|Nominative / accusative|
|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Krisnallen is the main language spoken by several fairy people who came from Valandyan. It was developped by Marco Quaranta for the rock opera The sword of ice and fire by Italian band Aurea Sectio.
The order of Krisnallen words depends on linguistic register used. There are two registers:
- pesnall ['pεsnall]: or lower language used in colloquial or informal situation.
- xarnall ['çarnall]: or upper language used in forma, aulic or poetic situation.
The structure of a Krisnallen phrase is SVO (subject, verb, object) in pesnall and SOV (subject, object, verb) in xarnal.
Determinative article are often omitted in pesnall, expecially before subject.
Rain falls down.
Pesnall: Ŝuste gimenesen. ['ʃust̪ε 'gimεnεsεn]
Xarnall: El ŝuste gimenesen. ['ʃust̪ε 'gimεnεsεn]
Disciple is tired
Pesnall: Ĵalen yaderusen ōder. ['ʒalεn 'jad̪εrusεn 'hɔd̪εr]
Xarnall: El ĵalen ōder yaderusen. [εl 'ʒalεn 'hɔd̪εr 'jad̪εrusεn]
Mother has got cats
Pesnall: Ŝar vodat ely klofey. [ʃar βɔd̪at̪ εlj 'klɔfεj]
Xarnall: Al ŝar ely klofey vodat. [al ʃar εlj 'klɔfεj βɔd̪at̪]
King's horse eats the grass.
Pesnall: Brun og frenor ösirasen jels. [brun ɔg 'frεnɔr 'ɔːsirasεn dʒεls]
Xarnall: Brun og frenor jels ösirasen. [brun ɔg 'frεnɔr 'ɔːsirasεn dʒεls]
Pesnall is the register used more often. All the example in this page will use this register except when the rules according to register. To transpose a phrase from pesnall to xarnale is often sufficient changing words' order and adding determinative articles.
Krisnallen has an almost phonetic alphabet. Althought fairy people use their own alphabet called Krispärivad (which means fairy's alphabet) we can use Latin one with some diacritical mark.
In romanization of Krispärivad we have thirtyfive letters.
Twentyone consonants. Thirteen vowels. One approximant consonant.
In the next tables we can find them. Out of the parenthesys we can find the transliteration in Latin alphabet of Krisnallen char, in the parenthesys its sound accordint IPA conventions.
nf, nw [ɱ]*
|n [n]||jn [ɲ]**||
nk, ng, nq [ŋ]*
|ŧ [θ]||s [s]||ŝ [ʃ]|
|x [ç]||q [x]|
|Lateral app.||l [l]||jl [ʎ]**|
When two consonant are filled in the same cell the upper one is voiceless and the lower one is voiced
The symbol * indicate that this sound is an allophone of [n]
The symbol ** indicates that this sound can be rappresented only by a digraph.
|Open-mid||short||e [ɛ]||o [ɔ]|
|long||ë [ɛː]||ö [ɔː]|
|ē [hɛ]||ō [hɔ]|
There are four diphtongs with a different sound from the two vowels. They are the base of Krisnallen verbal system, in fact every verbal conjugation is charaterized by one of them.
As we can see there are no way to know if a sound is made by a phonological diphtong or by a single vowel. We can know it only by context or experience.
Non phonological diphtongsEdit
There are many non phonological diphotongs. Everyone has a sound deriving by combination of both vowels.
These diphtongs are:
AE [a'ε], AO [a'ɔ], AU [a'u], ĀE [ha'ε], ĀI [ha'i], ĀO [ha'ɔ]
EI [ε'i], EO [ε'ɔ], EU [ε'u], ĒA, [hε'a], ĒI, [hε'i], ĒO [hε'ɔ]
OA [ɔ'a], OI [ɔ'i], OU [ɔ'u], ŌA [hɔ'a], ŌE [hɔ'ε], ŌI [hɔ'i]
As we can see from IPA transcription, second vowel of a non phonological diphtong is always stressed.
Two vowels in a diphtong are not divided into two different syllabes.
