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Konai lingua

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Name: Konai

Type: Agglutinative

Alignment: Nominative-Accusative

Head Direction: Final

Number of genders: no

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No Yes Yes No
Nouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No No Yes No Yes Yes No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


SettingEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

labial alveolar palatal velar glottal
plosive p b t d c ɟ k g
fricative ɸ* s z ɕ ʑ* ɣ* h
affricates ts
nasal m n
flap ɾ
approximant w l j
  • Phonemes marked by asterisk (/ɸ, ʑ, ɣ/) are marginal. Generally they do not occur in native Konai words.
  • /c, ɟ/ before /i/ can become affricates [tɕ, dʑ].
  • Before /i/, alveolar /t, d, n, s/ become palatal [c~tɕ, ɟ~dʑ, nʲ, ɕ].
  • Lateral approximant /l/ is palatal [ʎ] before /i/, /e/; velar [L] or labio-velar [ɰ~ɰʷ] before /u, o/; velarized [ɫ] before /a/.
  • /z/ and marginal /ʑ/ can have a variation of a palatal affricate [dʑ], especially before /i/.
  • Voiceless /p, t, c~tɕ, k, ts/ can be slightly aspirated.
  • /r/ is apical flap. It may be pronounced similar to English flapped d.
  • /w/ is compressed voiced labio-velar approximant. It may vary between [ɰ] and [β] or [ɰʷ].
  • /h/ may have variants [ç] before /i, e/; velar [x] before /a/; labialized [xʷ~hʷ] before /u, o/.

VowelsEdit

front back
close i u
close-mid e o
open a


  • /a/ is an open central vowel;
  • /e/ is a close-mid front vowel, similar to English e in bed;
  • /i/ is a close front vowel;
  • /o/ is close-mid rounded back vowel;
  • /u/ is close back compressed vowel, similar to Japanese 'u'.

OrthographyEdit

The following letters of Latin alphabet are used to write Konai:

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Rr Ss Tt Uu Ww Yy Zz

The following rules apply:

  • /c/ is written a 'ch'; this is the only context when 'c' is used;
  • /ɟ/ is written as 'j'; 'j' is always pronounced as /ɟ/, never as /y/;
  • /ɕ/ is written 'sh';
  • /ʑ/ is written 'zh';
  • /j/ is written 'y'; 'y' is always used for 'j' consonant sound, never for 'i' or 'y' vowels.



Long vowels are written as follows:

  • /a:/ is written 'aa';
  • /o:/ is written 'ou';
  • /u:/ is written 'uu';
  • /e:/ is written 'ei';
  • /i:/ is written 'ii'.

To distinguish between long vowels /o:/, /e:/ and vowel sequences /ou/, /ei/ diaeresis on second letter can be used.

PhonotacticsEdit

Basic GrammarEdit

Edit

Verb sample paradigmsEdit

Primary formsEdit

t a- 'to be' nek- 'not to be' es- 'to exist' ir- 'to go' ed- 'to eat' wide- 'to see' ama- 'to love'
root a- ne-; n- es- ir- ed- wide- ama-
u-stem aku neku; nu esu iru edu wideru amaru
a-stem a- ne-; nea- esa- ira- eda- wide-; widea- ama-
e-stem aye neye ese ire ede widere amare
o-stem awo- newo- eso- iro- edo- widero- amaro-
i-stem ai nei eshi iri eji wideri amari
  • U-stem stands for the non-past/present tense. It is also a dictionary form for verbs.
  • A-stem is used to append past tense, voice and negative markers. It cannot be used on its own.
  • E-stem is a gerund stem; it is used mainly for building compound verbs and build derived gerunds. It can be used as a predicate of a clause.
    -e roots has -ea before suffices starting with -e- (e.g. potential voice).
  • O-stem is used to append conditional and mood markers. It cannot be used on its own.
  • I-stem is an attributive form which is used as a noun modifier. It is the only form which can be used as noun modifier. It is the dictionary form for adjectives.

