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Lǔfsata

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Lǔfsata
Lǔfsata
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Tripartite
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
0
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Lǔfsata [ɺɚ̹ˤɸsata] is an agglutinative language with few irregularities spoken as a national language in the kingdom of Lǔfsevias.

Lǔfsata is generally written using the Lǔfsatan alphabet, but it can be accurately transcribed to the Latin alphabet using several romanization methods.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

The standard Ḥevaloma romanization is to the left in brackets; IPA is to the right.
 Bilabial    Bidental Alveolar Alveolo-palatal  Palatal  Velar   Glottal
 Lateral Central
Nasal 〈m〉 m~ŋ
Plosive Voiceless 〈p〉 p 〈t〉 t 〈k〉 k*
Voiced 〈b〉  b 〈d〉 d 〈g〉 ɟ~g
Fricative Glottalic 〈ḥl〉 ˀɬ 〈ḥy〉 ˀç
Voiceless 〈f〉 ɸ 〈fh〉 h̪͆~ʃ 〈hl〉 ɬ 〈s〉 s 〈sy〉 ɕ 〈hy〉 ç 〈h〉 h
Voiced 〈v〉 β 〈vh〉 ɦ̪͆~ʒ 〈z〉 z 〈zy〉 ʑ
Ejective 〈ţ〉 ɸʼ~ɸ͡θʼ~θʼ 〈ş〉 s’
Affricate Voiceless 〈þ〉 p͡θ 〈tl〉 t͡ɬ 〈c〉 t͡s 〈cy〉 t͡ɕ 〈ḥ〉 ʔʰ
Voiced 〈dl〉 d͡ɮ 〈ž〉 d͡z 〈žy〉 d͡ʑ
Ejective 〈ç〉 t͡s’ 〈çy〉 t͡ɕ’
Approximant 〈l〉 l ~ ɺ 〈y〉 j 〈w〉ɰᵝ

















Lǔfsata possesses a moderately large consonant inventory with a considerable amount of fricatives and affricates.

  • /k/ only occurs in loanwords.
  • /p͡θ/ has a wide variety of realizations, including but not limited to /p͡f/, /p͡ɸ/, p̼͡ɸ̼/, and /t̪͡θ/, as well as /pʰ/ in some dialects.
  • Lüfsata possesses a single nasal phoneme pronounced in isolation as /m/ whose realization varies according to surrounding sounds.
    • It is /n/ when preceding /t/, /d/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/, or /t͡s’/ and when following /s/, /z/, /s’/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/, or /t͡s’/.
    • It is /ŋ/ when preceding /k/ or /g/.
    • It is /m/ elsewhere.
  • /l/ is /ɾ/ when following a plosive other than /t/ or /d/.
  • /l/ is /ɺ/ before /ɚ̹ˤ/ and between vowels.
  • /ʔʰ/ is always aspirated and is often analyzed as a glottal affricate.
  • /ʔʰ/ may be /ʔʱ/ or /ɦ/ in a few dialects. In these dialects, the corresponding palatal and lateral fricatives change along with them: /ˀç/ to /ˀʝ/ or /ʝ/, /ˀɬ/ to /ˀɮ/ or /ɮ/.
  • /ɕ’/ is not listed as a phoneme because /s’/ cannot occur in the onset of a syllable, however, this sound does occur when /s’/ and /j/ coincide between syllables (e.g. paşyav [paɕ’aβ] 'hand').
  • /ɰᵝ/ is rounded to /w/ in some dialects and is raised to /ɣᵝ/ at the end of a syllable and before /ɯᵝ/.
  • Sonorants /l/ and /j/ (not /ɰᵝ/, however, as it always occurs alone in the syllable onset) change the pronunciation of several other consonants when immediately following them:
    • /j/ changes glottal consonants as well as alveolar central fricatives and affricates to their palatal (or alveolo-palatal in the case of alveolars) counterparts: e.g. /hj/ to /ç/, /ʔʰj/ to /ˀç/, /sj/ to /ɕ/, /d͡zj/ to /d͡ʑ/, etc.
    • /l/ changes glottal consonants to alveolar laterals and alveolar plosives to lateral affricates: /hl/ to /ɬ/, /ʔʰl/ to /ˀɬ/, /tl/ to /t͡ɬ/, /dl/ to /d͡ɮ/.

VowelsEdit

 Front Central

Back

Close 〈i〉i 〈u〉ɯᵝ
Mid 〈e〉〈ǔ〉ɚ̹ˤ 〈o〉ɤ̞ᵝ
Open 〈a〉a

All diphthongs are permitted with the exception of those beginning with /ɚ̹ˤ/.

