|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
|Progress||Expression error: Unexpected < operator.%|
Lúthnaek, natively lúþnaek ['lÿːθn̥aɛk] is a North Germanic posteriori artlang, created in 2015 by Ludvig Lind.
Classification and DialectsEdit
North Germanic posteriori artlang. Can be divided into Standard Lúthnaek and Northern Lúthnaek.
|Nasal||(m̥) m||(ɱ)||(n̼̊ n̼)||n̥ n||(ɳ̊)||(ŋ̊)|
|Plosive||p b||t d||(ʈ)||k g|
|Fricative||f v||θ ð||s||ɕ||ʂ||x ɣ|
|Flap or tap||(ɾ̥ ɾ)|
|Lateral app.||l̥ l||(ɭ̊)|
Consonants within parentheses are allophones.
The unvoiced nasals, approximants, trills, and laterals occur when right before or after another voiceless consonant, or written with a h right before it.
Vowels within parentheses are allphones.
All phonemic vowels, except [ə], have a long counterpart.
If the vowel is followed by two consonants, it's short; otherwise it's long. Y is the exception, as the accent decides its length.
- au /aw/
- ei, ej /ej/
- ó /ow/
- æ /aj/
- ae /aːə/
- œ /wɛ/
- oe /owɛ/
The stress is always on the first syllable.
Lúthnaek has quite loose phonotactics, but the closest representation would be (C)(C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)(C).
|Sound||k||l̥ l ɽ||m̥ m||n̥ n||o||ow||p||r̥ r||s||t||θ ð||u|
The order of the alphabet is Aa Áá Bb Dd Ðð Ee Éé Ff Gg Hh Ii Íí Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Óó Pp Rr Ss Tt Þþ Uu Úú Vv Yy Ýý Zz Öö Ææ (Œœ).
Double t (tt) and double k (kk) stops the voicing of the preceding vowel a bit before the upcoming consonant; /ht/, /hk/.
There are two grammatical genders: animate and inanimate. The rule is typically "If it's a living creature/organism— or part of one, it's animate. All else are inanimate." The only official exception to the rule is the word for life, which is in the animate gender even though it is an inanimate concept. Note that if a living creature has died it's no longer in the animate gender, so a corpse is considered inanimate.
A noun is conjugated into plural by adding -ar to the end of the word. Words that end with -a removes the a and adds -ur instead. Words that end with -u removes the -u and adds -ir instead.
In definite form the noun adds -in to the end of the word. Words that end with -a or -ur just add an -n. Words that end with -u add -ni in singular and -na in plural.
Lúthnaek uses a noun case system, but only on nouns with the definitive suffix. The endings decline in four cases: nominative, accusative, dative, and genetive. All verbs declines the object into the accusative case, and the prepositions kla, við, and im. All prepositions, except the previously mentioned and þu, decline the objects into the dative case. Only the preposition þu decline objects into the genetive case. If the subject is in motion towards the object, it's declined into the accusative case, regardless of preposition.
The infinitive form of a verb usually ends with a consonant, not always, but is nevertheless the root.
In present tense a vowel is usually added to the end of the root, which usually are a, e, i, or u.
In past tense, -þe is added to the end of the root.
In perfect tense, -þa is added to the end of the root.
In pluperfect tens, -du is added to the end of the root.
Lúthnaek distinguishes between definite and indefinite future tense; definite future is an action that will definitely or within short happen, indefinite future is an action that will maybe or on a condition happen. It can be compared a bit with English will and going to. Definite future is produced by adding o to the end of the root, indefinite future is produced by adding -i to the end of the root.
In conditional tense the relevant tense ending is added upon the future tense -o.
In future perfect tense (I will have...) the future ending is placed as a standalone word before the verb with the perfect tense ending.
In progressive form, -þa is placed at the beginning of the root. This is only used in the present tense though.
Imperative is produced by adding the present tense vowel plus an r to the end of the root.
In passive form and s is added to the end of the verb.
The present participle is made by adding akþ/arkþ pl. akþa/arkþa to the end of the root.
The past participle is made by adding akk/ark pl. akka/arka to the end of the root.
An adjective can have different endings depending on what gender the described nouns has. Those endings are typically g for animate and n for inanimate, though this is far from all adjectives, since most of them are irregular. The indefinite singular article is yr/yri.
In definite form an -e is added to the end of the root. There is also an added article, which is agh/anh pl. agha/anha.
In plural an -a is added to the end of the root. There is not difference between indefinite plural and definite plural.
The comparative form is -rl or -irl depending on the pronunciability of it.
The superlative form is -þ or -iþ depending on the pronunciability of it.
If you want to turn a noun into an adjective you add yj/yjn pl. yja/yjna to the end of the root.
An adverb looks the same as an adjective, but with -sj at the end of the root.
The syntax is relatively free, but conventionally identical to Swedish, Norwegian, or Danish syntax— SVO; though becomes SOV in dependent clauses.
E truek ja Guð Faþr hélmasjtyj,
Hejleminz eþ fvyldinz káþor.
E truek osj ja Jésus Krisþus,
yrlg ónbernakke saun, egþeg jarl,
hvilþ bréðakk œ ort aghi Heilyje Unðejinum
bernakk ort Junþom María,
poenakk iþ Pontíus Pílaþus,
krozspeikakk, öurd, eþ bedærakk,
þonsjoakk þu öurdríkinz,
ja anhi þrakyþe þasjinum jaztaþakk afvraln irnfra anhi öurde,
jasjoakk þu Hejleminz,
sittjakþ ja Guð Faþrz hojre sýða,
ferirnfra afvralnrésjakþ þu ky ðejm gevrakþ ok öurda.
E truek osj ja aghi Heilyje Unðejinum,
yri heilyjn, hellarþyjn hal,
öghum heilyjaz ylstivt, sindanumz tregivran,
önhum öurdaz jaztaþel ok yr eifig gévr.
Lúthnaek in other languages Edit
The name for Lúthnaek differs depending on the language that the name is said in: