃe] [t͡ʃe] [ʊ] [u] [uː] [te] [je]

Note that letters do not decline and when used in writing (in the Romanised alphabet) are always capitalised. If declension is necessary the word "léf" [letter (of the alphabet)] is used preceding the letter, e.g. "léf G".

Nota beneEdit

  1. Acute accents over vowels indicate primary stress.
  2. A is always stressed if it the last letter of a word.
  3. Ə is never stressed unless it is the only vowel in the word.
  4. Pluralisation moves the stress to the infix, -am-, unless this would violate rule two.

GrammarEdit

CasesEdit

The Kihā́mmic language has nine cases:

  1. Nominative
  2. Accusative
  3. Genitive
  4. Ablative
  5. Allative (or dative-allative)
  6. Instrumental
  7. Prepositional
  8. Terminative
  9. Comparative (or equative)

NounsEdit

Nouns have three genders: masculine, feminine and neuter; two numbers: singular and plural; they are also declined according to case.

MasculineEdit

Translation → building moon, Moon
Case ↓ Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative hót hotám ốnô ônámô
Accusative hótā hotámā ốnā ônámā
Genitive hótī hotámī ốnī ônámī
Ablative hotá hotamá ôná ônamá
Allative hótô hotámô ốnō ônámō
Instrumental hótû hotámû ốnû ônámû
Prepositional hóte hotáme ốne ônáme
Terminative hótə hotámə ốnə ônámə
Comparative hótak hotámak ốnak ônámak

FeminineEdit

Translation → star, Sun wind
Case ↓ Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative kāžá kāžamá fáve faváme
Accusative kāžér kāžámer fáver favámer
Genitive kāžī́ kāžámī fávī favámī
Ablative kāžā́ kāžamā́ favá favamá
Allative kāžố kāžámô fávô favámô
Instrumental kāžû́ kāžámû fávû favámû
Prepositional kāžé kāžáme fávet favámet
Terminative kā́žə kāžámə fávə favámə
Comparative kāžák kāžámak fávak favámak

NeuterEdit

Translation → eye bone
Case ↓ Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative čû́ čámû tákī takámī
Accusative čû́ čámû tákī takámī
Genitive čī́ čámī tákīn takámīn
Ablative čá čamá taká takamá
Allative čố čámô tákô takámô
Instrumental čū́ čámū tákû takámû
Prepositional čé čáme táke takáme
Terminative čə́ čámə tákə takámə
Comparative čák čámak tákak takámak

Diminutives and augmentativesEdit

Diminutives add -ûn(á/û) unless the word ends in a vowel, in which case add -kûn(á/û).

Augmentatives add -at(á/û) but add -mat(á/û) when the word ends in a vowel.

Adjectives do not change according to diminutives or augmentatives.

ArticlesEdit

Articles appear as both definite (i.e. "the") and indefinite (i.e. "a", "an" or "some") and are declined as nouns. They are used to specify the definiteness of something. They are colloquially dropped if definiteness is clear from context but normally kept in literary or more formal work.

DefiniteEdit

The definite articles correspond to the English "the" and the French "le", "la", "l'" or "les".

Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Case ↓ Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative lố lámô lamá lû́ lámû
Accusative lā́ lámā lér lámer lû́ lámû
Genitive lī́ lámī lī́ lámī lī́ lámī
Ablative lamá lā́ lámā lamá
Allative lṓ lámō lố lámô lố lámô
Instrumental lû́ lámû lû́ lámû lū́ lámū
Prepositional láme láme láme
Terminative lə́ lámə lə́ lámə lə́ lámə
Comparative lák lámak lák lámak lák lámak

IndefiniteEdit

The indefinite articles correspond to the English "a", "an" or "some" and the Portuguese "um", uma", "uns" or "umas". Note that indefinite pronouns drop the vowel in the pluralisation infix (except in the case of anám) used elsewhere.

Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Case ↓ Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative án anám aná anmá ánû ánmû
Accusative ánā ánmā áner ánmer ánû ánmû
Genitive ánī ánmī ánī ánmī ánī ánmī
Ablative aná ánmá ánā ánmā aná anmá
Allative ánô ánmō ánô ánmô ánô ánmô
Instrumental ánû ánmû ánû ánmû ánū ánmū
Prepositional áne ánme áne ánme áne ánme
Terminative ánə ánmə ánə ánmə ánə ánmə
Comparative ának ánmak ának ánmak ának ánmak

AdjectivesEdit

In Kihā́mmic, an adjectives agrees with the noun it qualifies in gender, number and case.

Type IEdit

Type I adjectives have the standard singular masculine ending -nômô. Note that the pluralisation infix -am- becomes -a- in all cases here due to the presence of n.

Translation → red
Singular
Case ↓ Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative vílnômô vilnamá vílnûmû
Accusative vílnômā vílnamā vílnûmû
Genitive vílnômī vílnamī vílnûmī
Ablative vilnômá vílnamā vilnûmá
Allative vílnômō vílnamô vílnûmô
Instrumental vílnômû vílnamû vílnûmū
Prepositional vílnôme vílname vílnûme
Terminative vílnômə vílnamə vílnûmə
Comparative vílnômak vílnamak vílnûmak
Plural
Case ↓ Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative vilánômô vilanamá vilánûmû
Accusative vilánômā vilánamā vilánûmû
Genitive vilánômī vilánamī vilánûmī
Ablative vilanômá vilánamā vilanûmá
Allative vilánômō vilánamô vilánûmô
Instrumental vilánômû vilánamû vilánûmū
Prepositional vilánôme viláname vilánûme
Terminative vilánômə vilánamə vilánûmə
Comparative vilánômak vilánamak vilánûmak

Type IIEdit

Type II adjectives have the standard singular masculine ending -ôvan.

