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Type agglutinative~polysynthetic
Alignment Ergative
Head direction Final
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders None
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Progress 0%
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Adverbs  %
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator [[User:|]]

Classification and DialectsEdit


Kughralga has a moderate but sometimes unusual phoneme inventory. It is relatively consonant-heavy with distinguishing circa thirty consonants, but only four vowel phonemes. 


Kughralga has a moderately big consonant inventory containinɡ some rather unusual sounds like the lateral affricates [t͡ɬ] and [d͡ɮ] or the voiced uvular plosive [ɢ].

Bilabial Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular










p b

p b

t d

t d

k ɡ

k ɡ

q ɢ

q x


s z

s z

ʃ ʒ

sh zh

x ɣ

kh ɡh

χ ʁ

qh xh


t͡s d͡z

ts dz

t͡ʃ d͡ʒ

c j

Lateral affricate

t͡ɬ d͡ɮ

tl dl







y, -i

Flap or tap



[ŋ] and [ɴ] are allophones of [n] in front of velar ([k], [ɡ], [x] and [ɣ]) or uvular ([q], [ɢ], [χ] and [ʁ]) consonants.


Kughralga has just four vowel quantities. It lacks the mid-front [e] and the mid-back [o] often found in European languages.

Front Central Back
















[ɛ] and [ɔ] are allophones of [i] and [u] in front of uvular consonants.

Phonotactics Edit

Voiceless prefixes or suffixes become voiced when they


The grammar of Kughrulga is quite complex, with heavy use of prefixes and suffixes. Although mostly strongly agglutinating, it also has some undeniable polysynthetic traits. Basic word order is SOV, although variations are not unusual with the most common being OSV, SVO and OVS. Kughralga is an ergative-absolutive language.

Affixiation can lead to very long sentence-like words, e.g.:

Tsqvaghdzɡraxhzrash. - We would not have circled you (if...) [t͡sqvaɣd͡zɡraʁzraʃ]

ts-q-va-ɡh-dz-ɡraxh-zra-sh -

The most important part of Kughralga grammar - and by means the most complex - is the verb. Furthermore, Kughralga knows no adjectives; like a lot of languages, it uses intransitive verbs instead.


The Kughralga noun shows - compared to the verb - just little and very regular inflection. Kughralga uses two cases (absolutive and ergative) several number suffixes (some of them are rather derivational suffixes) and possession circumfixes (alienability and inalienability is distinguished).

possession prefix STEM alienability suffix number suffix ergative marker

Number & Case Edit

Kughralga exhibits a very simple two-case-system with an unmarked absolutive and an ergative which is indicated by the suffix -t. The absolutive, the basic form of every noun, is used for the subject of an intransitive verb, the direct object of a transitive verb, and indirect objects in general. The ergative case is solely used to indicate the subject of a transitive verb.

The generic plural suffix is -ash or -sh if the noun ends on a vowel. This suffix is used to indicate undefined generic plurality. With numerals, another suffix, the partitive suffix -va is used. The numerals then behave like normal nouns and can also be inflected. Additionally, the verb agrees now with the numeral instead of the noun. All numerals have a fixed grammatical number. Most of the quantifiers and a lot of numerals are always singular, whereas some numerals (those ending with -sh) take plural agreeement.

I am seeing a reindeer. > Mixh dzbaitlak. [mɛʁ dzbajtɬak]

  • mixh-ø dz-ba-i-tlak > reindeer-abs

I am seeing reindeers. > Mixhash dzbaintlak. [mɛʁaʃ dzbajntɬak]

  • mixh-ash-ø dz-ba-in-tlak > reindeer-pl-ø

I am seeing a lot of reindeers. > Khul mixhva dzbaitlak. [xul mɛʁva dzbajtɬak]

  • khul-ø mixh-va dz-ba-i-tlak > lots.of-abs reindeer-part

I am seeing three reindeers. > Sqesh mixhva dzbaintlak. [sqəʃ mɛʁva dzbajntɬak]

  • sqe-sh-ø mixh-va dz-ba-in-tlak > three-pl-abs reindeer-part

A lot of hunters are looking for reindeers. > Khult jirtva mixhash baincurt. [xult dʒirtva mɛʁaʃ bajntʃurt]

