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Krisnallen

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Krisnallen
Krisnallen
Type
Inflecting
Alignment
Nominative / accusative
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


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General informationEdit

Krisnallen is the main language spoken by several fairy people who came from Valandyan. It was developped by Marco Quaranta for the rock opera The sword of ice and fire by Italian band Aurea Sectio.


SyntaxEdit

The order of Krisnallen words depends on linguistic register used. There are two registers:

  1. pesnall ['pεsnall]: or lower language used in colloquial or informal situation.
  2. xarnall ['çarnall]: or upper language used in forma, aulic or poetic situation.

The structure of a Krisnallen phrase is SVO (subject, verb, object) in pesnall and SOV (subject, object, verb) in xarnal.

Determinative article are often omitted in pesnall, expecially before subject.

Rain falls down.

Pesnall: Ŝuste gimenesen. ['ʃust̪ε 'gimεnεsεn]
Xarnall: El ŝuste gimenesen. ['ʃust̪ε 'gimεnεsεn]

Disciple is tired

Pesnall: Ĵalen yaderusen ōder. ['ʒalεn 'jad̪εrusεn 'hɔd̪εr]
Xarnall: El ĵalen ōder yaderusen. [εl 'ʒalεn 'hɔd̪εr 'jad̪εrusεn]

Mother has got cats

Pesnall: Ŝar vodat ely klofey. [ʃar βɔd̪a εlj 'klɔfεj]
Xarnall: Al ŝar ely klofey vodat. [al ʃar εlj 'klɔfεj βɔd̪a]

King's horse eats the grass.

Pesnall: Brun og frenor ösirasen jels. [brun ɔg 'frεnɔr 'ɔːsirasεn dʒεls]
Xarnall: Brun og frenor jels ösirasen. [brun ɔg 'frεnɔr 'ɔːsirasεn dʒεls]


Pesnall is the register used more often. All the example in this page will use this register except when the rules according to register. To transpose a phrase from pesnall to xarnale is often sufficient changing words' order and adding determinative articles.

PhonologyEdit

Krisnallen has an almost phonetic alphabet. Althought fairy people use their own alphabet called Krispärivad (which means fairy's alphabet) we can use Latin one with some diacritical mark.

In romanization of Krispärivad we have thirtyfive letters.

Twentyone consonants. Thirteen vowels. One approximant consonant.

In the next tables we can find them. Out of the parenthesys we can find the transliteration in Latin alphabet of Krisnallen char, in the parenthesys its sound accordint IPA conventions.


ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m [m]

nf, nw [ɱ]*

n [n] jn [ɲ]**

nk, ng, nq [ŋ]*

Plosive

p [p]

b [b]

t [t̪]

d [d̪]

k [k]

g [g]

Fricative v [β]

f [f]

w [v]

ŧ [θ] s [s] ŝ [ʃ]
ĵ [ʒ]
x [ç] q [x]
Affricate c [tʃ]
j [dʒ]
Approximant y [j]
Trill r [r]
Lateral app. l [l] jl [ʎ]**


When two consonant are filled in the same cell the upper one is voiceless and the lower one is voiced

The symbol * indicate that this sound is an allophone of [n]

The symbol ** indicates that this sound can be rappresented only by a digraph.


VowelsEdit

Front Back
Close i [i]
ů [y]
u [u]
Close-mid ø [ø]
Open-mid short e [ɛ] o [ɔ]
long ë [ɛː] ö [ɔː]

aspirated

ē [hɛ] ō [hɔ]
Open short a [a]
long ä [aː]
aspirated ā [ha]


Vowels CombinationsEdit

Phonological diphtongsEdit

There are four diphtongs with a different sound from the two vowels. They are the base of Krisnallen verbal system, in fact every verbal conjugation is charaterized by one of them.

Phonological Diptong Pronunciation
AI e [ε]
OE a [a]
EA i [i]
UA o [ɔ]

As we can see there are no way to know if a sound is made by a phonological diphtong or by a single vowel. We can know it only by context or experience.


Non phonological diphtongsEdit

There are many non phonological diphotongs. Everyone has a sound deriving by combination of both vowels.

These diphtongs are:

AE [a'ε], AO [a'ɔ], AU [a'u], ĀE [ha'ε], ĀI [ha'i], ĀO [ha'ɔ]

EI [ε'i], EO [ε'ɔ], EU [ε'u], ĒA, [hε'a], ĒI, [hε'i], ĒO [hε'ɔ]

OA [ɔ'a], OI [ɔ'i], OU [ɔ'u], ŌA [hɔ'a], ŌE [hɔ'ε], ŌI [hɔ'i]

As we can see from IPA transcription, second vowel of a non phonological diphtong is always stressed.

Two vowels in a diphtong are not divided into two different syllabes.

HiatusEdit

Every other combination of two vowels (in example the combination with a long one) are hiatus. These ones are divided into two different syllabes.


Vowels in both kind of diphtongs are included in the same syllabe.


StressEdit

Primary stress is unpredictable and it must be memorized as part of the pronunciation of an individual word. It can be found only on the last four syllabes.

