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Konai lingua

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Name: Konai

Type: Agglutinative

Alignment: Nominative-Accusative

Head Direction: Final

Number of genders: no

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No Yes Yes No
Nouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No No Yes No Yes Yes No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


SettingEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

labial alveolar palatal velar glottal
plosive p b t d c ɟ k g
fricative ɸ* s z ɕ ʑ* ɣ* h
affricates ts
nasal m n
flap ɾ
approximant w l j
  • Phonemes marked by asterisk (/ɸ, ʑ, ɣ/) are marginal. Generally they do not occur in native Konai words.
  • /c, ɟ/ before /i/ can become affricates [tɕ, dʑ].
  • Before /i/, alveolar /t, d, n, s/ become palatal [c~tɕ, ɟ~dʑ, nʲ, ɕ].
  • Lateral approximant /l/ is palatal [ʎ] before /i/, /e/; velar [L] or labio-velar [ɰ~ɰʷ] before /u, o/; velarized [ɫ] before /a/.
  • /z/ and marginal /ʑ/ can have a variation of a palatal affricate [dʑ], especially before /i/.
  • Voiceless /p, t, c~tɕ, k, ts/ can be slightly aspirated.
  • /r/ is apical flap. It may be pronounced similar to English flapped d.
  • /w/ is compressed voiced labio-velar approximant. It may vary between [ɰ] and [β] or [ɰʷ].
  • /h/ may have variants [ç] before /i, e/; velar [x] before /a/; labialized [xʷ~hʷ] before /u, o/.

VowelsEdit

front back
close i u
close-mid e o
open a


  • /a/ is an open central vowel;
  • /e/ is a close-mid front vowel, similar to English e in bed;
  • /i/ is a close front vowel;
  • /o/ is close-mid rounded back vowel;
  • /u/ is close back compressed vowel, similar to Japanese 'u'.

OrthographyEdit

The following letters of Latin alphabet are used to write Konai:

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Rr Ss Tt Uu Ww Yy Zz

The following rules apply:

  • /c/ is written a 'ch'; this is the only context when 'c' is used;
  • /ɟ/ is written as 'j'; 'j' is always pronounced as /ɟ/, never as /y/;
  • /ɕ/ is written 'sh';
  • /ʑ/ is written 'zh';
  • /j/ is written 'y'; 'y' is always used for 'j' consonant sound, never for 'i' or 'y' vowels.



Long vowels are written as follows:

  • /a:/ is written 'aa';
  • /o:/ is written 'ou';
  • /u:/ is written 'uu';
  • /e:/ is written 'ei';
  • /i:/ is written 'ii'.

To distinguish between long vowels /o:/, /e:/ and vowel sequences /ou/, /ei/ diaeresis on second letter can be used.

PhonotacticsEdit

Basic GrammarEdit

Edit

Verb sample paradigmsEdit

Primary formsEdit

t a- 'to be' nek- 'not to be' es- 'to exist' ir- 'to go' ed- 'to eat' wide- 'to see' ama- 'to love'
root a- ne-; n- es- ir- ed- wide- ama-
u-stem aku neku; nu esu iru edu wideru amaru
a-stem a- ne-; nea- esa- ira- eda- wide-; widea- ama-
e-stem aye neye ese ire ede widere amare
o-stem awo- newo- eso- iro- edo- widero- amaro-
i-stem ai nei eshi iri eji wideri amari
  • U-stem stands for the non-past/present tense. It is also a dictionary form for verbs.
  • A-stem is used to append past tense, voice and negative markers. It cannot be used on its own.
  • E-stem is a gerund stem; it is used mainly for building compound verbs and build derived gerunds. It can be used as a predicate of a clause.
    -e roots has -ea before suffices starting with -e- (e.g. potential voice).
  • O-stem is used to append conditional and mood markers. It cannot be used on its own.
  • I-stem is an attributive form which is used as a noun modifier. It is the only form which can be used as noun modifier. It is the dictionary form for adjectives.

