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Lôppic

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Name: Lôppic

Type: Fusional

Alignment: Nominative-accusative

Head Direction: Final (occasionally initial)

Number of genders: 3

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Lôppic
lôpizô tařak
Spoken in: Kihāmát
Region: North America
Total speakers: 900,094 (native)
Ranking:
Genetic classification: Panlaffic languages
Official status
Official language in: Kihāmát
Regulated by: The Kihā́mmic Institute of Language and Linguistics
Language codes
ISO 639-1 lp
ISO 639-2 lpi
SIL lpi
See also: LanguageLists of languages

General informationEdit

The Lôppic language (Lôppic Latin: Lô lôpizô tařak, pronounced [ˈlo loˈpizo ˈtaʁɐk]) is the main language spoken on the Island of Laāláûī, in the country of Kihāmát, and is recognised as the island's official regional language. An inflected fusional nominative-accusative language, Lôppic has two numbers, three genders and seven cases. The language is the second most spoken in the country after Kihā́mmic and both belong to the isolated Panlaffic language family, indigenous to the country's eight islands. There are five extant Panlaffic languages other than Lôppic and Kihā́mmic.

Phonology and orthographyEdit

Lôppic can be written in either both traditional Panlaffic script or in the Standardised Romanised Panlaffic Alphabet. For ease of use the Romanised alphabet is used below.

ConsonantsEdit

P p : [p] voiceless bilabial plosive

L l : [l] alveolar lateral approximant, [ɫ] velarised alveolar lateral approximant (before another consonant)

M m : [m] bilabial nasal, [ɱ] labiodental nasal (before f and v)

N n : [n] alveolar nasal, [ŋ] velar nasal (before g and k)

D d : [d] voiced alveolar plosive

H h : [h] voiceless glottal fricative, [ɦ] voiced glottal fricative (before y and between two vowels)

Ȟ ȟ : [ç] voiceless palatal fricative

K k : [k] voiceless velar plosive

Ǩ ǩ : [x] voiceless velar fricative

R r : [ɹ] alveolar approximant (at the start of a word), [ɾ] alveolar tap

Ř ř : [ʁ] voiced uvular fricative

B b : [b] voiced bilabial plosive, [β] voiced bilabial fricative (between two vowels)

V v : [ʋ] labiodental approximant

Z z : [z] voiced alveolar fricative

Ž ž : [ʒ] voiced palato-alveolar fricative

F f : [f] voiceless labiodental fricative

G g : [ɡ] voiced velar plosive, [ɣ] voiced velar fricative (between two vowels)

S s : [s] voiceless alveolar sibilant

Š š : [ʃ] voiceless palato-alveolar fricative

Č č : [t͡ʃ] voiceless palato-alveolar affricate

T t : [t] voiceless alveolar plosive

Y y : [j] palatal approximant

VowelsEdit

A a : [a] open front unrounded vowel, [ɐ] near-open central vowel (semi-unstressed), [ə] mid central vowel (unstressed)

Ā ā : [ɑː] long open back unrounded vowel, [ɑ] open back unrounded vowel (unstressed)

à ã : [ɐ̃] nasalised near-open central vowel

E e : [ɛ] open-mid front unrounded vowel, [e] close-mid front unrounded vowel (stressed at the end of a word), [ə] mid central vowel (unstressed)

Ẽ ẽ : [ẽ] nasalised close-mid front unrounded vowel

O o : [ɒ] open back rounded vowel, [ə] mid central vowel (unstressed)

Ô ô : [o] close-mid back rounded central vowel, [ə] mid central vowel (unstressed)

Ō ō : [ɔː] long open-mid back rounded vowel, [ɔ] open-mid back rounded vowel (unstressed)

Õ õ : [õ] nasalised close-mid back rounded central vowel

I i : [i] close front unrounded vowel, [ɪ] near-close near-front unrounded vowel (semi-unstressed), [ɪ̈] near-close central unrounded vowel (unstressed)

Ī ī : [iː] long close front unrounded vowel, [i] close front unrounded vowel (unstressed)

Ĩ ĩ : [ɛ̃] nasalised open-mid front unrounded vowel

U u : [ʊ] near-close near-back rounded vowel, [ʊ̈] near-close central rounded vowel (unstressed)

Û û : [u] close back rounded vowel, [ʊ̈] near-close central rounded vowel (unstressed)

Ū ū : [uː] long close back rounded vowel, [u] close back rounded vowel (unstressed)

Ũ ũ : [ũ] nasalised close back rounded vowel

DigraphsEdit

LY ly : [ʎ] palatal lateral approximant

NY ny : [ɲ] palatal nasal

DZ dz : [d͡z] voiced alveolar affricate

DS ds : [d͡z] voiced alveolar affricate

DY dy : [ɟ] voiced palatal plosive

DŽ dž : [d͡ʒ] voiced palato-alveolar affricate

KG kg : [kː] geminated voiceless velar plosive

GK gk : [gː] geminated voiced velar plosive

TZ tz : [t͡s] voiceless alveolar affricate

TS ts : [t͡s] voiceless alveolar affricate

TY ty : [c] voiceless palatal plosive

Vowel stressEdit

Depending on whether or not a vowel is stressed in Lôppic, its pronunciation may change, just as in English, Portuguese and Russian. Stressed means that the vowel is a primary or strong secondary stress point, semi-stressed means that it neighbours a stress point, unstressed means that there is at least one other vowel between it and a stress point. The table below shows how pronunciation may change according to stress:

