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Lāngārāndot/Phonology and Orthography

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This page presents the difference between the Porvojy and Sadu dialects of Lāngārāndot.

Porvojy LāngārāndotEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Labial-velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d
Fricative f v θ ð s z ʁ
Affricate t͡ʃ h
Approximant ʃ ʒ j w
Lateral app. l
Flap ɾ


VowelsEdit

Front Back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
Close [i] [y] [u]
Mid [ɛ] [ø~ɪ] [o]
Open [æ] [ɑ]

OrthographyEdit

AlphabetEdit

There are twenty-six letters in the alphabet, including two digraphs (dh and tš). Like most of the language, the alphabet is very straightforward and consistant. There is one digraph (nk) that is not a letter.

Letter IPA Letter Name
A a /ɑ/ a /ɑ/
Ā ā /æ/ ā dhusortby /æ ðusotby/
B b /b/ ba /bɑ/
D d /d/ do /do/
Dh dh /ð/ dhato /ðɑto/
F f /f/ fato /fɑto/
G g /g/ galo /gɑto/
H h /h/ hy /hy/
J j /j/ jum /jum/
K k /k/ kata /kɑtɑ/
L l /l/ lama /lɑmɑ/
M m /m/ mo /mo/
N n /n/ no /no/
O o /o/, /w/ o /o/
Ō ō /ø~ɪ/ ō dhusortby /ø ðusotby/
P p /p/ pun /pun/
R r /dʲ/ rota /dʲotɑ/
S s /s/ sra /sdʲɑ/
Š š /ʃ/ šota /ʃotɑ/
T t /t/ torta /tortɑ/
Tš tš /ʧ/ tšak /ʧɑk/
U u /u/ u /u/
V v /v/ voda /vodɑ/
X x /θ/ xāta /vætɑ/
Y y /y/ yp /yp/
Z z /z/ zāg /zæg/
*Nk nk */ɲk/

The following letters are only used in loanwords: C, E, I, Q, W. These letters only have one pronunciation, no matter how the loanword is pronounced in the original language.

Letter IPA Letter Name
C c /ʒ/ cuj /ʒui/
E e /ɛ/ eto /ɛto/
I i /i/ il /il/
Q q /kw/ qat /kwɑt/
W w /w/ dablu /dɑblu/

PhonotacticsEdit

Consonant digraphs and trigraphs are common and are pronounced according to the IPA. No consonant cluster is extremely difficult to pronounce (i.e. str is common but kvb would not exist).

There are six vowel dipthongs.

Längarandot IPA
oa /wɑ/
ua /uːʔɑ/
oo /wo/
uo /uːʔo/
ou /wu/
uu /yːʔu/
ao /ɑo/

StressEdit

The Porvojy accent stresses the penultimate syllable.

Sadu LāngārāndotEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Labial-velar Uvular Pharyngeal Apical Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d g
Fricative f v θ ð x ħ
Affricate d͡z t͡s t͡ʃ
Approximant ʃ ʒ j w
Lateral app. l ɹ

VowelsEdit

Front Back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
Close [i]

[ĩ]

[y]

[ỹ]

[u]

[ũ]

Mid [ɛ]

[ɛ̃]

[ɪ]

[ɪ̃]

[o]

[õ]

Open [æ]

[æ̃]

[ɑ]

[ɑ̃]


OrthographyEdit

AlphabetEdit

There are twenty-six letters in the alphabet, including two digraphs (dh and tš). Like most of the language, the alphabet is very straightforward and consistant. There is one digraph (nk) that is not a letter.

Letter IPA Letter Name
A a /ɑ/ a /ɑ/
Ä ä /æ/ ä ḋusortby /æ ðusotby/
B b /b/ ba /bɑ/
D d /d/ do /do/
Ḋ ḋ /ð/ ḋato /ðɑto/
F f /f/ fato /fɑto/
G g /ʁ/ galo /ʁɑlo/
H h /ħ/ hy /ħy/
J j /j/ jum /jum/
K k /x/ kata /xɑtɑ/
L l /l/ lama /lɑmɑ/
M m /m/ mo /mo/
N n /ɲ/ no /ɲo/
O o /o/ o /o/
Ö ö /ɪ/ öto /ɪto/
P p /p/ pün /pyn/
R r /ɹ/ rota /ɹotɑ/
S s /ts/ sra /tsɹɑ/
Ṡ ṡ /ʃ/ šota /ʃotɑ/
T t /t/ torta /tortɑ/
Ṫ ṫ /ʧ/ tšak /ʧɑk/
U u /u/ u /u/
Ü ü /y/ üp /yp/
V v /v/ veta /vodɑ/
X x /θ/ xäta /θætɑ/
Z z /dz/ zäg /dzæg/
*Nk nk */ɲk/

The following letters are only used in loanwords: E, I, Q, W, Ž. These letters only have one pronunciation, no matter how the loanword is pronounced in the original language.

Letter IPA Letter Name
E e /ɛ/ eto /ɛto/
I i /i/ il /il/
Q q /kw/ qat /kwɑt/
W w /w/ dablu /dɑblu/
Ž ž /ʒ/ žuj /ʒui/

PhonotacticsEdit

Consonant digraphs and trigraphs are common and are pronounced according to the IPA. No consonant cluster is extremely difficult to pronounce (i.e. str is common but kvb would not exist).

There are six vowel dipthongs.

Längarandot IPA
oa /wɑ/
ua /uːʔɑ/
oo /wo/
uo /uːʔo/
ou /wu/
uu /yːʔu/
ao /ɑo/

There is also one nasal digraph per vowel, indicated with an "m" following the vowel.

StressEdit

The Sadu accent emphasizes the last syllable.

Orthography Conversion ChartEdit

Porvojy Sadu
Ā ā Ä ä
Ō ō Ö ö
Y y Ü ü
Dh dh Ḋ ḋ
Š š Ṡ ṡ
Tš tš Ṫ ṫ
C c Ž ž

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