Paradigm samplesEdit

t a- 'to be' ne- 'not to be' es- 'to be' ir- 'to go' ed- 'to eat' wide- 'to see' ama- 'to love'
present aku neku; nu esu iru edu wideru amaru
past atta netta esata irata edata wideta amata
negative *aneku *neneku esaneku iraneku edaneku wideneku amaneku
alt. negative *anu *nenu esanu iranu edanu widenu amanu
negative past *anetta *nenetta esanetta iranetta edanetta widenetta amanetta
attributive ai nei eshi iri eji wideri amari
neg. attr. *anei *nenei esanei iranei edanei widenei amanei
past attr. achi necchi esachi irachi edachi widechi amachi
past neg. attr. *anecchi *nenecchi esanecchi iranecchi edanecchi widenecchi amanecchi
passive *areru *nereru esareru irareru edareru widereru amareru
passive past *areta *nereta esareta irareta edareta widereta amareta
pass. neg. *areneku *nereneku esareneku irareneku edareneku widereneku amareneku
pass. neg. past *arenetta *nerenetta esarenetta irarenetta edarenetta widerenetta amarenetta
passive attr. *areri *nereri esareri irareri edareri widereri amareri
causative asaru nesaru esasaru irasaru edasaru widesaru amasaru
causative pass. *asareru *nesareru esasareru irasareru edasareru widesareru amasareru
potential aeru neaeru esaeru iraeru edaeru wideaeru amaeru
potential past aeta neaeta esaeta iraeta edaeta wideaeta amaeta
potential pass. *aereru neaereru esaereru iraereru edaerera wideaerera amaereru
gerund I aye neye ese ire ede widere amare
gerund I neg. *aneye *neneye esaneye iraneye edaneye wideneye amaneye
gerund I pass. *arere *nenerere esarere irarere edarere widerere amarere
gerund II atte nette esete irete edete widerete amarete
gerund II neg. *anette *nenette esanette iranette edanette widenette amanette
gerund II past atatte netatte esatatte iratatte edatatte widetatte amatatte
gerund II n.p.
  • anetatte
*nenetatte esanetatte iranetatte edanetatte widenetatte amanetatte
comitative ayeko neyeko eseko ireko edeko widereko amareko
conditional awoshi newoshi esoshi iroshi edoshi wideroshi amaroshi
cond. neg. *anewoshi *nenewoshi esanewoshi iranewoshi edanewoshi widenewoshi amanewoshi
cond. pass. *areroshi *nereroshi esareroshi iraresoshi edareroshi widereroshi amareroshi
when ... arokanno esokanno nekokanno irokanno edokanno widerokanno amarokanno
let's ... awoyaa newoyaa esoyaa iroyaa edoyaa wideroyaa amaroyaa
let's not ... *anewoyaa *nenewoyaa esanewoyaa iranewoyaa edanewoyaa widenewoyaa amanewoyaa

MeaningEdit

  • Since Konai doesn't have an article and definiteness is guessed from a context, an English translation has articles in parentheses or translated as a general statement.
ego ga pomo nen edu I eat (an) apple ego ga ko nen amaru I love (a) girl
ego ga pomo nen edanu I don't eat apples ego ga ko nen amanu I don't love (the) girl
ego ga pomo nen edata I ate (an) apple ego ga ko nen amata I loved (a) girl
ego ga pomo nen edanetta I didn't eat (an) apple ego ga ko nen amanecchi I didn't love (the) girl
pomo nen eji ko girl who eats apples pomo nen amari ko girl who loves apples*
pomo nen edanei ko girl who doesn't eat apples pomo nen amanei ko girl who doesn't love apples**
pomo nen edachi ko girl who ate (an) apple ego nen amachi ko girl who loved me
edareri pomo edible apple amareri ko girl who is loved
edarechi pomo apple that was edible amarechi ko girl who was loved
edarenei pomo Bad apple!! amarenei ko girl that loved by nodoby
edarenecchi pomo now it's good (?) amarenecchi ko girl who wasn't loved
  • Horo aku ^^.
  • Horo neku.

Origins of verb sufficesEdit

  • Usage of -r- for vowel stem verb comes from Japanese -ru for ichidan verbs.
  • Negative ne-ku, n-u comes from Indo-European n-, and also Japanese -nai, -nu.
  • Past tense -t- comes mostly from Japanese -ta, and also from German dental past tense marker.
  • Passive -re- comes from Japanese -(ra)-re-(ru) and for less extent from Latin -r.
  • Causative -sa- comes from Japanese -(sa)-se-(ru).
  • Gerund II -te comes from Japanese -te.
  • Conditional -shi, -kanno come from Latin si, quando.

