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Lǔfsata

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Lǔfsata
Lǔfsata
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Tripartite
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
0
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Lǔfsata [ɺɚ̹ˤɸsata] is an agglutinative language with few irregularities spoken as a national language in the kingdom of Lǔfsevias.

Lǔfsata is generally written using the Lǔfsatan alphabet, but it can be accurately transcribed to the Latin alphabet using several romanization methods.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

The standard Ḥevaloma romanization is to the left in brackets; IPA is to the right.
 Bilabial    Bidental Alveolar Alveolo-palatal  Palatal  Velar   Glottal
 Lateral Central
Nasal 〈m〉 m~ŋ
Plosive Voiceless 〈p〉 p 〈t〉 t 〈k〉 k*
Voiced 〈b〉  b 〈d〉 d 〈g〉 ɟ~g
Fricative Glottalic 〈ḥl〉 ˀɬ 〈ḥy〉 ˀç
Voiceless 〈f〉 ɸ 〈fh〉 h̪͆~ʃ 〈hl〉 ɬ 〈s〉 s 〈sy〉 ɕ 〈hy〉 ç 〈h〉 h
Voiced 〈v〉 β 〈vh〉 ɦ̪͆~ʒ 〈z〉 z 〈zy〉 ʑ
Ejective 〈ţ〉 ɸʼ~ɸ͡θʼ~θʼ 〈ş〉 s’
Affricate Voiceless 〈þ〉 p͡θ 〈tl〉 t͡ɬ 〈c〉 t͡s 〈cy〉 t͡ɕ 〈ḥ〉 ʔʰ
Voiced 〈dl〉 d͡ɮ 〈ž〉 d͡z 〈žy〉 d͡ʑ
Ejective 〈ç〉 t͡s’ 〈çy〉 t͡ɕ’
Approximant 〈l〉 l ~ ɺ 〈y〉 j 〈w〉ɰᵝ

















Lǔfsata possesses a moderately large consonant inventory with a considerable amount of fricatives and affricates.

  • /k/ only occurs in loanwords.
  • /p͡θ/ has a wide variety of realizations, including but not limited to /p͡f/, /p͡ɸ/, p̼͡ɸ̼/, and /t̪͡θ/, as well as /pʰ/ in some dialects.
  • Lüfsata possesses a single nasal phoneme pronounced in isolation as /m/ whose realization varies according to surrounding sounds.
    • It is /n/ when preceding /t/, /d/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/, or /t͡s’/ and when following /s/, /z/, /s’/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/, or /t͡s’/.
    • It is /ŋ/ when preceding /k/ or /g/.
    • It is /m/ elsewhere.
  • /l/ is /ɾ/ when following a plosive other than /t/ or /d/.
  • /l/ is /ɺ/ before /ɚ̹ˤ/ and between vowels.
  • /ʔʰ/ is always aspirated and is often analyzed as a glottal affricate.
  • /ʔʰ/ may be /ʔʱ/ or /ɦ/ in a few dialects. In these dialects, the corresponding palatal and lateral fricatives change along with them: /ˀç/ to /ˀʝ/ or /ʝ/, /ˀɬ/ to /ˀɮ/ or /ɮ/.
  • /ɕ’/ is not listed as a phoneme because /s’/ cannot occur in the onset of a syllable, however, this sound does occur when /s’/ and /j/ coincide between syllables (e.g. paşyav [paɕ’aβ] 'hand').
  • /ɰᵝ/ is rounded to /w/ in some dialects and is raised to /ɣᵝ/ at the end of a syllable and before /ɯᵝ/.
  • Sonorants /l/ and /j/ (not /ɰᵝ/, however, as it always occurs alone in the syllable onset) change the pronunciation of several other consonants when immediately following them:
    • /j/ changes glottal consonants as well as alveolar central fricatives and affricates to their palatal (or alveolo-palatal in the case of alveolars) counterparts: e.g. /hj/ to /ç/, /ʔʰj/ to /ˀç/, /sj/ to /ɕ/, /d͡zj/ to /d͡ʑ/, etc.
    • /l/ changes glottal consonants to alveolar laterals and alveolar plosives to lateral affricates: /hl/ to /ɬ/, /ʔʰl/ to /ˀɬ/, /tl/ to /t͡ɬ/, /dl/ to /d͡ɮ/.

VowelsEdit

 Front Central

Back

Close 〈i〉i 〈u〉ɯᵝ
Mid 〈e〉〈ǔ〉ɚ̹ˤ 〈o〉ɤ̞ᵝ
Open 〈a〉a

All diphthongs are permitted with the exception of those beginning with /ɚ̹ˤ/.