Krisnallen has this important stress rule: a short vowel followed by one or more syllabes with long vowels can't be stressed. A short vowel is tonic only when is followed by syllabes with short vowels.

Words with stress before antepenult syllabe are very rare.

Stress position (from ultima) Word Translation
4th
Ømalindar ['ømalind̪ar] Wisdom
3rd Kunared ['kunarεd̪] Warrior
2nd Iganer [i'ganεr] Brave
1st Serat [sε'rat̪] Wound

Words, which terminate with a vowel, with stress on ultima syllabe are only verbs in particular conjugation.

Word Translation

Krisaain [kri'saεn]

To shine
Ir krisa [ir kri'sa] I shine
Ir krisä [ir kri'saː] I shined, I shone

When a word is formed by prefix or suffix and has stress on a syllabe before one of the last fours, his stress moves until antepnult syllabe.

Word Translation
Qortemareas ['xɔrt̪εmaris] To jump
Yer qortemaresen [jer ˌ xɔrt̪ε'marεsεn] It jumps

Compounds follow the rule of floating stress. The final stress is one of stresses of the single words that is in one of last four syllabes.

Compunds Pronunciation Translation 1st word 2nd word 3rd word
 Deqasaler ['d̪εxasalεr] or [d̪ε'xasalεr]. Unfair Det [d̪εt̪] (Not) Qasaler ['xasalεr] (Right, Just, Fair) -
Ārroerturon ['harrart̪urɔn] or [harrar't̪urɔn] New Year's Day Ārroerte ['harrart̪ε] (First) Uron ['urɔn] (Year) -
Ustoŝuas ['ust̪ɔʃɔs] or [u'st̪ɔʃɔs] Exit Uste ['ust̪ε] (Out) aneas ['ɔʃanis] (To go) -
Ëmmallerturon [εːmmallεr't̪urɔn] or [εːmmal'lεrt̪urɔn] but not ['εːmmallεrt̪urɔn] Day after the last day of the year

Ëmpor ['εːmpɔr]

(After)

Mallerte [mal'lεrt̪ε] (Last) Uron ['urɔn] (Year)
Dirsol ['d̪irsɔl] or [d̪ir'sɔl] Birthday Dir [d̪ir] (Your)

Sol [sɔl] (Day)

-


Secondary stress is always on a syllabe before the tonic one. In compounds is on the tonic sillabes of single words if is not adjacent to the compound tonic one.

PhonotacticsEdit

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Nouns Yes No Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes No Yes No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes No Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article Yes No Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


VerbsEdit

Krisnallen has four conjugations charaterized by one of the four phonological diphtongs in desinence of infinitive.

Conjugation Desinence Verb Translation Tematic Vowel Verbal Vowel
First -ain krisaain [kri'saεn] to shine krisaain kriasain
Second -oen ālimboen ['halimban] to dance ālimboen ālimboen
Third -eas vayoreas [βa'jɔris] to love vayoreas vayoreas
Four -uas qloeduas ['xlad̪ɔs] to think qloeduas qloeduas

Every verb has two important vowel.

  1. tematic vowel: it's in the verb root. It's the tonic vowel of the verb, It can be a phonological diphtong but it's an infrequent case.
  2. verbal vowel: it's in the verb desinence. It's the first vowel of phonological diphtong. Thanks to this one we can know the cojnugation of a conjugated verbal for.

Even if Krisnallen havs four conjugation every verb can be conjugate using this rule:

<verb root> + <verbal vowel> + <mood/tense/person desinence>

In some tense verbal vowel is omitted.

In first person of present indicative the <mood/tense/person desinence> is empty

Example:

Ir krisa [ir kri'sa]: I shine. No <verbal vowel>; <indicative/present/1° person singular desinence>: <empty>

Dar ālimbos [d̪ar 'halimbɔs]: You dance.  <verbal vowel>: o; <indicative/present/2° person singular desinence>: -s

Yor vayoresen [jɔr βa'jɔrεsεn]: He loves <verbal vowel>: e; <indicative/present/3° person singulardesinence>: -sen

VocabularyEdit


No. English Krisnallen
1Iir
2you (singular)dar
3heyer, yor, yar
4weqon
5you (plural)noen
6theywen, won, wan
7thisinner
8thataller
9heremekt
10therereq
11whotak
12whattak (subject), tarqe (object)
13wheretelfe
14whentorsa
15howtanne
16notdet
17allöle
18manykan
19sometůn
20fewples
21otherarke
22oneārro
23twonol
24threeles
25fourmelle
26fiveedas
27bigdevoler
28longfirner (space), irader (time)
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavystarrer
32smallfulmer
33shortovener (space), ēgraser (time)
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanēlamar (human)
37man (adult male)ēlamor (human)
38man (human being)ēlam (both gendre)
39childkern
40wifeyäkar, ødaifar
41husbandelyor, ødaifa
42motherŝar
43fatherbor
44animalduŧam
45fishŧyave
46birdceras
47dogfaod
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeŝelark
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeāvem
52forestpöram
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitmiŝir
55seedlanwe
56leafsunne
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkxale
59flowerkefärye
60grassjels
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skintyöqile
63meatůgesle
64bloodpsafre
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyegisse
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


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