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Kiyake (Lit. 'Tongue of the civil')
Mônehittilyeti Kyakkê
Type Agglutinative
Alignment Tripartite
Head direction Head Initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders no
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress Expression error: Unexpected < operator.%
Statistics
Nouns Expression error: Unexpected < operator.%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator [[User:|]]

Kyakkê (Native: Mônehittilyeti Kyakkê Informal: Kyakkê) is the official language of The Republic of Kyakkê and The Northern Kyakkê Democratic Republic. Approximately 30 million people speak Kyakkê on the planet Masênh, 90% of those on the island Jjenhol where both The Republic of Kyakkê and The Northern Kyakkê Democratic Republic are located.

HistoryEdit

Modern Kyakkê descends from Middle Kyakkê, which in turn descends from Old Kyakkê, which descends from the language spoken in Prehistoric Jjenhol (labeled Proto-Kyakkê), whose nature is debated, in part because Kyakkê genetic origins are controversial.

A character system native to the Hya Empire of mainland Masênh'nan arrived on Jjenhol in the late 12th century BCE (Earth) along with Jweppung, a religion, when the Hya conquered the decentralized local kingdoms of Jjenhol. These characters, know as halu in Kyakkê, were adapted to Kyakkê and used as the primary script of Kyakkê for almost 3 millennia.

{example of Halu}

Only privileged elites were educated for fluently read and write them, though, as most of the population was illiterate. The halu were replaced by the current script, hangu, when King Yîjo decided that the halu were inadequate for writing Kyakkê and developed hangu. Although hangu almost entirely replaced halu within a century, halu is still used in religious Jweppung texts and in certain artistic styles of literature, although very few people are fluent in reading halu.

PhonologyEdit

Kyakkê has many allophones, so it is important here to distinguish morphophonemes (written inside vertical pipes | |) from corresponding phonemes (written inside slashes / /) and allophones (written inside brackets [ ]).

ConsonantsEdit

Kyakkê has 17 consonant phonemes, without including the glottal stop <ʔ> which in most romanizations and the native script of the language is not written but implied.

For each stop and affricate, there is a two-way contrast between non-voiced segments, which are distinguished as plain and tense.

  • The "plain" segments are considered the "basic" or unmarked members of the Kyakkê obstruent series.
  • The "tense" segments are characterized by a constricted glottis and a restricted airflow.
Consonant Phonemes
Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plain Palatal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive Plain p~b t~d k~g (ʔ)
Tense
(◌̚) (p̚) (t̚) (k̚)
Fricative (ɸʷ), (β) s~z (ɕ~ʑ) (ç) (x) h~ɦ
Affricate Plain ts~dz (tɕ~dʑ)
Tense ts͈ (tɕ͈)
Approximant w j
Liquid l~ɾ

The IPA symbol ⟨◌͈⟩, resembling a subscript double straight quotation mark, shown here with a placeholder circle, is used to denote the tensed consonants /p͈/, /t͈/, /k͈/, /t͈ɕ/. They are produced with a partially constricted glottis but this "tensed" series of sounds are (fundamentally) regular voiceless consonants: the "lax" sounds are voiced consonants that become devoiced initially, and the primary distinguishing feature between word-initial "lax" and "tensed" consonants is that initial lax sounds cause the following vowel to assume a low-to-high pitch contour while the devoiced lax consonants cause the following vowel to assume a high pitch contour.

/p, t, tɕ, k/ are voiced [b, d, dʑ, ɡ] between voiced sounds but voiceless elsewhere. There are several regional differences in the pronunciations of /ts~dz, ts͈ and tɕ~dʑ, tɕ͈/. The affricate sequence is pronounced /ts~dz, ts͈/ in northern dialects of the Kyakkê such as Palam and Hata. The affricate sequence is only pronounced /tɕ~dʑ, tɕ͈/ when followed by /j/ and causes the following vowel to assume a low pitch. In southern dialects (Ttyîl, Jjada) and some western island dialects (primarily Munh), the affricate sequence is pronounced /tɕ~dʑ, tɕ͈/ and does not change place of articulation or pitch based on semivowels. Some may pronounce the alveolar-palatals as /tsʰ~dzʰ, ts/, especially before back vowels, reverting to /tɕ~dʑ, tɕ͈/ before /j/ although maintaining a high pitch.