  • khul-t jirt-va mixh-ash-ø ba-in-ts-shur-t > lots.of-erg hunter-part reindeer-pl-abs


absolutive ergative partitive
singular plural sinɡular plural
final consonant mixh


mixh mixhash mixhd mixhasht mixhva
final vowel udlu


udlu udlush udlut udlusht udluva
schwa dropping jiret


jiret jirtash jiretst jirtasht jirtva

Possession Edit

Possession is indicated by prefixes indicating the possessing person and suffixes indicating alienability and agrees with the number of the possessed noun.

singular plural
1st exclusive an- nun-
1st inclusive kun-
2nd akh- cin-
3rd u- un-
singular plural
alienable non-possessed
possessed -n-
inalienable non-possessed -kek -ɡ-
possessed -(e)k

The unpossessed form of inalienable nouns does either indicate that the possessor is unknown and unspecified (somebody’s ...) or change the lexical meaning of the noun.

Genitive construction Edit

The genitive phrase of Kughralga ressembles the Mayan or Hungarian way to express the genitive: While the possessing noun remains unmarked, the possessed noun takes one of the third person possession prefixes (depending on the number of the possessing noun).

kuleq ujirtnash > the huntsmen of the chief [kuləq udʒirtaʃ]

  • kuleq u-jirt-n-ash > chief

quqhash unxudnash > the huts of the villages [qɔχaʃ ɔɴɢudnaʃ]

  • quqh-ash un-xud-n-ash > village-pl

Postpositions Edit

Kughralga uses postpositions rather than prepositions. The noun remains in the unmarked absolutive. They are linked to the noun via a possessive suffix. They often have the same or a similar root of body parts, comparable to the Mayan languages.

Some examples of postpositions:

u-tler in, at, by
u-shqhar inside (shqhar-kek = stomach)
u-ner at the top (nar = head)
u-zxi behind, after (zxi-kek = back)
u-dlubu in front of, before (dlubu-kek = breast)
u-kek at the bottom (kuk-kek = foot)


The verb is by far the most complex part of Kughralga morphology. It is inflected for person (1st, 2nd, 3rd) and number (singular and plural) of both subject and object, tense (present, past, future) and aspect (imperfective, perfective, continuous), mood (indicative, subjunctive, optative, narrative, imperative, permittive) and voice (active, passive, reflexive).

relative/interrogative erg. agreement tense/aspect negation abs. agreement VERB STEM mood plurality diathesis

Ergative and absolutive agreement Edit

absolutive singular plural
1st ex N- naN-
1st in kaN-
2nd kh- caN-
3rd i- iN-
rel u-
ergative singular plural
1st ex dz- dz-, -(e)sh
1st in k(e)-, -(e)sh
2nd k(e)- c(e)-, -(e)sh
3rd ø-, -t ø-, -(e)sh-t
rel ø-

-(e)sh is the plurality marker of the verb. The third person suffix -t is placed in the diathesis slot.

The relative prefix is used when an interrogative or relative marker is prefixed.

Tense/Aspect (and Negation) Edit

Tense and aspect are expressed through one single morpheme which stands between the ergative and the absolutive marker.

tense/aspect affirmative negative


continuous be- ma-
aorist u- va-
imperfect na- ne-va-
perfect qe- q-va-
future tla- tle-va-
future perfect qla- qle-va-


imperfective ga- ge-va-
perfective xa- xe-va-

As we can see, different moods acquire different tense markers. Additionally, not all tenses and aspect can be distinguished in all moods. Most negative forms are simply made by the negative affix -va; however, most tense/aspect markers undergo vocalic changes and the present continuous negative prefix is irregular.

Mood Edit

Kughralga has an indicative, a subjunctive, an optative (most often used to express wishes or like a polite imperative) and an imperative. All moods - except the imperative - are marked by suffixes in the mood slot.

mood suffix use
indicative - to express actions really happening or happened
to express actions that could eventually happen
to epress wishes, emotions, opinions

polite imperative (directed towards a person of a higher class)

commands, requests (often regarded as impolite in formal speech)

Imperative Edit

The imperative follows a different pattern than the other mooods, e.g. it lacks a first person singular.



Example textEdit

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