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This appendix describes the phonological system of the Kihā́mmic language.
See also IPA for Kihā́mmic
|Plosive||p b||t d||k g|
|Fricative||f v||θ ð||s z||ʃ ʒ||ç||h|
|Affricate||t͡s d͡z||t͡ʃ d͡ʒ|
|Flap or tap||ɾ|
- The labio-dental nasal [ɱ] is an allophone of [m] before the labio-dental fricatives [f] and [v]. An example of this is "ámfô" [aɱfo] ("mud").
- The velar nasal [ŋ] is an allophone of [n] before the velar plosives [k] and [g]. An example of this is "ongá" [ɒŋga] ("fingernail"). The velar nasal is also produced when a word terminates with /ng/, for example in "tsíng" [t͡sɪŋ] ("jewel").
- The voiced glottal fricative [ɦ] is an allophone of [h] between vowels, before [j] and after [k].
- The velarised alveolar lateral approximant [ɫ] is an allophone of [l] before another consonant, as in "gəltá" [gəɫta] ("mortar").
- The alveolar approximant [ɹ] only occurs at the starts words and is an allophone of the alveolar tap [ɾ].
- The voiceless dental non-sibilant fricative [θ] and the voiced dental non-sibilant fricative [ð] are allophones. Their occurrence is often unpredictable. For example, "zū́þômô" [zuːθomo] ("smooth"), but "kaiþá" [kaɪ̯ða] ("truth").
- Both [t] and [d] may be pronounced as the dental plosives [t̪] and [d̪].
- The bilabial plosives [p] and [b] may also, but less frequently, be produced as dental plosives, [p̪] and [b̪] (or [ȹ] and [ȸ]).
- Rarer still is the dental nasal [n̪] which is an allophone of [n].
- Gemination of consonants occurs almost exclusively due to the two digraphs /kg/ and /gk/ - [kː] and [gː] respectively.
- The only other place it occurs in Standard Kihā́mmic is when the last consonant in a given word and the first consonant in the following word are the same fricative, nasal or plosive. Such as "án zápôvan núk" [an zapovanːʊk] ("a sharp rock").
Kihā́mmic has seven syllabic consonants, [l̩], [ɫ̩], [m̩], [n̩], [ɾ̩], [z̩] and [s̩]. There are even a few words that do not have vowels in at all:
- blg [bl̩g] (key)
- grg [gɾ̩g] (bubble)
- gzkl [gz̩kɫ̩] (spring [relating to water])
Chart of vowelsEdit
|Close||i iː||u uː|
- In Kihā́mmic vowel modifications do not occur. Nasalisation does not occur, vowels are never reduced and vowels do not undergo assimilations.
- In Standard Kihā́mmic the close-mid front unrounded vowel [e] only appears at the ends of words. However, for some speakers it replaces the open-mid front unrounded vowel [ɛ] entirely. For example,"Zún klûré, ékô hób aná mūskôá" ("One day I'll have a son") would normally be pronounced [zʊn kluɾe ɛko hɒb ana muːskoa], but some speakers may pronounce it [zʊn kluɾe eko hɒb ana muːskoa] instead.
- There are also a few speakers (albeit fewer than above) for whom the open front unrounded vowel [a] may be pronounced as a near-open front unrounded vowel [æ].
- Some speakers may also pronounce the vowel "ā" as [aː], [äː] or [ɐː] rather than [ɑː]. This doesn't often occur where speakers pronounce "a" as [æ].
In Kihā́mmic vowel length and is partially independent of stress and intonation. It may in fact change the meaning of a word, compare "lûgá" [luga] ("brush") and "lūgá" [luːga] ("louse").
Kihā́mmic has fourteen diphthongs: nine falling ([aɪ̯], [aʊ̯], [au̯], [eɪ̯], [eʊ̯], [eu̯], [oɪ̯], [oʊ̯], [ou̯]) and five rising ([wa], [wɛ], [we], [wɪ] and [wi]). The [w◌] in rising diphthongs can also be analysed as [u̯◌].
If a diphthong is stressed the first vowel in the grapheme acquires the stress mark. Hence "bevrói" [bɛvˈɾoɪ̯] (redo) and not "bevroí" or "bevróí".