Noun particlesEdit

  • ga
    Origin: jap., kor. ga
    Marks a subject of a clause.
  • nen, -en after -n
    Origin: lat. -mMarks a direct object of a transitive verb.
  • -i
    Origin: lat. -iMarks an attribute of a noun. It can also be used as a subject of a embedded clause instead of ga.
  • na
    Marks an attribute of a noun.
    It's always written together with preceding noun.
  • de
    Marks an instrument; marks a passive verb agent.
  • ni
    Marks an indirect object.
  • e
    Origin of a movement.
  • da
    Movement direction.
  • ko
    Marks a companion or an instrument.
    With -i and na markers it can be used as an attribute of noun. This case has a slightly different meaning than an attribute clause with esu verb. E.g. esu-clause can be in past tense, though ko-clause does not convey any tense meaning.
    Ii ga mashigan koi uomo aku. "This is a man with a machine gun."
    Ii ga mashigan kona uomo aku. "This is a machinegunner."
    (cf. Ii ga mashingan ko uomo aku. "This is a man and a machine gun.")
    Ii ga mashingan ga eshi uomo aku. "This is a man who has a machine gun."
    Ii ga mashingan ga esachi uomo aku. "This is a man who had a machine gun."
  • shine
    Absence of a companion or an instrument.
    With -i and na markers it can be used as an attribute of noun; as with ko, it has a slightly different meaning than an attribute clause with neku verb:
    Ii ga domu shinei kani aku. "This is a dog without a home."
    Ii ga domu shine na kani aku. "This is a homeless dog"
    Ii ga domu ga esanei kani aku. "This is a dog who has no home."
    Ii ga domu ga esanecchi kani aku. "This is a dog who had no home."

DictionaryEdit

Word roots are mainly devised from European language roots with necessary sound changes. Sounds are changed according to the following scheme:

  • consonant clusters are broken by inserting between the consonants the vowel which follows the cluster; the vowel which followed the cluster is doubled: Lat. arbor (from Old Lat. arbos) > arobousi; Lat. grex, gregis > geregi;
  • if root end in a consonant over than /n/, /u/ is added after labial consonants, /i/ after all other: Lat. urbs, urbis > urubu.

Latin rootsEdit

For core vocabulary, Latin roots are mainly used. The following rules apply:

  • Nouns of 1st, 2nd, 4th and 5th Latin declentions, root with thematic vowel is used;
  • For the third declention, pure root (as it's seen is genetive case) is used;
  • -r- which evolved from -s- due to rhotacism, is transfered as -s-.
  • Root may be cut in case it is longer than 3 syllables.

Samples:

  • 1st: aqua > akua
  • 2nd: hortus > horotou (with -o- insertion to keep CV syllable structure, final o is made long); filius > wili
  • 3rd: homo, hominis > homin
  • 4th: domus > domu; manus > manu
  • 5th: dies > jie; facies > wakie

Example textEdit

Keipisa ni Deo ga keilo ko tera nen kereiwata.
'In principio Deus creavit caelum et terram.

  • keipisa from keipiru from Lat. coepi 'to being'
  • deo from Lat. deus 'god'
  • tera from Lat. terra 'earth'
  • keilo from Lat. caelum 'heaven'

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No. English Konai
1Iego
2you (singular)tu
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when-kanno
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22oneuno
23twoduo
24threeterei
25fourkuatere
26fivekuinkue
27bigmaagani
28longlongi
29widelachi
30thick
31heavygarawi
32smallparuwi
33shortberewi
34narrow
35thin
36womanwemina
37man (adult male)wiri
38man (human being)homin
39childpueri
40wifemuli
41husband
42mothermateri
43fatherpateri
44animalanimali
45fishpishiki
46birdawi
47dogkani
48louse
49snakeserepenchi
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57rootradiki
58barkkoreteiki
59flowerwolori
60grasshereba
61ropewuni
62skinkuchi
63meatkarani
64bloodsanguin
65boneoshi
66fatajipi
67eggowo
68hornkorunu
69tailkauda
70feather
71hair
72headkapichi
73earauri
74eyeoko
75nosenasu
76mouthoshi
77toothdenchi
78tonguelingua
79fingernailungui
80footpeji
81legkuruushi
82kneegenu
83handmanu
84wingala
85bellywenchi
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eatedu
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101seewideru
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if-shi
206because
207name

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