Translation → high
Singular
Case ↓ Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative látkôvan latkavá látkûvû
Accusative látkôvanā látkavā látkûvû
Genitive látkôvanī látkavī látkûvī
Ablative latkôvaná látkavā látkûvá
Allative látkôvanō látkavô látkûvô
Instrumental látkôvanû látkavû látkûvū
Prepositional látkôvane látkave látkûve
Terminative látkôvanə látkavə látkûvə
Comparative látkôvanak látkavak látkûvak
Plural
Case ↓ Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative latkámôvan latkamavá latkámûvû
Accusative latkámôvanā latkámavā latkámûvû
Genitive latkámôvanī latkámavī latkámûvī
Ablative latkamôvaná latkámavā latkámûvá
Allative latkámôvanō latkámavô latkámûvô
Instrumental latkámôvanû latkámavû latkámûvū
Prepositional latkámôvane latkámave latkámûve
Terminative latkámôvanə latkámavə latkámûvə
Comparative latkámôvanak latkámavak latkámûvak

Type IIIEdit

Type III adjectives have the standard singular masculine ending -amô or -ômô (but not -nômô). Note that here rather than the usual infix -am- the vowels a and ô mutate to become ā and ō respectively, these infixes are stressed unless the last letter is a.

Translation → distant
Singular
Case ↓ Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative tṓrnamô tōrnamá tṓrnamû
Accusative tṓrnamā tṓrnamā tṓrnamû
Genitive tṓrnamī tṓrnamī tṓrnamī
Ablative tōrnamá tṓrnamā tōrnamá
Allative tṓrnamō tṓrnamô tṓrnamô
Instrumental tṓrnamû tṓrnamû tṓrnamū
Prepositional tṓrname tṓrname tṓrname
Terminative tṓrnamə tṓrnamə tṓrnamə
Comparative tṓrnamak tṓrnamak tṓrnamak
Plural
Case ↓ Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative tōrnā́mô tōrnāmá tōrnā́mû
Accusative tōrnā́mā tōrnā́mā tōrnā́mû
Genitive tōrnā́mī tōrnā́mī tōrnā́mī
Ablative tōrnāmá tōrnā́mā tōrnāmá
Allative tōrnā́mō tōrnā́mô tōrnā́mô
Instrumental tōrnā́mû tōrnā́mû tōrnā́mū
Prepositional tōrnā́me tōrnā́me tōrnā́me
Terminative tōrnā́mə tōrnā́mə tōrnā́mə
Comparative tōrnā́mak tōrnā́mak tōrnā́mak

Type IVEdit

Type IV adjectives have the standard singular masculine ending -atī́zô.

Translation → Kihā́mmic
Singular
Case ↓ Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative kihāmatī́zô kihāmatī́ze kihāmatī́zī
Accusative kihāmatī́zā kihāmatī́zā kihāmatī́zī
Genitive kihāmatī́zī kihāmatī́zī kihāmatī́zīn
Ablative kihāmatīzá kihāmatī́zā kihāmatīzá
Allative kihāmatī́zō kihāmatī́zô kihāmatī́zô
Instrumental kihāmatī́zû kihāmatī́zû kihāmatī́zû
Prepositional kihāmatī́ze kihāmatī́zet kihāmatī́ze
Terminative kihāmatī́zə kihāmatī́zə kihāmatī́zə
Comparative kihāmatī́zak kihāmatī́zak kihāmatī́zak
Plural
Case ↓ Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative kihāmámatīzô kihāmámatīze kihāmámatīzī
Accusative kihāmámatīzā kihāmámatīzā kihāmámatīzī
Genitive kihāmámatīzī kihāmámatīzī kihāmámatīzīn
Ablative kihāmamatīzá kihāmámatīzā kihāmamatīzá
Allative kihāmámatīzō kihāmámatīzô kihāmámatīzô
Instrumental kihāmámatīzû kihāmámatīzû kihāmámatīzû
Prepositional kihāmámatīze kihāmámatīzet kihāmámatīze
Terminative kihāmámatīzə kihāmámatīzə kihāmámatīzə
Comparative kihāmámatīzak kihāmámatīzak kihāmatīzak

Type VEdit

Type V adjectives have the standard singular masculine ending -ónsô.

Translation → church
Singular
Case ↓ Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative āčónsô āčónse āčónsī
Accusative āčónsā āčónsā āčónsī
Genitive āčónsī āčónsī āčónsīn
Ablative āčonsá āčónsā āčonsá
Allative āčónsō āčónsô āčónsô
Instrumental āčónsû āčónsû āčónsû
Prepositional āčónse āčónset āčónse
Terminative āčónsə āčónsə āčónsə
Comparative āčónsak āčónsak āčónsak
Plural
Case ↓ Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative āčámonsô āčámonse āčámonsī
Accusative āčámonsā āčámonsā āčámonsī
Genitive āčámonsī āčámonsī āčámonsīn
Ablative āčamonsá āčámonsā āčamonsá
Allative āčámonsō āčámonsô āčámonsô
Instrumental āčámonsû āčámonsû āčámonsû
Prepositional āčámonse āčámonset āčámonse
Terminative āčámonsə āčámonsə āčámonsə
Comparative āčámonsak āčámonsak āčámonsak

ComparativesEdit

MoreEdit

To say phrases involving comparisons such as "The dog is bigger than the cat", the word "rū́namô" [more] precedes the adjective and the adjective is followed by "kā́" [than]. So the example sentence translates as:

"Lố gốt sói rū́namô ránômô kā́ lá kará"

N.B.: rū́namô declines appropriately as a type III adjective.

LessEdit

To say phrases such as "The cat is smaller than the dog", the word "kónsô" [less] precedes the adjective which is also followed by "kā́". So the example given translates as:

"Lá kará séi kónse ránama kā́ lố gốt"

N.B.: kónsô declines as a type V adjective.

As... asEdit

To say phrases such as "You are as short as me", the word "kán" [also] precedes the adjective which is also followed by "kā́". So the example given translates as:

"Dán sói kán dénômô kā́ ékô"

SuperlativesEdit

MostEdit

To use superlatives, for example, "This dog is the biggest, the word "ródamô" [most] is placed before the adjective. Thus the sentence above translates as:

"Lố gốt sói lố ródamô ránômô"

N.B.: ródamô also declines as a type III adjective.

LeastEdit

To say superlative phrases such as "The cat is the smallest, the word "katrónsô" [least] is placed before the appropriate adjective. So the sentence above translates as:

"Lá kará séi lá katrónse ranômá"

N.B.: katrónsô declines as a type V adjective.