Paradigm samplesEdit

t a- 'to be' ne- 'not to be' es- 'to be' ir- 'to go' ed- 'to eat' wide- 'to see' ama- 'to love'
present aku neku; nu esu iru edu wideru amaru
past atta netta esata irata edata wideta amata
negative *aneku *neneku esaneku iraneku edaneku wideneku amaneku
alt. negative *anu *nenu esanu iranu edanu widenu amanu
negative past *anetta *nenetta esanetta iranetta edanetta widenetta amanetta
attributive ai nei eshi iri eji wideri amari
neg. attr. *anei *nenei esanei iranei edanei widenei amanei
past attr. achi necchi esachi irachi edachi widechi amachi
past neg. attr. *anecchi *nenecchi esanecchi iranecchi edanecchi widenecchi amanecchi
passive *areru *nereru esareru irareru edareru widereru amareru
passive past *areta *nereta esareta irareta edareta widereta amareta
pass. neg. *areneku *nereneku esareneku irareneku edareneku widereneku amareneku
pass. neg. past *arenetta *nerenetta esarenetta irarenetta edarenetta widerenetta amarenetta
passive attr. *areri *nereri esareri irareri edareri widereri amareri
causative asaru nesaru esasaru irasaru edasaru widesaru amasaru
causative pass. *asareru *nesareru esasareru irasareru edasareru widesareru amasareru
potential aeru neaeru esaeru iraeru edaeru wideaeru amaeru
potential past aeta neaeta esaeta iraeta edaeta wideaeta amaeta
potential pass. *aereru neaereru esaereru iraereru edaerera wideaerera amaereru
gerund I aye neye ese ire ede widere amare
gerund I neg. *aneye *neneye esaneye iraneye edaneye wideneye amaneye
gerund I pass. *arere *nenerere esarere irarere edarere widerere amarere
gerund II atte nette esete irete edete widerete amarete
gerund II neg. *anette *nenette esanette iranette edanette widenette amanette
gerund II past atatte netatte esatatte iratatte edatatte widetatte amatatte
gerund II n.p.
  • anetatte
*nenetatte esanetatte iranetatte edanetatte widenetatte amanetatte
comitative ayeko neyeko eseko ireko edeko widereko amareko
conditional awoshi newoshi esoshi iroshi edoshi wideroshi amaroshi
cond. neg. *anewoshi *nenewoshi esanewoshi iranewoshi edanewoshi widenewoshi amanewoshi
cond. pass. *areroshi *nereroshi esareroshi iraresoshi edareroshi widereroshi amareroshi
when ... arokanno esokanno nekokanno irokanno edokanno widerokanno amarokanno
let's ... awoyaa newoyaa esoyaa iroyaa edoyaa wideroyaa amaroyaa
let's not ... *anewoyaa *nenewoyaa esanewoyaa iranewoyaa edanewoyaa widenewoyaa amanewoyaa

MeaningEdit

  • Since Konai doesn't have an article and definiteness is guessed from a context, an English translation has articles in parentheses or translated as a general statement.
ego ga pomo nen edu I eat (an) apple ego ga ko nen amaru I love (a) girl
ego ga pomo nen edanu I don't eat apples ego ga ko nen amanu I don't love (the) girl
ego ga pomo nen edata I ate (an) apple ego ga ko nen amata I loved (a) girl
ego ga pomo nen edanetta I didn't eat (an) apple ego ga ko nen amanecchi I didn't love (the) girl
pomo nen eji ko girl who eats apples pomo nen amari ko girl who loves apples*
pomo nen edanei ko girl who doesn't eat apples pomo nen amanei ko girl who doesn't love apples**
pomo nen edachi ko girl who ate (an) apple ego nen amachi ko girl who loved me
edareri pomo edible apple amareri ko girl who is loved
edarechi pomo apple that was edible amarechi ko girl who was loved
edarenei pomo Bad apple!! amarenei ko girl that loved by nodoby
edarenecchi pomo now it's good (?) amarenecchi ko girl who wasn't loved
  • Horo aku ^^.
  • Horo neku.

Origins of verb sufficesEdit

  • Usage of -r- for vowel stem verb comes from Japanese -ru for ichidan verbs.
  • Negative ne-ku, n-u comes from Indo-European n-, and also Japanese -nai, -nu.
  • Past tense -t- comes mostly from Japanese -ta, and also from German dental past tense marker.
  • Passive -re- comes from Japanese -(ra)-re-(ru) and for less extent from Latin -r.
  • Causative -sa- comes from Japanese -(sa)-se-(ru).
  • Gerund II -te comes from Japanese -te.
  • Conditional -shi, -kanno come from Latin si, quando.