/m, n/ tend to be denasalized word-initially. Often, they are not actual stops either, but sometimes l, a stop release burst is audible. /ŋ/ appears only between vowels and in the syllable coda.

/l/ is an alveolar flap [ɾ] between vowels or between a vowel and an /h/; and is [l] or [ɭ] at the end of a word, before a consonant other than /h/, or next to another /l/. It is unstable at the beginning of a word, tending to become [n] before most vowels and silent before /i, j/, but it is commonly [ɾ] in loanwords.

Between vowels, /h/ may either be voiced [ɦ] or become inaudible or even often disappear.

VowelsEdit

Kyakkê has 8 vowel phonemes and a length distinction for 7 of the 8 vowels. Although there is a length contrast, vowels are often analyzed according to a tenseness contrast, with long /iː, yː, uː, eː, øː, oː/ being the tense vowels and short /ɪ, ʏ, ʊ, ɛ, œ, ɔ/ their lax counterparts. The Kyakkê lax vowels require a syllable coda in stressed syllables, with the notable exception of [ɛː] (which is absent in many dialects). This addition of a coda is called checking. /a/ is sometimes considered the lax counterpart of tense /aː/ in order to maintain this tense/lax division but are considered by native speakers to be the same vowel.

The preferred pronunciation of a vowel is always lax (excepting [ɛː]). This preference is not followed when the vowel is in a stressed syllable and is unchecked. E.g. "kôlulk" ['køːɾʊk̚] where the stress falls on the first syllable which is unchecked and results in a tense vowel [øː].

The long open-mid front unrounded vowel [ɛː] is an irregularity in the otherwise regular vowel system of Kyakkê consisting of pairs of long and short vowels [iː, ɪ]. [ɛː] acts as a lax vowel in some situations while acting as a tense vowel in others. Primarily, [ɛː] cannot be pronounced in unchecked stressed syllables, only in unstressed syllables. In this way it is practically a lax vowel. The tense aspect of [ɛː] is that, for dialects that contain [ɛː], it cannot be reduced into [ə, ɐ]. [ɛː] also forms a unique assimilation of [k] and [h] (see Vowel Assimilation)

Vowel Phonemes
Front Central Back
Unrounded Rounded Unrounded Rounded
Short Long Short Long Short Long Short Long
Close ɪ ʏ ʊ
Mid-Close øː (ə)
Mid-Open ɛ ɛː œ (ɐ) ɔ
Open a

Diphthongs and Glides Edit

Because they may follow consonants in initial position in a word, which no other consonant can do, and also because of hangu orthography, which transcribes them as vowels, semivowels such as /j/ and /w/ are sometimes considered to be elements of diphthongs rather than separate consonant phonemes. Diphthongs are classified in two groups: y initial, and w initial based on the semivowel with which they are formed. Diphthongs can only be formed with lax vowels and [ɛː] excluding the lax vowel with which the semivowel is an allophone. Diphthongs behave similarly to tense vowels in that they can exist unchecked in stressed syllables.

/ɪ/ /ɛ/ /ɛː/ /ʏ/ /œ/ /a/ /ʊ/ /ɔ/
/j/ - /jɛ/ /jɛː/ /jʏ/ /jœ/ /ja/ /jʊ/ /jɔ/
/w/ /wɪ/ /wɛ/ /wɛː/ /wʏ/ /wœ/ /wa/ - /wɔ/

Positional Allophones Edit

Kyakkê consonants have three principal positional allophones: initial, medial (voiced), and final (checked). The initial form is found at the beginning of phonological words. The medial form is found in voiced environments, intervocalically and after a voiced consonant such as n or l. The final form is found in checked environments such as at the end of a phonological word or before an obstruent consonant such as t or k. Nasal consonants (mnng) do not have noticeable positional allophones, but ng cannot appear in initial position.

Phoneme k kk ng t s j tt jj n r p pp m h
Initial allophone k - t s ts~tɕ t͈s~t͈ɕ n (n) p m h
Medial allophone g ŋ d dz~dʑ ɾ b (ɦ)
Final allophone - - l - -

All obstruents (stops, affricates, fricatives) become stops with no audible release at the end of a word: all coronals collapse to [t̚], all labials to [p̚], and all velars to [k̚]. Final r is a lateral [l] or [ɭ].