Personal pronounsEdit

Personal pronouns are declined just as noun, except for the fact that plural personal pronouns do not exactly resemble the pluralised version of the corresponding singular personal pronouns. The plural forms of the second and third person personal pronouns can be used as polite personal pronouns as well, just as in French "vous" can be the plural or polite form of "you" and as "Вы" can also do the same in Russian.

MasculineEdit

Gender → 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Case ↓ Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative ékô əkámô dán tanám šốn žônámû
Accusative ékā əkámā dánā tanámā šốnā žônámā
Genitive ékī əkámī dánī tanámī šốnī žônámī
Ablative eká əkamá daná tanámá šôná žônamá
Allative ékō əkámō dánô tanámô šốnô žônámô
Instrumental ékû əkámû dánû tanámû šốnû žônámû
Prepositional éke əkáme dáne tanáme šốne žônáme
Terminative ékə əkámə dánə tanámə šốnə žônámə
Comparative ékak əkámak danák tanámak šốnak žônámak

FeminineEdit

Gender → 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Case ↓ Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative ā́ke akáme līmá zīmamá gāná kānamá
Accusative ā́ker akámer lī́mer zīmámer gā́ner kānámer
Genitive ā́kī akámī lī́mī zīmámī gā́nī kānámī
Ablative āká akamá lī́mā zīmámā gā́nā kānámā
Allative ā́kô akámô lī́mô zīmámô gā́nô kānámô
Instrumental ā́kû akámû lī́mû zīmámû gā́nû kānámû
Prepositional ā́ket akámet lī́me zīmáme gā́ne kānáme
Terminative ā́kə akámə lī́mə zīmámə gā́nə kānámə
Comparative ā́kak akámak lī́mák zīmámak gā́nak kānámak

NeuterEdit

Gender → 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Case ↓ Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative - mámû bû́ vámû ītī́ ītámī
Accusative - mámā bā́ vámā ītā́ ītámā
Genitive - mámī bī́ vámī ītī́t ītámīt
Ablative - mamá vamá ītá ītamá
Allative - mámô bố vámô ītố ītámô
Instrumental - mámū bū́ vámū ītû́ ītámû
Prepositional - máme váme īté ītáme
Terminative - mámə bə́ vámə ītə́ ītámə
Comparative - mámak bák vámak īták ītámak

The neuter second person singular is used in cases where either gender may apply and plural neuter pronouns are also used for mixed gender groups.

ReflexiveEdit

To form reflexive pronouns (i.e. myself/ourselves et cetera) the suffix - is added to singular pronouns and -nám added to plural pronouns. For example myself, masculine accusative, in Kihā́mmic is ekôná and ourselves, neuter instrumental, is mamūnám.

PossessivesEdit

Possessive adjectives are words such as the English "his", "our" or "their" or the French "mon", "ton" or "son". They behave exactly as normal type I adjectives, that is that they agree in case, number and gender with their counterpart noun.

Possessive adjectives
Singular
Gender ↓ 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Masculine énômô dánômô šốnômô
Feminine ā́nômô lī́nômô gā́nômô
Neuter - bnốmô ī́tnômô
Plural
Gender ↓ 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Masculine ənốmô tánômô žốnômô
Feminine ánômô zī́nômô kā́nômô
Neuter mnốmô vnốmô ī́tnômô

Possessive pronouns are words such as "mine", "yours" or "ours". They behave just as normal nouns would. They also agree in number and gender with the noun to which they refer (by adding "(am)á" for feminine and "(ám)û" for neuter).

Possessive pronouns
Singular
Gender ↓ 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Masculine énôm dánôm šốnôm
Feminine ā́nam lī́nam gā́nam
Neuter - bnû́m ī́tnûm
Plural
Gender ↓ 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Masculine ənốm tánôm žốnôm
Feminine ánam zī́nam kā́nam
Neuter mnû́m vnû́m ī́tnûm

Interrogative pronounsEdit

Translation → what who which (kind)
Case ↓ Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative kómû komámû kémû kemámû tómû tomámû
Accusative kómā komámā kémā kemámā tómā tomámā
Genitive kómī komámī kémī kemámī tómī tomámī
Ablative komá komamá kemá kemamá tomá tomamá
Allative kómô komámô kémô kemámô tómô tomámô
Instrumental kómū komámū kémū kemámū tómū tomámū
Prepositional kóme komáme kéme kemáme tóme tomáme
Terminative kómə komámə kémə kemámə tómə tomámə
Comparative kómak komámak kémak kemámak tómak tomámak

The interrogative pronoun "kétômô" [which] declines as a normal type III adjective.

"Fáztamô" [how many] also declines as a normal type III adjective.

"Kénôm" [whose] declines just as a normal noun and agrees in number and gender with the object to which it refers (by adding "á" for feminine and "û" for neuter).

Relative pronounsEdit

Relative pronouns express relations between the main and dependent clauses of compound sentences.

There are three main relative pronouns in Kihā́mmic "zémû" [that], "kétômô" [which, who, that] and "kénôm" [whose]. "Zémû" is indeclinable but "kétômô" and "kénôm". Examples of the pronouns uses are given below.

  • "She said that she had forgiven him": "Gāná zakrazā́ zémû šôná ayanažā́"
  • "They said that she had forgiven him": "Kānamá zakrazā́m zémû gāná šôná ayanažā́"
  • "Give me the book that is on the table": "Eká stagaþố lû́ ázpī kétômû yón əbráke súi"
  • "Where is the book that we talked about yesterday?": "Umná súi lû́ ázpī krā́g kétômū haiốn əkámô trakázm?"
  • "Those are the men who I saw yesterday": "Etámôvan sóim lámô halámô kétṓmā haiốn ékô bedáž"
  • "He is the man whose wife worked with me": "Dán sói lố hálô kenômá kotá ékû təžazā́"

Note that after "zémû" if the subject of the verb remains the same, the personal pronoun is dropped. "Kétômô" agrees with the object to which it refers in gender and number but not in case as it can be used in conjunction with prepositions.

Demonstrative pronounsEdit

The demonstrative pronoun "étômô" [this] declines as normal type III adjective.

"Étôvan" [that] declines as a normal type II adjective.

"Étnômô" [such, suchlike, such as] declines as a normal type I adjective.