The Lǔfsatan vowel system contains six vowels. Open and close vowels are written in the Lǔfsatan alphabet with a single line, and each of them are moved to mid level with the addition of a dot or dash to the Lǔfsatan vowel letter. /i/ and /ɯᵝ/ go through no other changes while /a/ becomes rounded, rhotacized, and pharyngealized (or pronounced with advanced tongue root).

Front Central Back
Non-mid i a ɯᵝ
Mid ɚ̹ˤ ɤ̞ᵝ

PhonotacticsEdit

Lǔfsatan syllable structure can be summarized as follows, in which parentheses enclose optional components:

(C(C)(R))V(V(V))(C)

While a maximum of three vowels can be considered a syllable, there is no maximum of vowels that can occur in succession.

Vowels may be doubled to become long (e.g. sooi [sɤ̞ᵝːi] 'again') Long vowels are considered sequences of short values rather than separate phonemes.

  • Onset
    • First consonant (C): Can be any consonant other than an ejective fricative.
    • Second consonant (C): Can be /ɸ/, /β/, /h/, or /h/ if and only if the first consonant is /s/, /z/, /ɸ/, or /β/ respectively. Thus, the only consonant clusters permitted in the onset that do not contain liquids are /sɸ/, /zβ/, /ɸh/, and /βh/, the latter two of which are realized as /h̪͆/ and /ɦ̪͆/ respectively.
    • Liquid (R): Can be either /l/ or /j/ provided the first consonant is not a voiced approximant.
  • Nucleus
    • First vowel (V): Can be any vowel.
    • Second Vowel (V): Can be any vowel provided the first vowel is not /ɚ̹ˤ/.
    • Third Vowel (V): Can be any vowel provided the second vowel is not /ɚ̹ˤ/.
    • /ji/ cannot occur. /ɰᵝɯᵝ/ is permitted, but is commonly realized as [ɣᵝɯᵝ].
  • Coda
    • Consonant (C) Can be any fricative, affricate, nasal, or approximant with the exception of /h/, /l/, and /j/ as well as all plosives.

It should be noted that consonants, liquids, and vowels refer to what is represented by each Lǔfsatan letter, not to individual phonemes. Example of maximal onset: sflasa /sɸlasa/ ('north')

Example of maximal nucleus: aoev /ʔʰaɤ̞ᵝe̞β/ ('behind')

Example of maximal coda: com /t͡sɤ̞ᵝm/ ('person')

Writing SystemsEdit

RomanizationEdit

Lǔfsata uses three (potentially four) different methods of romanization available for use depending on access to special characters and the target audience's familiarity with the language.

ḤevalomaEdit

Ḥevaloma (lit. 'Roman characters') is the most commonly used method of romanizing Lǔfsata. It is a one-to-one romanization of each Lǔfsatan letter.

Pyǔhiza ḤevalomaEdit

Pyǔhiza Ḥevaloma (lit. 'standard Roman characters') is a method of romanization which abandons one-to-one representations in favor of avoiding diacritics and unusual characters (such as the thorn þ). It is used in places where accuracy is necessary, but diacritics are not available to type (such as text messaging). There are two types of Pyǔhiza Ḥevaloma romanization:

Standard PyǔhizaEdit

This uses various digraphs and other similar letters to replace diacritics.

Eksi PyǔhizaEdit

This replaces diacritics by using the letter without its diacritic followed by an X, similar to how Esperanto may be typed. It is the least commonly used method.

Acfa Vuyas ḤevalomaEdit

Acfa Vuyas Ḥevaloma (lit. 'simplified Roman characters') is the method used for transcribing Lǔfsatan words to those who may be unfamiliar with the language.

Lǔfsatan Letter Ami Imi Umi Ǔmai Emii Omui Ta Da Se Fa Hai Zei Po Va Bo  Lai  Faţ Ḥa  Ma  Ca Ža Yu Ga Saş Çi Þa Wa (Kai)
Ḥevaloma A I U Ǔ E O T D S F H Z P V B L Ţ M C Ž Y G Ş Ç Þ W K
Pyǔhiza Standard A I U R E O T D S F H Z P V B L TH Q M C J Y G X TX PH W K
Eksi A I U UX E O T D S F H Z P V B L TX HX M C ZX Y G SX CX PX W K
Acfa Vuhas A I U UR E O T D S F H Z P V B L, R TH H M, N TS DZ Y G S TS PTH W K

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


VocabularyEdit


No. English
1IContionary_Wiki
2you (singular)Contionary_Wiki
3heContionary_Wiki
4weContionary_Wiki
5you (plural)Contionary_Wiki
6theyContionary_Wiki
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatContionary_Wiki
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


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