The Lǔfsatan vowel system contains six vowels. Open and close vowels are written in the Lǔfsatan alphabet with a single line, and each of them are moved to mid level with the addition of a dot or dash to the Lǔfsatan vowel letter. /i/ and /ɯᵝ/ go through no other changes while /a/ becomes rounded, rhotacized, and pharyngealized (or pronounced with advanced tongue root).

Front Central Back
Non-mid i a ɯᵝ
Mid ɚ̹ˤ ɤ̞ᵝ

PhonotacticsEdit

Lǔfsatan syllable structure can be summarized as follows, in which parentheses enclose optional components:

(C(C)(R))V(V(V))(C)

While a maximum of three vowels can be considered a syllable, there is no maximum of vowels that can occur in succession.

Vowels may be doubled to become long (e.g. sooi [sɤ̞ᵝːi] 'again') Long vowels are considered sequences of short values rather than separate phonemes.

  • Onset
    • First consonant (C): Can be any consonant other than an ejective fricative.
    • Second consonant (C): Can be /ɸ/, /β/, /h/, or /h/ if and only if the first consonant is /s/, /z/, /ɸ/, or /β/ respectively. Thus, the only consonant clusters permitted in the onset that do not contain liquids are /sɸ/, /zβ/, /ɸh/, and /βh/, the latter two of which are realized as /h̪͆/ and /ɦ̪͆/ respectively.
    • Liquid (R): Can be either /l/ or /j/ provided the first consonant is not a voiced approximant.
  • Nucleus
    • First vowel (V): Can be any vowel.
    • Second Vowel (V): Can be any vowel provided the first vowel is not /ɚ̹ˤ/.
    • Third Vowel (V): Can be any vowel provided the second vowel is not /ɚ̹ˤ/.
    • /ji/ cannot occur. /ɰᵝɯᵝ/ is permitted, but is commonly realized as [ɣᵝɯᵝ].
  • Coda
    • Consonant (C) Can be any fricative, affricate, nasal, or approximant with the exception of /h/, /l/, and /j/ as well as all plosives.

It should be noted that consonants, liquids, and vowels refer to what is represented by each Lǔfsatan letter, not to individual phonemes. Example of maximal onset: sflasa /sɸlasa/ ('north')

Example of maximal nucleus: aoev /ʔʰaɤ̞ᵝe̞β/ ('behind')

Example of maximal coda: com /t͡sɤ̞ᵝm/ ('person')

Writing SystemsEdit

RomanizationEdit

Lǔfsata uses three (potentially four) different methods of romanization available for use depending on access to special characters and the target audience's familiarity with the language.

ḤevalomaEdit

Ḥevaloma (lit. 'Roman characters') is the most commonly used method of romanizing Lǔfsata. It is a one-to-one romanization of each Lǔfsatan letter.

Pyǔhiza ḤevalomaEdit

Pyǔhiza Ḥevaloma (lit. 'standard Roman characters') is a method of romanization which abandons one-to-one representations in favor of avoiding diacritics and unusual characters (such as the thorn þ). It is used in places where accuracy is necessary, but diacritics are not available to type (such as text messaging). There are two types of Pyǔhiza Ḥevaloma romanization:

Standard PyǔhizaEdit

This uses various digraphs and other similar letters to replace diacritics.

Eksi PyǔhizaEdit

This replaces diacritics by using the letter without its diacritic followed by an X, similar to how Esperanto may be typed. It is the least commonly used method.

Acfa Vuyas ḤevalomaEdit

Acfa Vuyas Ḥevaloma (lit. 'simplified Roman characters') is the method used for transcribing Lǔfsatan words to those who may be unfamiliar with the language.

Lǔfsatan Letter Ami Imi Umi Ǔmai Emii Omui Ta Da Se Fa Hai Zei Po Va Bo  Lai  Faţ Ḥa  Ma  Ca Ža Yu Ga Saş Çi Þa Wa (Kai)
Ḥevaloma A I U Ǔ E O T D S F H Z P V B L Ţ M C Ž Y G Ş Ç Þ W K
Pyǔhiza Standard A I U R E O T D S F H Z P V B L TH Q M C J Y G X TX PH W K
Eksi A I U UX E O T D S F H Z P V B L TX HX M C ZX Y G SX CX PX W K
Acfa Vuhas A I U UR E O T D S F H Z P V B L, R TH H M, N TS DZ Y G S TS PTH W K

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


VocabularyEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

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