All these pronouns agrees in number, gender and case with the noun(s) to which they refer.

VerbsEdit

Verbs are conjugated according to tense, number, gender and mood. There are three moods; indicative, conditional and imperative, unlike English or French there is no subjunctive mood.

Tenses and moodsEdit

Indicative moodEdit

Kihā́mmic verbs have six tenses in the indicative mood:

  1. Present (simple)
  2. Past imperfect
  3. Past perfect
  4. Pluperfect
  5. Future imperfect
  6. Future perfect

The present indicative is used much as the present tense is in French or Spanish (and also as in English, see also continuous).

The past imperfect describes an action that occurred in the past and that may also still be going on. The past perfect describes an action in the past that has finished or was a momentary action, such as an explosion. The pluperfect is similar to the perfect but is used to convey actions that are more remote to the present than does the past perfect, it is often used in sequences of tenses.

The future imperfect is used to describe an action that will occur in the future but gives no clue as to whether this action will be completed. The future perfect describes an action that will be completed in the future, this also includes momentary actions.

Conditional moodEdit

In the conditional mood Kihā́mmic verbs only have two tenses: present and past. The present conditional is used corresponds to the English use of "would" and the conditional past describes actions that would have happened in the past. It is also used in sequences of tense with the pluperfect.

Imperative moodEdit

The imperative mood is used for commands, as is the imperative in English. It also fulfils a cohortative role, i.e. "Let's...".

First conjugation, -áþEdit

First conjugation verbs have the ending -áþ in the infinitive. For example garanáþ [to play] is conjugated as follows:

Conjugation of garanáþ (to play)
Participles Present garanámô Past garanázamô
Singular
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Indicative Present
Simple garanói garanéi garanúi
Past
Imperfect garanáz garanazā́ garanazū́
Perfect agaranáz agaranazā́ agaranazū́
Pluperfect aiyagaranáz aiyagaranazā́ aiyagaranazū́
Future
Imperfect garantóp garantopā́ garantopū́
Perfect agarantóp agarantopā́ agarantopū́
Conditional Present bangaranói bangaranéi bangaranúi
Past banagaranáz banagaranazā́ banagaranazū́
Imperative garanaþố garanaþá garanaþû́
Plural
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Indicative Present
Simple garanóim garanéim garanúim
Past
Imperfect garanázm garanazā́m garanazū́m
Perfect argaranázm argaranazā́m argaranazū́m
Pluperfect aiyargaranázm aiyargaranazā́m aiyargaranazū́m
Future
Imperfect garantópm garantopā́m garantopū́m
Perfect argarantópm argarantopā́m argarantopū́m
Conditional Present bangaranóim bangaranéim bangaranúim
Past banargaranázm banargaranazā́m banargaranazū́m
Imperative garanaþmố garanaþmá garanaþmû́

Second conjugation, -ū́tEdit

Second conjugation verbs have the ending -ū́t in the infinitive. For example kasū́t [to drink] is conjugated as follows:

Conjugation of kasū́t (to drink)
Participles Present kasámô Past kasû́samô
Singular
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Indicative Present
Simple kasû́n kasûnā́ kasûnī́
Past
Imperfect kasû́s kasûsā́ kasûsū́
Perfect akasû́s akasûsā́ akasûsū́
Pluperfect aiyakasû́s aiyakasûsā́ aiyakasûsū́
Future
Imperfect kasrót kasrotā́ kasrotū́
Perfect akasrót akasrotā́ akasrotū́
Conditional Present bankasû́n bankasûnā́ bankasûnī́
Past banakasû́s banakasûsā́ banakasûsū́
Imperative kasūtố kasūtá kasūtû́
Plural
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Indicative Present
Simple kasû́nm kasûnā́n kasûnī́n
Past
Imperfect kasû́sn kasûsā́n kasûsū́n
Perfect arkasû́sn arkasûsā́n arkasûsū́n
Pluperfect aiyarkasû́sn aiyarkasûsā́n aiyarkasûsū́n
Future
Imperfect kasrótn kasrotā́n kasrotū́n
Perfect arkasrótn arkasrotā́n arkasrotū́n
Conditional Present bankasû́nm bankasûnā́n bankasûnī́n
Past banarkasû́sn banarkasûsā́n banarkasûsū́n
Imperative kasūtnố kasūtná kasūtnû́

Third conjugation, -óšEdit

Third conjugation verbs have the ending -óš in the infinitive. For example fûrnóš [to stand (up)] is conjugated as follows:

Conjugation of fûrnóš (to stand)
Participles Present fûrnámô Past fûrnážamô
Singular
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Indicative Present
Simple fûrnố fûrná fûrnû́
Past
Imperfect fûrnáž fûrnažā́ fûrnažū́
Perfect afûrnáž afûrnažā́ afûrnažū́
Pluperfect aiyafûrnáž aiyafûrnažā́ aiyafûrnažū́
Future
Imperfect fûrnót fûrnotā́ fûrnotū́
Perfect afûrnót afûrnotā́ afûrnotū́
Conditional Present banfûrnố banfûrná banfûrnû́
Past banafûrnáž banafûrnažā́ banafûrnažū́
Imperative fûrnošố fûrnošá fûrnošû
Plural
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Indicative Present
Simple fûrnốm fûrnám fûrnû́m
Past
Imperfect fûrnážm fûrnažā́m fûrnažū́m
Perfect arfûrnážm arfûrnažā́m arfûrnažū́m
Pluperfect aiyarfûrnážm aiyarfûrnažā́m aiyarfûrnažū́m
Future
Imperfect fûrnótm fûrnotā́m fûrnotū́m
Perfect arfûrnótm arfûrnotā́m arfûrnotū́m
Conditional Present banfûrnốm banfûrnám banfûrnû́m
Past banarfûrnážm banarfûrnažā́m banarfûrnažū́m
Imperative fûrnošmố fûrnošmá fûrnošmû

VoicesEdit

There are three voices in Kihā́mmic, the active, the dynamic passive and the static passive.

Active voiceEdit

The active voice is unmarked in Kihā́mmic.