Vowel Assimilation Edit

The vowel that most affects consonants is /iː/, which, along with its semivowel homologue /j/, palatalizes /s/ to alveolo-palatal [ɕ] for most speakers (but see differences in the language between northern dialects and southern dialects). As noted above, initial |l| is silent in this palatalizing environment, at least in southern dialects. Similarly, an underlying |t| at the end of a morpheme becomes a phonemically palatalized affricate /tɕ/ when followed by a word or suffix beginning with /iː/ or /j/, but that does not happen within a word root such as _______.

/k/ is more affected by vowels, often becoming an affricate when followed by /iː/, /uː/ or /oː/: [kçiː], [kxaː]. The most variable consonant is /h/, which becomes a palatal [ç] before /iː/ or /j/, a velar [x] before /aː/, and bilabial [ɸʷ] before /oː/, /uː/ and /w/.

Allophones of Consonants Before Vowels
/iː, ɪ, j/ /ɛː/ /oː, ɔ, uː, ʊ, w/ /eː, ɛ, yː, ʏ, øː, œ, aː, a/
/s/ [ɕ] [s]
/t/ + suffix [tɕ] [t]
/k/ [kç] [kx] [k]
/h/ word initially [ç] [x] [ɸʷ] [h]
/h/ intervocalically [ʝ] [ɣ] [β] [ɦ]

In many morphological processes, a vowel |i| before another vowel may become the semivowel /j/. Likewise, |u| and |o|, before another vowel, may reduce to /w/. In some dialects and speech registers, the semivowel /w/ assimilates into a following /e/ or /i/ and produces the front rounded vowels [ø] and [y].

Consonant Assimilation Edit

As noted above, tenuis stops and /h/ are voiced after the voiced consonants /m, n, ŋ, l/, and the resulting voiced [ɦ] tends to be elided. Tenuis stops become fortis after obstruents (which, as noted above, are reduced to [k̚, t̚, p̚]); that is, /kt/ is pronounced [k̚t͈]. Fortis and nasal stops are unaffected by either environment, though /n/ assimilates to /l/ after an /l/. After /h/, tenuis stops become aspirated, /s/ becomes fortis, and /n/ is unaffected. /l/ is highly affected: it becomes [n] after all consonants but /n/(which assimilates to the /l/ instead) or another /l/. For example, underlying |tɕoŋlo| is pronounced /tɕɔŋnoː/.

These are all progressive assimilation. Kyakkê also has regressive (anticipatory) assimilation: a consonant tends to assimilate inmanner but not in place of articulation: Obstruents become nasal stops before nasal stops (which, as just noted, includes underlying |l|), but do not change their position in the mouth. Velar stops (that is, all consonants pronounced [k̚] in final position) become [ŋ]; coronals ([t̚]) become [n], and labials ([p̚]) become [m]. For example, |hankyokmal| is pronounced /hankyoŋmal/ (phonetically [hankçuŋmal]).

A final /h/ assimilates in both place and manner, so that |hC|is pronounced as a geminate (and, as noted above, aspirated if C is a stop). The two coronal sonorants, /n/ and /l/, in whichever order, assimilate to /l/, so that both |nl| and |ln| are pronounced [lː].

When adding suffixes and two consonants are placed next to each other as in |tangkon| and |nyê| the two consonants merge and are written as one consonant. Thus |tangkon-nyê| is written |tangkonyê|.

PhonotacticsEdit

Kyakkê syllable structure is maximally /CGVC/, where /G/ is a glide/j, w/. Any consonant except /ŋ/ may occur initially, but only /p, t, k, m, n, ŋ, l/ may occur finally. Sequences of two consonants may occur between vowels, as outlined above. However, morphemes may also end in CC clusters, which are both expressed only when they are followed by a vowel. When the morpheme is not suffixed, one of the consonants is not expressed; if there is a /h/, which cannot appear in final position, it will be that. Otherwise it will be a coronal consonant, and if the sequence is two coronals, the voiceless one (/s, t, tɕ/) will drop, and /n/ or /l/ will remain. Thus, no sequence reduces to [t̚] in final position.

