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Krisnallen
Krisnallen
Type
Inflecting
Alignment
Nominative / accusative
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


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General informationEdit

Krisnallen is the main language spoken by several fairy people who came from Valandyan. It was developped by Marco Quaranta for the rock opera The sword of ice and fire by Italian band Aurea Sectio.


SyntaxEdit

The order of Krisnallen words depends on linguistic register used. There are two registers:

  1. pesnall ['pεsnall]: or lower language used in colloquial or informal situation.
  2. xarnall ['çarnall]: or upper language used in forma, aulic or poetic situation.

The structure of a Krisnallen phrase is SVO (subject, verb, object) in pesnall and SOV (subject, object, verb) in xarnal.

Determinative article are often omitted in pesnall, expecially before subject.

Rain falls down.

Pesnall: Ŝuste gimenesen. ['ʃust̪ε 'gimεnεsεn]
Xarnall: El ŝuste gimenesen. ['ʃust̪ε 'gimεnεsεn]

Disciple is tired

Pesnall: Ĵalen yaderusen ōder. ['ʒalεn 'jad̪εrusεn 'hɔd̪εr]
Xarnall: El ĵalen ōder yaderusen. [εl 'ʒalεn 'hɔd̪εr 'jad̪εrusεn]

Mother has got cats

Pesnall: Ŝar vodat ely klofey. [ʃar βɔd̪a εlj 'klɔfεj]
Xarnall: Al ŝar ely klofey vodat. [al ʃar εlj 'klɔfεj βɔd̪a]

King's horse eats the grass.

Pesnall: Brun og frenor ösirasen jels. [brun ɔg 'frεnɔr 'ɔːsirasεn dʒεls]
Xarnall: Brun og frenor jels ösirasen. [brun ɔg 'frεnɔr 'ɔːsirasεn dʒεls]


Pesnall is the register used more often. All the example in this page will use this register except when the rules according to register. To transpose a phrase from pesnall to xarnale is often sufficient changing words' order and adding determinative articles.

PhonologyEdit

Krisnallen has an almost phonetic alphabet. Althought fairy people use their own alphabet called Krispärivad (which means fairy's alphabet) we can use Latin one with some diacritical mark.

In romanization of Krispärivad we have thirtyfive letters.

Twentyone consonants. Thirteen vowels. One approximant consonant.

In the next tables we can find them. Out of the parenthesys we can find the transliteration in Latin alphabet of Krisnallen char, in the parenthesys its sound accordint IPA conventions.


ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m [m]

nf, nw [ɱ]*

n [n] jn [ɲ]**

nk, ng, nq [ŋ]*

Plosive

p [p]

b [b]

t [t̪]

d [d̪]

k [k]

g [g]

Fricative v [β]

f [f]

w [v]

ŧ [θ] s [s] ŝ [ʃ]
ĵ [ʒ]
x [ç] q [x]
Affricate c [tʃ]
j [dʒ]
Approximant y [j]
Trill r [r]
Lateral app. l [l] jl [ʎ]**


When two consonant are filled in the same cell the upper one is voiceless and the lower one is voiced

The symbol * indicate that this sound is an allophone of [n]

The symbol ** indicates that this sound can be rappresented only by a digraph.


VowelsEdit

Front Back
Close i [i]
ů [y]
u [u]
Close-mid ø [ø]
Open-mid short e [ɛ] o [ɔ]
long ë [ɛː] ö [ɔː]

aspirated

ē [hɛ] ō [hɔ]
Open short a [a]
long ä [aː]
aspirated ā [ha]


Vowels CombinationsEdit

Phonological diphtongsEdit

There are four diphtongs with a different sound from the two vowels. They are the base of Krisnallen verbal system, in fact every verbal conjugation is charaterized by one of them.

Phonological Diptong Pronunciation
AI e [ε]
OE a [a]
EA i [i]
UA o [ɔ]

As we can see there are no way to know if a sound is made by a phonological diphtong or by a single vowel. We can know it only by context or experience.


Non phonological diphtongsEdit

There are many non phonological diphotongs. Everyone has a sound deriving by combination of both vowels.

These diphtongs are:

AE [a'ε], AO [a'ɔ], AU [a'u], ĀE [ha'ε], ĀI [ha'i], ĀO [ha'ɔ]

EI [ε'i], EO [ε'ɔ], EU [ε'u], ĒA, [hε'a], ĒI, [hε'i], ĒO [hε'ɔ]

OA [ɔ'a], OI [ɔ'i], OU [ɔ'u], ŌA [hɔ'a], ŌE [hɔ'ε], ŌI [hɔ'i]

As we can see from IPA transcription, second vowel of a non phonological diphtong is always stressed.

Two vowels in a diphtong are not divided into two different syllabes.

HiatusEdit

Every other combination of two vowels (in example the combination with a long one) are hiatus. These ones are divided into two different syllabes.


Vowels in both kind of diphtongs are included in the same syllabe.


StressEdit

Primary stress is unpredictable and it must be memorized as part of the pronunciation of an individual word. It can be found only on the last four syllabes.

Krisnallen has this important stress rule: a short vowel followed by one or more syllabes with long vowels can't be stressed. A short vowel is tonic only when is followed by syllabes with short vowels.