Dynamic passive voiceEdit

Kihā́mmic has two passive voices, the first of which is the dynamic passive. It is formed by placing the particle pṓl before the appropriate verb. For example:

"I burn": Ékô rātố

"I am burnt": Ékô pṓl rātố

"I have burnt": Ékô arātáž

"I have been burnt": Ékô pṓl arātáž

"I will burn": Ékô fûrnót

"I will be burnt": Ékô pṓl fûrnót

The dynamic passive is used in phrases such as "I am burnt every time I go in the sun", more commonly expressed in modern English as "I get burnt every time I go in the sun".

Static passive voiceEdit

The second passive is the static passive. It is constructed just as the passive voice in English and French – by using the appropriate tense of "to be" followed by the past participle of the verb that is to be in the passive. E.g.:

"I am burnt": Ékô sói rātážamô

"I have been burnt": Ékô atáz rātážamô

"I will be burnt": Ékô tróp rātážamô

ContinuousEdit

Although Kihā́mmic has no aspects per se, there is a continuous particle that indicates that the verb has a continuous "aspect". The particle "aklá" is placed before the verb, for example:

"I play": Ékô garanói

"I am playing": Ékô aklá garanói

"I have played": Ékô agaranáz

"I have been playing": Ékô aklá agaranáz

"I will play": Ékô garantóp

"I will be playing": Ékô aklá garantóp

This continuous particle is normally reserved for more formal usage, such as novels.

GnomicEdit

The gnomic form of a verb conveys a generic sort of aspect (e.g. "birds fly", "to err is human") is made by simply removing the infinitive ending. When the stressed infinitive ending is removed the stress moves to the final syllable. Thus "yanóš" [to forgive] becomes "yán"; e.g. "Yán, súi dā́žamû" - "To forgive is divine". The gnomic form is invariable.

ReflexivesEdit

Reflexive verbs are produced the same way as reflexive pronouns, i.e. the suffix - is added to the end of a conjugated verb in the singular pronouns and -nám in the plural. After certain consonant clusters -əná and -ənám are added.

PolarityEdit

Verbs are negated by bán [not] accompanying the verb, normally proceeding it in order to avoid confusion with the conditional mood. For example, "ékô lóbō bán kasū́t vī́nā'' [I don't like to drink wine].

Verbs may be strongly affirmed in the same way, but using kī́ [yes] instead. For example, "ôyán Kû́bé ékô vṓz kī́" [I did indeed go to Cuba].

Irregular verbsEdit

There are only eleven irregular verbs in Kihā́mmic, they are:

  1. sád: to be
  2. ímat: to have
  3. venád: to go
  4. libád: to like
  5. hotád: to want
  6. mégač: to be able
  7. snarát: to know [something]
  8. námač: to have to [moral obligation]
  9. koslát: to need [urgent need]
  10. akáfad: to kill
  11. šônát: to run

AdverbsEdit

Adverbs are formed by replacing the adjective in question's ending with a corresponding adverbial ending.

  • Type I adjectives have the standard singular masculine ending -nômô. This ending is replaced by the adverbial ending -.
  • Type II adjectives have the standard singular masculine ending -ôvan. This is replaced by -ôvā.
  • Type III adjectives have the standard singular masculine ending -amô or -ômô (but not -nômô). These are replaced by -ā and -ō respectively.
  • Type IV adjectives have the standard singular masculine ending -atī́zô, which is replaced by –átzō.
  • Type V adjectives have the standard singular masculine ending -ónsô, which is replaced by –ónō.

Word orderEdit

Kihā́mmic has the basic word order object-subject-verb or subject-verb-object in transitive clauses, but has a freer word order in intransitive clauses. However, word order can also be rather varied in transitive clauses. For example, the intransitive phrase "ôyû́n lố ránômô hótô ékô džố" [I went into the big building] is shown in its default word order (OSV, i.e. [into the big building I went]. This sentence can also be arranged in twelve different ways, whilst still remaining grammatically correct:

  1. Ôyû́n lố ránômô hótô ékô džố. (neutral)
  2. Ôyû́n lố hótô ránômô ékô džố. (focus on hótô)
  3. Ôyû́n lố ránômô hótô džố ékô. (focus on ékô)
  4. Ôyû́n lố hótô ránômô džố ékô. (focus on ékô and hótô)
  5. Ékô džố ôyû́n lố ránômô hótô. (focus on ékô)
  6. Ékô džố ôyû́n lố hótô ránômô. (focus on ékô and ránômô)
  7. Ékô ôyû́n lố ránômô hótô džố. (focus on ékô and džố)
  8. Ékô ôyû́n lố hótô ránômô džố. (focus on ékô, džố and hótô)
  9. Džố ékô ôyû́n lố ránômô hótô. (focus on džố)
  10. Džố ékô ôyû́n lố hótô ránômô. (focus on džố and hótô)
  11. Džố ôyû́n lố ránômô hótô ékô. (focus on džố and ékô)
  12. Džố ôyû́n lố hótô ránômô ékô. (focus on džố, ékô and hótô)

Though word order is variable prepositions are tied to the compliment as adjectives are tied to theirs, however adjectives may be placed before or after the corresponding nouns. Articles are also somewhat restricted; they must always precede the corresponding noun in the phrase, but, depending on the order of other words applying to the noun, may not be directly next to it. The word order varies the focus of the sentence, the primary focus being initial and secondary focus being final.

An example of the standard order of a transitive sentence is shown below:

"JosephNOM gave Mary'sGEN bookACC, which he'd read halfACC of at schoolPREP from MondayABL to ThursdayTERM, to StephenALL across the tableINST, which was a brownish colourCOMP."
"YôfánNOM stagáz Mā́rīGEN azpīáACC, kétômī šốn aiyahazbáz gûláACC yán əkghálePREP nán zûkláABL yû́nə kû́rklə TERM, ôyán ĪzvánôALL ûkrā́ əbrákûINST, kétômô táz ának dorák kófnômakCOMP."

NumeralsEdit

CardinalEdit

Cardinal numbers are used to denote quantity, they are counting numbers. Cardinals are treated as nouns and decline as such.

N.B.:

  • After articles the noun is in the nominative case.
  • After zero the genitive plural is used.
  • The genitive singular is used between one and nine.
  • From ten onwards the genitive plural is used again.

