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Läd̛âng

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Name: Läd̛âng

Type: Isolating

Alignment: Nominative-accusative

Head Direction: Initial

Number of genders: 2

Declensions: No

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


General informationEdit

Läd̛âng (pronounced [lādʰâŋ]) is a language isolate that is spoken almost exclusively on an island 200mi (500km) of the southern most tip of Vietnam.

Phonology and orthographyEdit

Läd̛âng has a fairly complex phonological system, especially for native speakers of English. This is mainly due to the tonal system and nasal vowels, but also because of the distinction between aspirated and non-aspirated consonants.

ConsonantsEdit

There are twenty-nine consonants in Läd̛âng. Plosive consonants have aspirated counterparts that are counted as separate letters, as is the digraph "ng".

B b : [b] voiced bilabial plosive

B̛ b̛ : [bʰ] aspirated voiced bilabial plosive

C c : [x] voiceless velar fricative

D d : [d] voiced alveolar plosive

D̛ d̛ : [dʰ] aspirated voiced alveolar plosive

H h : [ɣ] voiced velar fricative

G g : [g] voiced velar plosive

G̛ g̛ : [gʰ] aspirated voiced velar plosive

J j : [j] palatal approximant

K k : [k] voiceless velar plosive

K̛ k̛ : [kʰ] aspirated voiceless velar plosive

M m : [m] bilabial nasal

N n : [n] alveolar nasal

NG ng : [ŋ] nasal velar

P p : [p] voiceless bilabial plosive

P̛ p̛ : [pʰ] aspirated voiceless bilabial plosive

R r : [ɽ͡r] retroflex trill

S s : [s] voiceless alveolar sibilant

Š š : [ʃ] voiceless palato-alveolar fricative

Ŝ ŝ : [ʂ] voiceless retroflex sibilant

Ś ś : [ɕ] voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative

T t : [t] voiceless alveolar plosive

T̛ t̛ : [tʰ] aspirated voiceless alveolar plosive

W w : [w] voiced labio-velar approximant

Z z : [z] voiced alveolar fricative

Ž ž : [ʒ] voiced palato-alveolar fricative

Ẑ ẑ : [ʐ] voiced retroflex sibilant

Ź ź : [ʑ] voiced alveolo-palatal fricative

VowelsEdit

Läd̛âng is a tonal language, there are eight "base" vowels and five tones. The eight base vowels are:

A a : [a] open front unrounded vowel

Æ æ : [ə] mid-central vowel

E e : [e] close-mid front unrounded vowel

I i : [i] close front unrounded vowel

O o : [ɔ] open-mid back rounded vowel

Œ œ : [œ] open-mid front rounded vowel

U u : [u] close back rounded vowel

Y y : [y] close front rounded vowel

Tones and nasal vowels are shown by accents. There are six different diacritics used to show these vowel properties, they are:

A table of these vowels is shown below:

A a [a] Æ æ [ə] E e [e] I i [i] O o [ɔ] Œ œ [œ] U u [u] Y y [y]
falling tone  â [â] Æ̂ æ̂ [ə̂] Ê ê [ê] Î î [î] Ô ô [ɔ̂] Œ̂ œ̂ [œ̂] Û û [û] Ŷ ŷ [ŷ]
rising tone Ǎ ǎ [ǎ] Æ̌ æ̌ [ə̌] Ě ě [ě] Ǐ ǐ [ǐ] Ǒ ǒ [ɔ̌] Œ̌ œ̌ [œ̌] Ǔ ǔ [ǔ] Y̌ y̌ [ŷ]
high tone Á á [á] Ǽ ǽ [ə́] É é [é] Í í [í] Ó ó [ɔ́] Œ́ œ́ [œ́] Ú ú [ú] Ý ý [ý]
low tone À à [à] Æ̀ æ̀ [ə̀] È è [è] Ì ì [ì] Ò ò [ɔ̀] Œ̀ œ̀ [œ̀] Ù ù [ù] Ỳ ỳ [ỳ]
mid tone Ä ä [ā] Æ̈ æ̈ [ə̄] Ë ë [ē] Ï ï [ī] Ö ö [ɔ̄] Œ̈ œ̈ [œ̄] Ü ü [ū] Ÿ ÿ [ȳ]
nasalised à ã [ã] Æ̃ æ̃ [ə̃] Ẽ ẽ [ẽ] Ĩ ĩ [ĩ] Õ õ [ɔ̃] Œ̃ œ̃ [œ̃] Ũ ũ [ũ] Ỹ ỹ [ỹ]

AlphabetEdit

There are thirty-six letters in the Läd̛âng alphabet:

A Æ B C D E G H I J K M N NG O Œ P R S Š Ŝ Ś T U W Y Z Ž Ź
a æ b c d e g h i j k m n ng o œ p r s š ŝ ś t u w y z ž ź



Basic grammarEdit

Läd̛âng is an analytical language with two numbers (singular and plural) and two genders (masculine and feminine). The language lacks grammatical cases and verbs are not conjugated apart from for tense.

Masculine nouns end in a, b, , c, d, , e, g, , h, i, k, , ng, p, , r, t or .

Ending Singular Plural
-a, -e, -i éhòrä (family) éhòrün
-b, -b̛, -p, -p̛, òb (sea) òběm
-d, -d̛, -t, -t̛ kûlät (army) kûlätæ̌m
-c, -h jãc (fish) jãcỳng
-g, -g̛, -k, -k̛ mük (egg) mükáng
-ng źông (river) źôngäm
-r kár (fire) kárém

Feminine nouns end in æ, j, m, n, o, œ, s, š, ŝ, ś, u, w, y, z, ž, or ź.

Ending Singular Plural
-æ, -o, -œ, -u, -y ćæ̃ (bird) ćæ̃näm
-j, -w dáj (table) dájông
-m, -n
-s, -z
-š, -ŝ, -ś
-ž, -ẑ, -ź

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