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| Name: Kneauzza
Head Direction: Mixed; generally initial
Number of genders: 2
Undetailed as of yet.
The Kneauzza alphabet is simple, but does not quite represent the language's phonology and orthography fully--diacritics and ligatures appear in the language, but they are not considered separate letters.
Kneauzza is very phonemic, but many phonemes are not single letters, and therefore spelling is rather complex.
|c||cannot be word-final||before e, i||/s/|
|before anything else||/k/|
|ç||cannot be word-initial||/θ/|
|heu||only appears word-initially||/jʊ/|
|k||cannot be word-initial/final||/k/|
|kn||only appears word-initially||/n/|
|n||cannot be word-initial||/n/|
|nq||cannot be word-initial||/ŋ/|
|õa||cannot be preceded by w||/wa/|
|ph||cannot be word-initial/final||/ɸ/|
|rh||cannot be word-final||/ɹ/|
|rr||cannot be word initial||/r/|
|tc||cannot be word-initial||/tʃ/|
|th||only appears word-initially||/θ/|
Nouns are declined for number, definiteness, and gender.
There are four declined grammatical numbers:
- Singular: one
- Dual: two
- Paucal: several
- Plurocollective: many or all
Certain endings show definiteness depending on the gender of the word and the number.
Two genders are declined, masculine and feminine.
There are two Declensions; the First Declension including all nouns ending in consonants, and the Second Declension including all nouns ending in vowels.
Adjectives are attached to the noun they describe by hyphen. They are usually placed before the noun, but for poetic effect they can be placed afterward, and they can even be attached on both sides for very strong emphasis.
Verbs are conjugated for person and number.
Person and number are conjugated together and have intertwined meaning, so they will be described together.
There are four persons and four numbers:
- Singular: Only the speaker. "I"
- Dual: The speaker and one other person. "Both of us"
- Paucal: The speaker and a few other people. "We"
- Plurocollective: The speaker and a large group or all members of a group. "All of us"
- Singular: The listener or reader. "You"
- Dual: The two listeners or readers. "You two"
- Paucal: Several listeners or readers. "You all"
- Plurocollective: Many listeners or readers. "All of you"
- Singular: One person being talked about. "He/She/It"
- Dual: Two people being talked about. "They"
- Paucal: Several people being talked about. "They"
- Plurocollective: Many people being talked about. "All of them"
- Singular: One generic referent. "One"
- Dual: A pair of generic referents. Note that this construction is rare. "People" (in other words, referring to couples or any group of two people, generally)
- Paucal: Several generic referents. Note that this construction is rare. "People" (in other words, referring to groups of small people, generally)
- Plurocollective: Many generic referents. "People" (in other words, referring to everyone generally)
There are three endings for verbs, and consequently, three conjugations:
- First Conjugation: verbs with infinitives ending in -or
- Second Conjugation: verbs with infinitives ending in -ughaba
- Third Conjugation: verbs with infinitives ending in -iqs
FIRST CONJ. Singular Dual Paucal Plurocollective 1st person -onia -onier -oneaur -onubraur 2nd person -ombia -ombier -ombeaur -omburour 3rd person -oja -ojer -ojehar -ogiru 4th person -ontca -ontcer -ontcaur -ontcigher SECOND CONJ. Singular Dual Paucal Plurocollective 1st person -ughab -ughabra -ughabrar -ugheau 2nd person -ughu -ughud -ughutre -ughurm 3rd person -ugho -ughodsz -ughoudzh -ughouzz 4th person -ughœn -ughœzst -ughzstu -ughzstœ THIRD CONJ. Singular Dual Paucal Plurocollective 1st person -ikzste -ikzstwa -ikzstwæ -ikzsture 2nd person -iqsuvo -iqsuve -iqsuvæ -iqsomer 3rd person -ighzer -ighzumb -ighzowar -ighzerire 4th person -izzu -izzou -izzœ -ihæ
Parts of SpeechEdit
Parts of speech other than nouns, adjectives, adverbs, and verbs are very important in Kneauzza. Tense, aspect, mood, agent, patient, subject, direct object, and indirect object are all conveyed with prepositional, postpositional, and circumpositional particles.
In the following chart, a hyphen represents a word other than the particle. If there is a space between the particle and the hyphen, it is a separate word. If not, it is an adfix. Apostrophes are part of the adfixes.
Particle Use English equivalent heu'- past tense was z'- present tense is æf'- future tense will œ - subject N/A vi - object N/A -'surad agent N/A -'ziđhe patient N/A -'zsto lative/goal to ozze'- source from a'- instrumental with a khu -'de negational (verb) did not khude - negational (noun) not dura - locational in on at ge - time during at when çê ho'- sociative with Conjunction Use English equivalent per presents another item and lo presents an alternative item or nqed presents an exception but yet although ghazda consequence so tu cause because since for voz condition if