E.g.:

  • án knát (a nation)
  • anám knatám (some nations)
  • ikhá knatámī (zero nations)
  • zún knátī (one nation)
  • nóv knátī (nine nations)
  • ezá knatámī (ten nations)
  • khû́l knatámī (a/one hundred nations)
Cardinal numbers
Number Kihā́mmic
0 ikhá
1 zún
2 dočá
3 tṓk
4 kûrá
5 préik
6 šôná
7 zén
8 okdá
9 nóv
10 ezá
11 ezazún
12 ezadočá
18 ezokdá
20 dočezá
21 dočezazún
22 dočezadočá
30 tōkezá
40 kûrezá
50 preikezá
60 šônezá
70 zenezá
80 okdezá
90 novezá
100 khû́l
101 khûlzún
110 khûlezá
111 khûlezazún
200 dočákhû́l
!300 tṓkhûl
400 kûrákhûl
500 préikhûl
600 šônákhûl
700 zénkhûl
800 okdákhûl
900 nóvkhûl
1,000 talá
1,001 talazún
1,010 talezá
1,011 talezazún
1,100 talákhûl
1,101 talakhûlzún
1,110 talakhûlezá
1,111 talakhûlezazún
2,000 dočatalá
3,000 tōktalá
10,000 ezatalá
20,000 dočezatalá
30,000 tōkezatalá
100,000 khûltalá
1,000,000 niklón
1,000,000,000 sátron
1,000,000,000,000 yitā́rən
čégkhat

OrdinalEdit

Ordinal numbers expresses the relative position of an item in an ordered sequence. They are used adjectives and decline accordingly. All are type III adjectives with the exception of hundredth, which is type I.

In Kihā́mmic Latin ordinals are abbreviated by following the number with the case ending in super-script, however the pluralisation infix is ignored:

  • Nominative singular: Lố 1ô yégan (The first king)
  • Nominative plural: Lámô 1ô yeganám (The first kings)
  • Accusative singular: Lôá 1ôá yeganá
  • Genitive singular: Lī́ 1ī yéganī
  • Ablative singular: Lá 1á yeganá
  • Allative singular: Lố 1ô yéganô
  • Instrumental singular: Lû́ 1û yéganû
  • Prepositional singular: Lé 1e yégane
  • Terminative singular: Lə́ 1ə yéganə
  • Comparative singular: Lák 1ak yéganak
Ordinal numbers
Number Kihā́mmic
1st zúnamô
2nd dočámô
3rd tṓkamô
4th kûrámô
5th préikamô
6th šônámô
7th zénamô
8th okdámô
9th nóvamô
10th ezámô
11th ezazúnamô
12th ezadočámô
20th dočezámô
100th khû́lnômô
1,000th talámô
10,000th ezatalámô
100,000th khûltalámô
1,000,000th niklónamô
1,000,000,000th sátronamô
1,000,000,000,000th yitā́rənamô
nth čégkhamô

AdverbialEdit

Adverbial numbers are used to show the repetition of a certain event or to expresses a countable number of times. Since they are (type III) adverbs they do not decline.

Adverbial numbers
Number Kihā́mmic
never ikhā́
once zúnā
twice dočā́
thrice tṓkā
four times kûrā́
five times préikā
six times šôná ōkûlám
infinitely čégkhā

MultiplierEdit

A multiplier number indicates the number of times something is to be multiplied. As with ordinal numbers, multiplier numbers are used adjectives and decline accordingly. They are all type II adjectives

Multiplier numbers
Number Kihā́mmic
single zúnôvan
double dočákôvan
treble tṓkôvan
quadruple kûrákôvan
quintuple préikôvan
sextuple šônákôvan
septuple zénôvan

DistributiveEdit

A distributive number is an adverb that answers "how many times each?" or "how many at a time?".

Distributive numbers
Number Kihā́mmic
singly zúnôvā
doubly dočákôvā
trebly tṓkôvā
quadruply kûrákôvā
quintuply préikôvā
sextuply šônákôvā
septuply zénôvā

CollectiveEdit

Collective numerals are used to emphasise the cohesiveness of a group, cf. English "a quartet of musicians" vs "four musicians". Collective numerals only exist for the numbers two to nine. The collective forms of five to nine are rarely used.

All collective numerals require the genitive plural.

Collective numbers
Number Kihā́mmic
duo dočkû́n
trio tṓkûn
quartet kûrkû́n
quintet préikûn
sextet šônkû́n
septet zénkûn
octet okû́n
nonet nóvkûn

FractionalEdit

Fractional numbers (such as a third, a quarter and a fifth) are formed simply by preceding the numerator as a cardinal number followed by the denominator as an ordinal number in the plural. For example "two fifths" translates as "dočá preikámamô". The only exception to this rule is "half" which is "gû́l" (or the more literary "gát").

AgesEdit

In Kihā́mmic ages are expressed by putting the appropriate pronoun in the allative case, following this by the number of years, as well as "û́tû" [year] (declined appropriately). This is preceded by "sád" [to be] conjugated according to tense and number. For example:

I am 18 years old: Ékōsúim 18 ûtámī

She was 22 years old: Gā́nô tazū́m 22 ûtámī

Months of the yearEdit

Months of the year
Number Kihā́mmic
month ônốklûge
year û́tû
January kāžánôk
February žáûnôk
March rīnánôk
April fûigánôk
May ázknôk
June mádnôk
July ódnôk
August Þélknôk
September bátnôk
October átəlnôk
November īfánôk
December fávenôk

To say in a certain month the preposition "yû́n" (followed by the prepositional case) comes before the month. For example, "in January" translates as "yû́n kāžánôke".

Days of the weekEdit

Days of the week
Number Kihā́mmic
day klûré
week klūgé
Monday zû́klû
Tuesday dóčklû
Wednesday tṓklû
Thursday kû́rklû
Friday préiklû
Saturday šốnklû
Sunday zénklû

To say on a particular day the preposition "yû́n" (followed by the prepositional case) comes before the day. For example, "on Monday" translates as "yû́n zû́kle".