Sequence ks lk nj nh ls lt lh ps lp lm
Medial Allophone [k̚s] [lk] [ntɕ] [n(ɦ)] [ls] [lt] [l(ɦ)] [p̚s] [lp] [lm]
Final Allophone [k̚] [n] [l] [p̚] [m]

Stress Edit

Stress in Kyakkê usually falls on the first syllable, with the following exceptions:

  • Many loanwords, especially proper names, keep their original stress. E.g. Obama /ʔɔˈpaː.ma/
  • In form two verb stems with stress on the end of the stem

Moreover, Kyakkê makes a distinction in stress between separable prefixes (stress on prefix) and inseparable prefixes (stress on root) in verbs and words derived from such verbs. Therefore:

  • Words beginning with {separable prefixes} receive stress on the second syllable.
  • Words having {adverb prefixes} as verb prefix, and most other prepositional adverbs receive stress on their first syllable.
  • Some prefixes, notably {prefixes}, can function as separable or inseparable prefixes, and are stressed and unstressed accordingly.

Vowel reduction occurs to tense vowels in unstressed syllables usually reduce to [ə] for [iː, eː, yː, øː] and [ɐ] for [aː, uː, oː] when . With these exceptions:

Vowel Harmony Edit

The Kyakkê language has strong vowel harmony not only do the inflectional and derivational affixes (such as postpositions) change in accordance to the main root vowel, but words also adhered to vowel harmony. There are three classes of vowels in Kyakkê: positive, negative, and neutral. The vowel classes loosely follow the negative and positive vowels; they also follow orthography. Exchanging positive vowels with negative vowels usually creates different nuances of meaning, with positive vowels sounding diminutive and negative vowels sounding crude.

Positive - light vowels a ya o wa yo
ê î
Negative - dark vowels ô u wo yu
e ye wi we
Neutral - center vowels i

Writing SystemEdit

Letter m n ng p t k pp tt kk s h j
Sound /m/ /n/ /ŋ/ /p~b/ /t~d/ /k~g/ /p͈/ /t͈/ /k͈/ /s~z/ /h~ɦ/ /ts~dz/
Letter jj w y l
Sound /t͈s/ /w/ /j/ /l~ɾ/
Letter i e ê
Sound /ɪ-iː/ /ɛ-eː/ /ɛː/

GrammarEdit

For this section there will be Kyakkê romanization (written inside brackets [ ]) and IPA transcriptions (written inside slashes / /).

Morphological type Edit

All varieties of Kyakkê are very regular agglutinative languages, as opposed to isolating or fusional ones. Their normal sentence order is SOV (subject–object–verb). Their large number of suffixes changes both the overall significance of words and their subtle shades of meaning. Notable grammatical features include an intricate set of honorifics and speech levels, animacy levels affecting word order and conjugation, evidentiality (indication of the source and veracity of knowledge), and a set of topic particles.

Root FormationEdit

The basis for Kyakkê nouns are roots which are the smallest unit of independent meaning in the language. Roots usually consist of some variation on a primary morpheme which may be modulated by other secondary morphemes. For example, the morpheme for "water" is [jwî] which can be modulated into "ice" [jwîpê] from [jwî], "water" and [pe], "cold" or "frozen".

Nouns Edit

Kyakkê noun template
Slots Stem Modifiers
ROOT number.case case derivations
0 +2 +3

Nouns in Kyakkê have an innate number and case which can be declined using suffixes. These innate states are called [Yepulusit sôngyeti] /jebʊɾʊsɪt̚ søːŋjetɕɪ/. These true roots can be either singular, plural or mass and ergative or accusative (no nouns are innately absolutive). The four Yepulusit sôngyeti are noun classes mainly determined by the animacy level of the noun.

Kyakkê uses a system of marking number, called inverse number (or number toggling). In this scheme, every countable noun has what is called its "inherent" numbers, and is unmarked for these. When a noun appears in an "inverse" (atypical) number, it is inflected to mark this. Nouns take the ending -tal to denote an inverse number. In general these suffixes are not used when the plurality of the noun is clear from context. For example, while the English sentence "there are three apples" would use the plural "apples" instead of the singular "apple", the Kyakkê sentence [ ] " " keeps the word [kwoping] "apple" in its unmarked form, as the numeral makes the plural marker redundant.