Stressed Semi-stressed Unstressed
A a [a] [ɐ] [ə]
Ā ā [ɑː] [ɑˑ]
à ã [ɐ̃]
E e [ɛ], [e] [ə]
Ẽ ẽ [ẽ]
O o [ɒ] [ə]
Ô ô [o] [ə]
Ō ō [ɔː] [ɔˑ] [ɔ]
Õ õ [õ]
I i [i] [ɪ] [ɪ̈]
Ī ī [iː] [iˑ] [i]
Ĩ ĩ [ɛ̃]
U u [ʊ] [ʊ̈]
Û û [u] [ʊ̈]
Ū ū [uː] [uˑ] [u]
Ũ ũ [ũ]

AlphabetEdit

Coat of Arms (transparent)

The Kihā́mmic Coat of Arms

All the Panlaffic languages have traditionally been written in the Panlaffic alphabet, Lôppic using a specific variant, but nowadays chiefly due to the Internet the Romanised alphabet is gaining use. Unlike in Kihā́mmic the stresses of word are not indicated with stress marks.

Panlaffic alphabetEdit

The Panlaffic alphabet is a true alphabet. An example of its use is on the Coat of Arms of Kihāmát (left). The word on the scroll spells "Kihāmát" in the Kihā́mmic variant of the alphabet. Though the alphabet formerly had both majuscule and minuscule cases, only the majuscule is now generally used and the minuscule is no longer used at all in any official context.

Romanised alphabetEdit

P L A Ā Ã M N E D H Ȟ K Ǩ O Ô Ō Õ R Ř B I Ī Ĩ V Z Ž F G S Š Č U Û Ū Ũ T Y
p l a ā ã m n e d h ȟ k ǩ o ô ō õ r ř b i ī ĩ v z ž f g s š č u û ū ũ t y



Basic grammarEdit

OverviewEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No No
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Participles Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No Yes Yes


CasesEdit

There are seven cases in the Lôppic language:

  1. Nominative
  2. Accusative
  3. Genitive
  4. Ablative
  5. Allative (or dative-allative)
  6. Instrumental
  7. Prepositional

NounsEdit

Nouns have three genders: masculine, feminine and neuter; two numbers: singular and plural; and are declined according to case.

MasculineEdit

SingularEdit

Masculine nouns end in a consonant, -ô and -õ.

nominative hot (building) ônô (moon) ačõ (church)
accusative hota ônô ačõ
genitive hotī ônī ačõnī
ablative hota ôna ačõna
allative hotô ônôn ačõnô
instrumental hotû ônû ačõnû
prepositional hote ône ačõne







PluralEdit

Pluralisation in masculine nouns adds the infix -am- or -m-, some nouns add -an- or -n- instead.

nominative hotam ônamô ačamõ
accusative hotama ônamôm ačamõm
genitive hotamī ônamī ačamõnī
ablative hotama ônama ačamõna
allative hotamô ônamôn ačamõnô
instrumental hotamû ônamû ačamõnû
prepositional hotame ôname ačamõne







FeminineEdit

SingularEdit

Feminine nouns end in -a, -ã, -e and -.

nominative lafa (grass) grã (war) fāve (wind) aǩẽ (planet)
accusative lafai grãu fāvei aǩẽu
genitive lafī grĩ fāvī aǩĩ
ablative lafan grãna fāva aǩã
allative lafô grõ fāvô aǩõ
instrumental lafû grũ fāvû aǩũ
prepositional lafe grẽ fāven aǩẽn







PluralEdit

Pluralisation in feminine nouns adds the infix -m- or -am-. Some nouns add -n- or -an- instead.

nominative lafma gramã fāvme aǩmẽ
accusative lafmai gramãu fāvmei aǩmẽu
genitive lafmī gramĩ fāvmī aǩmĩ
ablative lafman gramãna fāvma aǩmã
allative lafmô gramõ fāvmô aǩmõ
instrumental lafmû gramũ fāvmû aǩmũ
prepositional lafme gramẽ fāvmen aǩmẽn







NeuterEdit

SingularEdit

Neuter nouns end in -û, -ũ-ī and -ĩ.

nominative čû (eye) dāžũ (god) takī (bone) haskĩ (part)
accusative čû dāžũ takī haskĩ
genitive čī dāžĩ takīn haskĩn
ablative ča dāžã taka haskã
allative čô dāžõ takô haskõ
instrumental čûn dāžũn takû haskũ
prepositional če dāžẽ take haskẽ







PluralEdit

Pluralisation in neuter nouns adds the infix -tr- or -atr-. Some nouns add -dr- or -adr- instead.

nominative čatrû (eye) dāžtrũ (god) taktrī (bone) haskatrĩ (part)
accusative čatrû dāžtrũ taktrī haskatrĩ
genitive čatrī dāžtrĩ taktrīn haskatrĩn
ablative čatra dāžtrã taktra haskatrã
allative čatrô dāžtrõ taktrô haskatrõ
instrumental čatrûn dāžtrũn taktrû haskatrũ
prepositional čatre dāžtrẽ taktre haskatrẽ







Diminutives and augmentativesEdit

Diminutives add -ũn(a/û) unless the word ends in a vowel, in which case add -ǩũn(a/û).

Augmentatives add -ãt(a/û) but add -mãt(a/û) when the word ends in a vowel.

Adjectives do not change according to diminutives or augmentatives.

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