DatesEdit

"What date is it?"Edit

To simply say what the date is, i.e. to answer the question "What date is it?", the appropriate ordinal number in the nominative is placed before the month in the genitive case. If desired the year is then placed afterwards, which is simply a cardinal number, also in the genitive case. A few examples are given below:

What date is it?: Tómû súi lû́ zóklû?

  • 9th December 2010: Lố nóvamô fávenôkī dočatalezī́ (Lố 9ô fávenôkī 2010)
  • 11th January 1957: Lố ezazúnamô kāžánôkī talanovkhûlpreikezazén (Lố 11ô kāžánôkī 1957)
  • 27th August 1883: Lố dočezazénamô Þélknôk talokdakhûlokdezatṓk (Lố 27ô Þélknôkī 1883)

"When?"Edit

To say "on" a date, that is to answer the question "When?" or "On what date?", the preposition "yû́n" is followed by the desired date in the prepositional case (that is only the article and ordinal number). See the examples below:

On what date?: Yû́n tóme zókle?

  • On 9th December 2010: Yû́n lé nóvame fávenôkī dočatalezī́ (Yû́n lé 9e fávenôkī 2010)
  • On 11th January 1957: Yû́n lé ezazúname kāžánôkī talanovkhûlpreikezazén (Yû́n lé 11e kāžánôkī 1957)
  • On 27th August 1883: Yû́n lé dočezazéname Þélknôk talokdakhûlokdezatṓk (Yû́n lé 27e Þélknôkī 1883)

TimesEdit

"What time is it?"Edit

To give the time, answering the question "What time is it?", the number of hours is followed by "é" [and] and the number of minutes. The twenty-four hour clock is always used. The words "ôlá" [hour] and "bə́ts" [minute] following the appropriate numbers are optional. Some examples are shown below:

What time is it?: Tómû sói lố džā́z?

  • One o'clock (01:00): Zún ôlá (1ô)
  • Seven o'clock (07:00): Zén ôlī́ (7ô)
  • Ten o'clock (10:00): Ezá ôlámī (10ô)
  • Half past two (14:30): Ezakûrá ôlámī é tōkezá bətsámī (14ô30b)
  • Quarter to four (15:45): Ezapréik ôlámī é kûrezapréik bətsámī (15ô45b)
  • Twenty-three minutes to eight (19:37): Ezanóv ôlámī é tōkezazén bətsámī (19ô37b)

"Táin" [second] may also be added when desired, in this case rather than using "é" in the first instance "ī́" is used, as in all lists (this is in fact the equivalent of English using a comma in a list).

"When?"Edit

To answer the question "When?" or "What time?" the preposition "yán" is followed by the cardinal numbers in the prepositional case. See below for examples:

What time?: Yán tóme džā́ze?

  • At ten o'clock (At 10:00): Yán ezé ôlámī (Yán 10ô)
  • At half past two (At 14:30): Yán ezakûré ôlámī é tōkezé bətsámī (Yán 14ô30b)
  • At twenty-three minutes to eight (At 19:37): Yán ezanóve ôlámī é tōkezazéne bətsámī (Yán 19ô37b)

SeasonsEdit

TraditionalEdit

Traditional seasons
Number Kihā́mmic
spring betkán
summer kāžkán
autumn atəlkán
winter hānkán
in spring yû́n betkáne
in summer yû́n kāžkáne
in autumn yû́n atəlkáne
in winter yû́n hānkáne

Kihā́mmicEdit

Due to the climate in Kihāmát, there are effectively only two seasons, the hot and wet season and the cold and dry season.

Kihā́mmic seasons
Number Kihā́mmic
Kihā́mmic hot season kāžnká
Kihā́mmic cold season odnká
in the Kihā́mmic hot season yû́n kāžnké
in the Kihā́mmic cold season yû́n odnké

N.B.: The terms "kāžnká" and "odnká" are usually Anglicised as "Kazhenka" and "Odenka" respectively (pronounced [ˈkɑːʒəŋkə] and [ˈɒdəŋkə]).

NamesEdit

In Kihā́mmic and Panlaffic culture people's names are constructed quite differently from most other forms of naming. There are four parts to a name: two personal names and a "family" name made up of a patronymic and a matronymic.

Personal names conform to normal case requirements. Since patronymics and matronymics are all ready in the genitive case so a hyphen is added then the appropriate case ending is added. The patronymic and matronymic are joined together with a hyphen. Today there is a mixture of names that come from Old Kihā́mmic and as well as adapted newer names from Europe. When foreign names are used in Kihā́mmic the names are either translated if there is an equivalent in Kihā́mmic or simply transliterated. An example name is that of Kihāmát's current Premier:

Īzván Rátkan Yôfánī-Mā́rī

[iːzˈvan ˈɹatkan joˈfaniːˈmɑːɾiː]

This name translates as:

Īzván Rátkan, son of Yôfán, son of Mā́re

For an example of an older pre-European names such as that of the former royal families, who also had a surname, which was the name of the royal house to which they belonged. For example the last King of Kihāmát was named:

Yégan Gázāron Úktef Pátûnī-Kélþī Lanəkámī

[ˈjegan ˈgazɑːɾɒn ˈʊktɛf ˈpatuniː ˈkɛɫðiː lanəˈkamiː]

King Gázāron Úktef, son of Pátûn, son of Kelþá, House of Lánəkû

VocabularyEdit

ColoursEdit

Colours
English Kihā́mmic
red vílnômô
orange čúknômô
yellow góitamô
green bétnômô
blue hā́štômô
purple líbôvan
black nīnónsô
white ánômô
grey ánīnômô
silver ášnômô
gold Þélkamô
brown kófnômô
pink zéknômô

ConjunctionsEdit

Conjunctions
English Kihā́mmic
after kīnā́
albeit šasúi
although, though šā́
and é
as yā́
as a result, consequently étrak
as if dák
as soon as þátak
as though šák
as well as éyak
because (of), due to paškomá
before tā́
but kón
either… or… íkrak … ī́k…
except mī́
how fáz
however yokōrá
if dái
in order étkā
lest, else náskā
let alone bā́ ontā́
like fázak
neither… nor… báikrak… bā́…
now tapyā́
once sának
or ī́k
provided that sakû́s kā́
rather than mīná kā́
since, for pafázak
so étrā
than kā́
that zémû
unless mī́ dái
until yûnā́
when sanā́
whence, (from) where nanumná
where umná
whereas umtrā́
whether… or… dakā́… ī́k…
whilst, while, as long as ətanā́
whither, (to) where ônumná
yet kóntrā