Yepulusit sôngyeti
Class (Animacy) Number Case
I (Animate nouns)                    Singular Ergative
II (Some Inanimate)    Plural Ergative
III (Other Inanimate) Singular Accusative
IV (Mass)                   n/a Accusative

Kyakkê uses a similar method to inverse number for its case system. Each noun has an innate unmarked case and is marked by suffixes when the noun is used in a non-innate case. Kyakkê is a tripartite language meaning there are separate cases for the agent of a transitive verb, the patient of a transitive verb, and the single argument of an intransitive verb.

  • the agent of a transitive verb takes the ergative case marked by [kon]
  • the object of a transitive verb takes the accusative case marked by [kit]
  • the single argument of an intransitive verb takes the absolutive case marked by [sat]

Cases are always marked if the noun is not innately marked with the correct case. For example, [

The most basic, fundamental Kyakkê vocabulary is native to the Kyakkê language, e.g. sule (country), nal (day). However, a large body of Kyakkê nouns stem from the Kyakkê pronunciation of Hya characters e.g. top, "mountain," mal, "station,"  soyî, "culture", etc. Many Hya-Kyakkê words have native Kyakkê equivalents and vice versa, but not always. The choice of whether to use a Hya-Kyakkê noun or a native Kyakkê word is a delicate one, with the Hya-Kyakkê alternative often sounding more profound or refined. It is in much the same way that Latin- or French-derived words in English are used in higher-level vocabulary sets (e.g. the sciences), thus sounding more refined – for example, the Anglo-Saxon "ask" versus Romance "inquire".

Words based on Earth oriented things such as specific animals, plants and phenomena are primary loaned to Kyakkê from English and Chinese.

Noun roots accept suffixes that indicate person (defining of possession, not identity), number, and case. In general, the order is number, case, personal. In southern dialects (Ttyîl, Jjada) and some western island dialects (primarily Munh) however, the order is reversed. From variety to variety, suffixes may change.

Examples using the word wasi (house)
Function Suffix (stnd. harmony) Example English (translation)
number suffix inverse -tal wasital

pwotatal

houses

grape

possessive suffix 1.person singular -ya wasiya my house
2.person singular -yeki wasiyeki your house
3.person singular

(restricted use)

-nê wasinê his/her/its house
1.person plural (incl) -sola wasisola our house (incl)
1.person plural (excl) -sol-yî wasisolyî our house (incl)
2.person plural -jo-lat wasijolat you all's house
3.person plural -n-kkê wasinkkê their house
case suffix ergative -kon pwotakon the house (agent)
accusative -kit wasikit the house (object)
absolutive -sat wasisat the house (single argument)
instrumental -wan wasiwan with the house, and the house
abessive -mak wasimak without the house
dative -pyo wasipyo to the house
genitive -p(a) wasip of the house
causative -lyangko wasilyangko because of the house
benefactive -ppak wasippak for the house
locative -nge wasinge at the house
directional -mwîn wasimwîn towards the house
inclusive -ppyonl wasippyonl including the house
terminative up to the house
transitive through the house
ablative off/from the house
comitative along with the house
immediate first the house
intrative among the houses
exclusive only the house
comparative than the house

Pronouns Edit

In Kyakkê, there are fourteen basic pronouns, formed around first, second, and third person and singular and plural each with an informal and honorific form. Kyakkê has two first-person plural pronouns ("we" in English). One is called the inclusive, which is used if the speaker wishes to include the addressee ("we and you"). The other form is called the exclusive, which is used when the addressee is excluded ("we without you"). Kyakkê also adds the suffix -tal to the second and third person singular pronouns tangso and tangkon to create the plural forms, tangsotal and tangkontal.

The Kyakkê language makes extensive use of speech levels and honorifics in its grammar, and Kyakkê pronouns also change depending on the social distinction between the speaker and the person or persons spoken to.

In general, speakers of Kyakkê avoid using second person singular pronouns, especially when using honorific forms.

Singular Plural
First Person jô, jônye Inclusive jôjik, jônyejik
Exclusive jôyuji, jônyeyuji
Second Person tangso, tangsonyê tangsotal, tangsonyêtal
Third Person (restricted use in certain modern literary genres) tangkon, tangkonyê tangkontal, tangkonyêtal

For each pronoun there is a humble/honorific and an informal form for first and second person. In the above table, the first pronoun given is the humble one, which one would use when speaking to someone older or of high social status. tangso is also sometimes used as the Kyakkê equivalent of "dear" as a form of address. Also, whereas uses of other humble forms are straightforward, tangso must be used only in specific social contexts, such as between two married partners. In that way, it can be used in an ironic sense when used between strangers, usually during arguments and confrontations. It is worth noting that tangso is also an honorific third-person pronoun, used to refer to one's social superior who is not present.