Every other combination of two vowels (in example the combination with a long one) are hiatus. These ones are divided into two different syllabes.
Vowels in both kind of diphtongs are included in the same syllabe.
Primary stress is unpredictable and it must be memorized as part of the pronunciation of an individual word. It can be found only on the last four syllabes.
Krisnallen has this important stress rule: a short vowel followed by one or more syllabes with long vowels can't be stressed. A short vowel is tonic only when is followed by syllabes with short vowels.
Words with stress before antepenult syllabe are very rare.
|Stress position (from ultima)||Word||Translation|
Words, which terminate with a vowel, with stress on ultima syllabe are only verbs in particular conjugation.
|Ir krisa [ir kri'sa]||I shine|
|Ir krisä [ir kri'saː]||I shined, I shone|
When a word is formed by prefix or suffix and has stress on a syllabe before one of the last fours, his stress moves until antepnult syllabe.
|Qortemareas ['xɔrt̪εmaris]||To jump|
|Yer qortemaresen [jer ˌ xɔrt̪ε'marεsεn]||It jumps|
Compounds follow the rule of floating stress. The final stress is one of stresses of the single words that is in one of last four syllabes.
|Compunds||Pronunciation||Translation||1st word||2nd word||3rd word|
|Deqasaler||['d̪εxasalεr] or [d̪ε'xasalεr].||Unfair||Det [d̪εt̪] (Not)||Qasaler ['xasalεr] (Right, Just, Fair)||-|
|Ārroerturon||['harrart̪urɔn] or [harrar't̪urɔn]||New Year's Day||Ārroerte ['harrart̪ε] (First)||Uron ['urɔn] (Year)||-|
|Ustoŝuas||['ust̪ɔʃɔs] or [u'st̪ɔʃɔs]||Exit||Uste ['ust̪ε] (Out)||Oŝaneas ['ɔʃanis] (To go)||-|
|Ëmmallerturon||[εːmmallεr't̪urɔn] or [εːmmal'lεrt̪urɔn] but not ['εːmmallεrt̪urɔn]||Day after the last day of the year||
|Mallerte [mal'lεrt̪ε] (Last)||Uron ['urɔn] (Year)|
|Dirsol||['d̪irsɔl] or [d̪ir'sɔl]||Birthday||Dir [d̪ir] (Your)||
Sol [sɔl] (Day)
Secondary stress is always on a syllabe before the tonic one. In compounds is on the tonic sillabes of single words if is not adjacent to the compound tonic one.
Krisnallen has four conjugations charaterized by one of the four phonological diphtongs in desinence of infinitive.
|Conjugation||Desinence||Verb||Translation||Tematic Vowel||Verbal Vowel|
|First||-ain||krisaain [kri'saεn]||to shine||krisaain||kriasain|
|Second||-oen||ālimboen ['halimban]||to dance||ālimboen||ālimboen|
|Third||-eas||vayoreas [βa'jɔris]||to love||vayoreas||vayoreas|
|Four||-uas||qloeduas ['xlad̪ɔs]||to think||qloeduas||qloeduas|
Every verb has two important vowel.
- tematic vowel: it's in the verb root. It's the tonic vowel of the verb, It can be a phonological diphtong but it's an infrequent case.
- verbal vowel: it's in the verb desinence. It's the first vowel of phonological diphtong. Thanks to this one we can know the cojnugation of a conjugated verbal for.
Even if Krisnallen havs four conjugation every verb can be conjugate using this rule:
<verb root> + <verbal vowel> + <mood/tense/person desinence>
In some tense verbal vowel is omitted.
In first person of present indicative the <mood/tense/person desinence> is empty
Ir krisa [ir kri'sa]: I shine. No <verbal vowel>; <indicative/present/1° person singular desinence>: <empty>
Dar ālimbos [d̪ar 'halimbɔs]: You dance. <verbal vowel>: o; <indicative/present/2° person singular desinence>: -s
Yor vayoresen [jɔr βa'jɔrεsεn]: He loves <verbal vowel>: e; <indicative/present/3° person singulardesinence>: -sen