KinshipEdit

Kinship
English Kihā́mmic
family éhalge
parent rastrónt
child zū́zû
father dárat
mother mabá
brother hančók
sister anšká
son múskô
daughter beká
husband mû́k
wife kotá
grand-father dômárat
grand-mother dômabá
grand-son dômúskô
grand-daughter dômeká
cousin (m) kəšrố
cousin (f) kəšrá
uncle čáčô
aunt džûdá
nephew brál
niece bralá
step-father nádrat
step-mother nambá
step-son námskô
step-daughter namká
twin (m) tákûp
twin (f) tákûpe

Points of the compassEdit

Points of the compass
English Kihā́mmic
north upán
east rūþán
south nonán
west fnán
north-east uparūþán
south-east nonarūþán
south-west nonafnán
noth-west upafnán

Weather phrasesEdit

Weather phrases
English Kihā́mmic
What's the weather like? Fáz sói lố žák?
It's warm Ītī́ súi káþômô
... cold ... hā́nômô
... fine ... batī́zô
... bad ... ítôvan
... windy ... fávenômô
... sunny ... kāžámô
... foggy ... ódamô
... cloudy ... flû́vômô
... stormy ... džátstamô
... raining Lû́ žáû (aklá) parlûsū́; Ītī́ žaûnúi
... snowing Lố gáš (aklá) parlû́s; Ītī́ gašúi

OtherEdit

Swadesh listEdit


No. English Kihā́mmic
1Iékô
2you (singular)dán
3hešốn
4weəkámô
5you (plural)tanám
6theyžônám
7thisétômô
8thatétôvan
9hereimná
10thereomná
11whokémû
12whatkómû
13whereumná
14whensanā́
15howfáz
16notbán
17alltôván
18manystág
19someanám
20fewədás
21otherkátrômô
22onezún
23twodočá
24threetṓk
25fourkûrá
26fivepréik
27bigránômô
28longlaā́mômô
29widekāpónsô
30thickangkhámô
31heavyþúdômô
32smallmálnômô
33shortdénômô
34narrowžā́rôvan
35thindoámô
36womanevmá
37man (adult male)hálô
38man (human being)éhalû
39childzū́zû
40wifekotá
41husbandmû́k
42mothermabá
43fatherdárat
44animalaták
45fishrīná
46birdīfá
47doggốt
48louselūgá
49snakezébô
50wormčabá
51treeečá
52forestíztāk
53stickklé
54fruitfûigá
55seedbót
56leafátəl
57rootyát
58barkklû́d
59floweršūriá
60grasslafá
61ropetáp
62skinbéld
63meatfandé
64bloodzánk
65bonetakī́
66fatlúp
67eggyék
68horngā́b
69tailgká
70feathervōpá
71hairzáv
72headkápt
73earorán
74eyečû́
75nosenūšá
76mouthotá
77toothnánû
78tonguetárûk
79fingernailongá
80footpádû
81legdžánû
82kneeépon
83handmánt
84wingvólt
85bellydū́m
86gutsokrənám
87neckkûl
88backdozá
89breastsénse
90heartgərá
91liveryûnī́
92drinkkasū́t
93eatkaróš
94bitegašū́t
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seebedóš
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowsnarát
104thinkpridumstáþ
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108livevežáþ
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killakáfad
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standfûrnóš
126turnpahebnóš
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayzakráþ
141singaináþ
142playgaranáþ
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunkāžá
148moonốnô
149starkāžá
150waterográ
151rainžáû
152riverpaná
153lakeklôná
154seazûná
155saltsintá
156stonedól
157sandzā́þ
158dustúþ
159earthûþál
160cloudflû́v
161fogód
162skyhā́n
163windfáve
164snowgáš
165iceglós
166smokerū́n
167firerā́t
168ashuþrá
169burnrātóš
170roadlā́g
171mountainklāvá
172redvílnômô
173greenbétnômô
174yellowžólnômô
175whiteálnômô
176blacknī́nômô
177nightmád
178dayklûré
179yearû́tû
180warmkáþômô
181coldhānômô
182fullpatī́zô
183newnámô
184olddốmô
185goodbatī́zô
186badítôvan
187rottenpûtázamô
188dirtysélnômô
189straightlánômô
190roundsônatī́zô
191sharpzápôvan
192dullþrənámô
193smoothzū́þômô
194wetókramô
195dryázkôvan
196correctranatī́zô
197nearklūsā́
198fardálžā
199rightpolá
200leftnalá
201atyán
202inyû́n
203withsū́
204andé
205ifdái
206becausepaškomá
207nametīdá


VocabularyEdit

Lists of vocabulary can be found below:

Example textsEdit

Featured bannerEdit

Kihā́mmic:

Étômô tárak kraglošáz zúnā.
Šốn atáz spratážamô sád kraglošázamô sûčā́ šốnûmī batī́stûnī kālóī, kaiþástûnī é izbanûnámī méčstûnī.

Gloss:

This language was featured [lit: "made important"] once.
It has been chosen [or "voted"] to be featured because of [or "thanks to"] its level of quality [lit: "goodness"], plausibility [lit: "truthfulness"] and useful ability [lit: "ableness"].


English:

This language was once featured.
Thanks to its level of quality, plausibility and usage capabilities, it has been voted as featured.

External linksEdit

Kihā́mmic language kihāmatī́zô tárak
Orthography Panlaffic alphabet
Phonology IPA for Kihā́mmicPhonology
Grammar Ages and namesDate and timeNumbersPrepositions Verbs (irregular verbs)
Vocabulary Basic phrasesColoursConjunctionsCountriesFamilyIdiomsMonths and daysSeasons and weatherSwadesh list
Example texts Aesop's FablesLord's PrayerSentencesTower of BabelUniversal Declaration of Human Rights
Other KihāmátKihā́mmic Institute of Language and LinguisticsPanlaffic languages

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