Honorific nouns Edit

When talking about someone superior in status, a speaker or writer must indicate the subject's superiority by using special nouns or verb endings. Generally, someone is superior in status if he or she is an older relative, a stranger of roughly equal or greater age, an employer, a teacher, a customer, or the like. Someone is equal or inferior in status if he or she is a younger stranger, a student, an employee or the like. The use of wrong speech levels or diction is likely to be considered insulting, depending on the degree of difference between the used form and the expected form.

One way of using honorifics is to use special "honorific" nouns in place of regular ones. A common example is using jinje instead of pal for "food". Often, honorific nouns are used to refer to relatives. The honorific suffix -kyo is affixed to many kinship terms to make them honorific. Thus, someone may address his own grandmother as somano but refer to someone else's grandmother as somanokyo.

Base noun Honorific English translation
sêlêmano sêlêmanokyo grandfather
somano somanokyo grandmother
father
mother
a male's older brother
a male's older sister
a female's older brother
a female's older sister
son
daughter

VerbsEdit

Classification of verbs Edit

Kyakkê verbs are typically classified into four categories: action, state (or description), existential, and the copulas.

  • Action or processive verbs involve some action or internal movement.
  • Stative or descriptive verbs are sometimes called adjectives.
  • Existential verbs convey the existence of something, or its presence in a particular location or a particular being's possession.
  • Copulative verbs allow a non-verb to take verbal endings. In Korean this category was created for the affirmative and negative copula.

There are two broad ways of classifying Kyakkê verbal root structures. They are: Pyalaswotê and Atamyoswotê. But some roots are Upsayaswotê i.e. they are affixed as Pyalaswotê as well as Atamyoswotê roots.

Based on how the present stem is generated from the verb root, Kyakkê has ten kango or classes of verbs divided into two broad groups: athematic and thematic. The thematic verbs are so called because an a (ô), called the theme vowel, is inserted between the stem and the ending. This serves to make the thematic verbs generally more regular. Exponents used in verb conjugation include prefixes, suffixes and infixes.

The ten classes were as follows:

Form 1 - yepuluje

Considered the root of the verb, form 1 is almost never used in speech because the roots is not grammatically independent.

Theme Class Example Meaning
thematic jyong bear
athematic nyeng die

Form 2 -

Built on form 1 by adding the suffix -ya to the form 1 verb.

Theme Class Example Meaning
thematic jyong -> jyongaya to bear
athematic nyeng -> nyekyô to die

The infinitive of the verb used with auxiliary verbs.

Form 3 -

Built on form 1 by adding the suffix -ja to the verb.

Theme Class Example Meaning
thematic hêlik -> hêlikaja collect -> amass
athematic nyeng -> nyengyejô die -> kill

The causative form of the verb (to die -> to cause to die e.g. to kill)

Example Thematic Description Example Athematic Description

1.

jyong "bear" -∅ nyeng "die" -∅
2. infinitive jyongaya "to bear" -ya nyenge "to die"
3. causative jyongaja "to impose" -ja nyejyeng "to kill" duplicate last nucleus and insert -j between the duplication (duplication may merge with other nuclei)
4. reflexive jyongako "to bear oneself" -ko nukuyeng "to commit suicide" usual insertion of -oko after initial onset
5. mutual jyongasa "to bear each other" - sa nyesôngô "to kill each other" insert -sa before final coda and -a after final coda

Kyakkê verbs are conjugated. Every verb form in Kyakkê has two parts: a verb stem, simple or expanded, plus a sequence of inflectional suffixes. Verbs can be quite long because of all the suffixes that mark grammatical contrasts.

A Kyakkê verb root is bound, meaning that it never occurs without at least one suffix. These suffixes are numerous but regular and ordered. Grammatical categories of verb suffixes include voice (active, middle, or passive), tense (past, present, or future), aspect (of an action – complete, experienced, repeated, or continuing), honorification (appropriate choice of suffix following language protocol), evidentiality (non-visual, inferential, hearsay, direct knowledge) and clause-final conjunctives or sentence enders chosen from various speech styles and types of sentences such as interrogative, declarative, imperative, and suggestive.

