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Kumari language
කුමරි
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Nominative-accusative
Head direction
Final
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Kumar is the classical and one of the official languages of the Republic of Kumari. Although Kumar is still the lingua franca and the language used in government, it is a dead language, i. e. no one in Kumari has it as their mother tongue. In the 11th century Kumar started developing a case of diglossia, coexisting two varieties: Classical Kumari and Vulgar Kumari. It was the vulgar variety the one which gave birth to the modern Kumari languages, such as Udul, Kontu, Kentami and various other languages spoken throughout the country.

PhonologyEdit

Kumar does not distinguish phonologically between voiced and voiceless consonants, the distinction is made between aspirated, plan and tense consonants.

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ /ɲ/
Plosive /pʰ/ /tʰ/ c /c/ /kʰ/
p /p/~/b/ t /t/~/d/ k /k/~/g/
/pː/ /tː/ /kː/
Fricative s /s/ /ʂ/ y /ʝ/ h /h/
Affricate ċ /ʈ͡ʂ/
Approximant v /ʋ/ /ɻ/
Flap or tap r /ɾ/
Lateral app. l /l/ /ɫ/

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Near-back Back
Close ī /iː/ ū /uː/
Near-close i /ɪ/ u /ʊ/
Close-mid e /e/ o /o/
Open-mid ē /ɛː/ ō /ɔː/
Open ā /aː/ a /ɑ/

AlphabetEdit

Official Romanization of Kumar comprises 35 letters:

a ā c ċ e ē h i ī k ḳ ḵ l ḷ m n ṅ o ō p ṗ ṕ r ṛ s ṣ t ṭ ṯ u ū v y ai au

Since I haven't created a conscript for Kumar yet, the language is written using the Sinhala script.

PhonotacticsEdit

GrammarEdit

Kumari has a canonical word order of SOV

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers Yes Yes No No No No No No
Participles Yes No Yes No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

VerbsEdit

As seen in the table above, verbs are the most complex part in Kumari grammar: they conjugate for gender (masculine, feminine and irrational), number (singular and plural), tense (past, present and future), person (1st, 2nd and 3rd), mood (indicative, evidential, mirative, subjunctive, conditional, potential and interrogative), voice (active, passive and causative) and aspect (perfective, imperfective, habitual, progressive, inceptive, terminative, durative and iterative).

Verbs show polypersonal agreement as well, the agreement can have up to four arguments (subject, direct object, indirect object and the benefitiary of the action). Some verbs can be replaced when using a more formal language. There are also auxiliary verbs to demonstrate evidentiality and mirativity, these is the case some verbs as hana and kānda, these two verbs have no meaning, they just conjugate for the moods cited above.

Verb root.BENEFICIARY.IND OBJ.DIR OBJ.TENSE.ASPECT.MOOD.VOICE.PERSON+NUMBER+GENDER

Present tense, indicative mood and active voice have no markers.

Example: Kotukkeluvai

kot.ukku.elu.Ø.Ø.vai

To eat.PAS.DUR.IND.ACT.1PS

While I was eating

VocabularyEdit


No. English Kumari
1Inai
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22oneār
23twoucu
24threepan
25fourkēḷ
26fiveċār
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51treesoṛu
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stoneeṛi
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountainkaṅi
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

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