Words with stress before antepenult syllabe are very rare.

Stress position (from ultima) Word Translation
4th
Ømalindar ['ømalind̪ar] Wisdom
3rd Kunared ['kunarεd̪] Warrior
2nd Iganer [i'ganεr] Brave
1st Serat [sε'rat̪] Wound

Words, which terminate with a vowel, with stress on ultima syllabe are only verbs in particular conjugation.

Word Translation

Krisaain [kri'saεn]

To shine
Ir krisa [ir kri'sa] I shine
Ir krisä [ir kri'saː] I shined, I shone

When a word is formed by prefix or suffix and has stress on a syllabe before one of the last fours, his stress moves until antepnult syllabe.

Word Translation
Qortemareas ['xɔrt̪εmaris] To jump
Yer qortemaresen [jer ˌ xɔrt̪ε'marεsεn] It jumps

Compounds follow the rule of floating stress. The final stress is one of stresses of the single words that is in one of last four syllabes.

Compunds Pronunciation Translation 1st word 2nd word 3rd word
 Deqasaler ['d̪εxasalεr] or [d̪ε'xasalεr]. Unfair Det [d̪εt̪] (Not) Qasaler ['xasalεr] (Right, Just, Fair) -
Ārroerturon ['harrart̪urɔn] or [harrar't̪urɔn] New Year's Day Ārroerte ['harrart̪ε] (First) Uron ['urɔn] (Year) -
Ustoŝuas ['ust̪ɔʃɔs] or [u'st̪ɔʃɔs] Exit Uste ['ust̪ε] (Out) aneas ['ɔʃanis] (To go) -
Ëmmallerturon [εːmmallεr't̪urɔn] or [εːmmal'lεrt̪urɔn] but not ['εːmmallεrt̪urɔn] Day after the last day of the year

Ëmpor ['εːmpɔr]

(After)

Mallerte [mal'lεrt̪ε] (Last) Uron ['urɔn] (Year)
Dirsol ['d̪irsɔl] or [d̪ir'sɔl] Birthday Dir [d̪ir] (Your)

Sol [sɔl] (Day)

-


Secondary stress is always on a syllabe before the tonic one. In compounds is on the tonic sillabes of single words if is not adjacent to the compound tonic one.

PhonotacticsEdit

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Nouns Yes No Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes No Yes No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes No Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article Yes No Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


VerbsEdit

Krisnallen has four conjugations charaterized by one of the four phonological diphtongs in desinence of infinitive.

Conjugation Desinence Verb Translation Tematic Vowel Verbal Vowel
First -ain krisaain [kri'saεn] to shine krisaain kriasain
Second -oen ālimboen ['halimban] to dance ālimboen ālimboen
Third -eas vayoreas [βa'jɔris] to love vayoreas vayoreas
Four -uas qloeduas ['xlad̪ɔs] to think qloeduas qloeduas

Every verb has two important vowel.

  1. tematic vowel: it's in the verb root. It's the tonic vowel of the verb, It can be a phonological diphtong but it's an infrequent case.
  2. verbal vowel: it's in the verb desinence. It's the first vowel of phonological diphtong. Thanks to this one we can know the cojnugation of a conjugated verbal for.

Even if Krisnallen havs four conjugation every verb can be conjugate using this rule:

<verb root> + <verbal vowel> + <mood/tense/person desinence>

In some tense verbal vowel is omitted.

In first person of present indicative the <mood/tense/person desinence> is empty

Example:

Ir krisa [ir kri'sa]: I shine. No <verbal vowel>; <indicative/present/1° person singular desinence>: <empty>

Dar ālimbos [d̪ar 'halimbɔs]: You dance.  <verbal vowel>: o; <indicative/present/2° person singular desinence>: -s

Yor vayoresen [jɔr βa'jɔrεsεn]: He loves <verbal vowel>: e; <indicative/present/3° person singulardesinence>: -sen

VocabularyEdit


No. English Krisnallen
1Iir
2you (singular)dar
3heyer, yor, yar
4weqon
5you (plural)noen
6theywen, won, wan
7thisinner
8thataller
9heremekt
10therereq
11whotak
12whattak (subject), tarqe (object)
13wheretelfe
14whentorsa
15howtanne
16notdet
17allöle
18manykan
19sometůn
20fewples
21otherarke
22oneārro
23twonol
24threeles
25fourmelle
26fiveedas
27bigdevoler
28longfirner (space), irader (time)
29wide
30thick
31heavystarrer
32smallfulmer
33shortovener (space), ēgraser (time)
34narrow
35thin
36womanēlamar (human)
37man (adult male)ēlamor (human)
38man (human being)ēlam (both gendre)
39childkern
40wifeyäkar, ødaifar
41husbandelyor, ødaifa
42motherŝar
43fatherbor
44animalduŧam
45fishŧyave
46birdceras
47dogfaod
48louse
49snakeŝelark
50worm
51treeāvem
52forestpöram
53stick
54fruitmiŝir
55seedlanwe
56leafsunne
57root
58barkxale
59flowerkefärye
60grassjels
61rope
62skintyöqile
63meatůgesle
64bloodpsafre
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eyegisse
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

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