Verbs in Kyakkê also have innate states called "Yepulusit kôngyeti" which are based on voice (active, middle, and passive) of the noun. These states are understood to be the state of the verb unless marked as otherwise. The other grammatical features in verbs not described by the "Yepulusit kôngyeti" are always marked for.

Yepulusit kôngyeti
Voice Tense Aspect Evidentiality
Active Present perfective
Middle Present durative
Passive Past perfective

Finite verb endings Edit

Verbs are the most complex part of speech in Kyakkê. Their structure when used as the predicate of a clause is prefix + root + up to seven suffixes, and can be illustrated with a template:

Kyakkê verb template
Slots Prefix Stem Modifiers Conjunctives
negative ROOT derivation voice honorific tense.aspect evidentiality mood
-1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6

II Voice may be active, middle or passive. These often involve a stem change, followed by the suffix i (the spelling of this suffix may change, depending on the stem change of the verb)

III All verbs and adjectives can be converted into an honorific form by adding the infix -si- or -êsi- after the stem and before the ending. Thus, kkwoku, ("to go") becomes kkwosiku. A few verbs have suppletive honorific forms:

Base verb/adjective Regular honorific English translation
kkwoku kkwokusya "go"
sêttwa sêttwasya "receive"
jakta jakêsita "(be) small"
Base verb/adjective Suppletive honorific English translation
itta kyesitta "be"
têsika "drink"
jyuke têsika "eat"
jyuke keluke "eat"
jwijjwa yetuka "sleep"
pakejye sijanghasika "be hungry"

A few verbs have suppletive humble forms, used when the speaker is referring to him/herself in polite situations. These include têlika and olika for (kyêka, "give"). têlika is substituted for kyêka when the latter is used as an auxiliary verb, while (olika, literally "raise up") is used for kyêka in the sense of "offer".

Action Verbs

Adjectival Verbs Edit

Negative Prefixes Edit

A verb is typically negated in Kyakkê by using a suppletive negative form, if it exists, or by putting a negative prefix in front of it.

There are two possible negative prefixes, mot, and an(i). mot is used for when a person or animate being subject tries to accomplish an action, that is, begins and is unable to finish it successfully. an(i) is a more common negative which is used in all other instances. The two prefixes are mutually exclusive.

The infinitive forms (unconjugated) have the suffix -ya (mojja= "kiss"; mojjaya = "to kiss"). These are the endings for the indicative:

Speech Levels Edit

There are seven verb paradigms or speech levels in Kyakkê, and each level has its own unique set of verb endings which are used to indicate the level of formality of a situation. Unlike "honorifics" – which are used to show respect towards someone mentioned in a sentence – speech levels are used to show respect towards a speaker's or writer's audience, or reflect the formality or informality of the situation.

The names of the seven levels are derived from the non-honorific imperative form of the verb hata (to do) in each level, plus the suffix , which means "style". Each Korean speech level can be combined with honorific or non-honorific noun and verb forms. Taken together, there are 14 combinations.

These days, some of these speech levels are disappearing from use in everyday life. { }, which is used only in movies or dramas set in older eras, is barely used by modern Kyakkês, and { } exists almost only in novels.

Grammatical Mood Edit

Indicative

Declarative - doesn't use of evidentiality -tîk

Subjunctive

Conditional

Imperative

Potential

Interrogative

Evidentiality Edit

The Kyakkê language have three different morphemes that mark evidentiality. Evidentiality refers to a morpheme whose primary purpose is to indicate the source of information. In the Kyakkê language, evidentiality is a three-term system: there are three evidential morphemes that mark varying levels of source information. The markers can apply to the first, second, and third persons.

Evidential Morphmemes Example verb Gloss
nonvisual sensory jwojê-ingê -> jwojêngê burned

[speaker felt the sensation]

inferential jwojê-inê -> jwojênê must have burned

[speaker saw circumstantial evidence]

hearsay (reportative) jwojê-lê -> jwojêlê burned, they say

[speaker is reporting what was told]

direct knowledge jwojê-ha -> jwojêha burned

[speaker has direct evidence, probably visual]

SyntaxEdit

voice constructions

negative constructions

LexiconEdit

Lexical trends

see full lexicon at [1]

Example textEdit

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