Noun particlesEdit

  • ga
    Origin: jap., kor. ga
    Marks a subject of a clause.
  • nen, -en after -n
    Origin: lat. -mMarks a direct object of a transitive verb.
  • -i
    Origin: lat. -iMarks an attribute of a noun. It can also be used as a subject of a embedded clause instead of ga.
  • na
    Marks an attribute of a noun.
    It's always written together with preceding noun.
  • de
    Marks an instrument; marks a passive verb agent.
  • ni
    Marks an indirect object.
  • e
    Origin of a movement.
  • da
    Movement direction.
  • ko
    Marks a companion or an instrument.
    With -i and na markers it can be used as an attribute of noun. This case has a slightly different meaning than an attribute clause with esu verb. E.g. esu-clause can be in past tense, though ko-clause does not convey any tense meaning.
    Ii ga mashigan koi uomo aku. "This is a man with a machine gun."
    Ii ga mashigan kona uomo aku. "This is a machinegunner."
    (cf. Ii ga mashingan ko uomo aku. "This is a man and a machine gun.")
    Ii ga mashingan ga eshi uomo aku. "This is a man who has a machine gun."
    Ii ga mashingan ga esachi uomo aku. "This is a man who had a machine gun."
  • shine
    Absence of a companion or an instrument.
    With -i and na markers it can be used as an attribute of noun; as with ko, it has a slightly different meaning than an attribute clause with neku verb:
    Ii ga domu shinei kani aku. "This is a dog without a home."
    Ii ga domu shine na kani aku. "This is a homeless dog"
    Ii ga domu ga esanei kani aku. "This is a dog who has no home."
    Ii ga domu ga esanecchi kani aku. "This is a dog who had no home."

DictionaryEdit

Word roots are mainly devised from European language roots with necessary sound changes. Sounds are changed according to the following scheme:

  • consonant clusters are broken by inserting between the consonants the vowel which follows the cluster; the vowel which followed the cluster is doubled: Lat. arbor (from Old Lat. arbos) > arobousi; Lat. grex, gregis > geregi;
  • if root end in a consonant over than /n/, /u/ is added after labial consonants, /i/ after all other: Lat. urbs, urbis > urubu.

Latin rootsEdit

For core vocabulary, Latin roots are mainly used. The following rules apply:

  • Nouns of 1st, 2nd, 4th and 5th Latin declentions, root with thematic vowel is used;
  • For the third declention, pure root (as it's seen is genetive case) is used;
  • -r- which evolved from -s- due to rhotacism, is transfered as -s-.
  • Root may be cut in case it is longer than 3 syllables.

Samples:

  • 1st: aqua > akua
  • 2nd: hortus > horotou (with -o- insertion to keep CV syllable structure, final o is made long); filius > wili
  • 3rd: homo, hominis > homin
  • 4th: domus > domu; manus > manu
  • 5th: dies > jie; facies > wakie

Example textEdit

Keipisa ni Deo ga keilo ko tera nen kereiwata.
'In principio Deus creavit caelum et terram.

  • keipisa from keipiru from Lat. coepi 'to being'
  • deo from Lat. deus 'god'
  • tera from Lat. terra 'earth'
  • keilo from Lat. caelum 'heaven'

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No. English Konai
1Iego
2you (singular)tu
3heContionary_Wiki
4weContionary_Wiki
5you (plural)Contionary_Wiki
6theyContionary_Wiki
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatContionary_Wiki
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14when-kanno
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneuno
23twoduo
24threeterei
25fourkuatere
26fivekuinkue
27bigmaagani
28longlongi
29widelachi
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavygarawi
32smallparuwi
33shortberewi
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanwemina
37man (adult male)wiri
38man (human being)homin
39childpueri
40wifemuli
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42mothermateri
43fatherpateri
44animalanimali
45fishpishiki
46birdawi
47dogkani
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeserepenchi
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootradiki
58barkkoreteiki
59flowerwolori
60grasshereba
61ropewuni
62skinkuchi
63meatkarani
64bloodsanguin
65boneoshi
66fatajipi
67eggowo
68hornkorunu
69tailkauda
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headkapichi
73earauri
74eyeoko
75nosenasu
76mouthoshi
77toothdenchi
78tonguelingua
79fingernailungui
80footpeji
81legkuruushi
82kneegenu
83handmanu
84wingala
85bellywenchi
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatedu
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seewideru
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205if-shi
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki

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