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Ladérà

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Name: Ladérà

Type: Agglutinative

Alignment: Tripartite

Head Direction: Final

Number of genders: 4

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


Progress 23%

Ladérà (pronounced [la de'ʁɑ̃]) is a complex language with relatively unique in most aspects. However, Ladérà draws influences from French for pronunciation, and Amharic for syllable structure. Ladérà is a highly inflecting and adaptive language; there are few elements of a sentence that are not changed according to the situation.

PhonologyEdit

Letters in Ladérà have exactly one sound each, and there are no redundancies.

Ladérà A À E È É I Ì O Ö Ò U B C D F G H L M N Ñ Ŋ P R S Ş T V Z Ž
IPA a ɑ̃ ə ɛ e i œ̃ o u ɔ̃ y b k d f ɡ h l m n ɲ ŋ p ʁ s ʃ t v z ʒ

PhonotacticsEdit

Every syllable in Ladérà is compromised of a consonant followed by a vowel. The only exception to this rule is the letter "Ŋ", which can only be placed at the end of a word, without any letter following it.

The accented syllable is always the final syllable. Accented letters mark a change in sound produced, not a change in the placement of the accented syllable.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Nouns Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No
Adjectives Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No No
Numbers Yes No Yes No Yes No No No
Participles Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No No
Adverb Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No No
Pronouns Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No No
Adpositions Yes No No Yes Yes No No No
Article Yes No Yes No Yes No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

GendersEdit

Ladérà has four genders. These are, as follows:

Gender Usage Example
Masculine Male animals / human beings. A man, a boy, a rooster.
Feminine Female animals / human beings. A woman, a girl, a hen.
Neuter Things without gender. A virus, a book, a cloud.
Divine A supernatural thing; a god. A god.

CasesEdit

The cases in Ladérà are as follows:

Name Meaning Affix Example
English Ladérà
Ergative Agent; subject of a transitive verb. -né He kicked the ball and it took off.
Accusative Patient; direct object of a transitive verb. -pà He kicked the ball and it took off.
Intransitive Subject; subject of an intransitive verb. -mu She slept.
Vocative Address or calling of attention. Hé- Hey Bobby, come here.

TensesEdit

Tenses are as follows:

Tense Usage Example
Simple Future Anytime in the future. I will go home.
Future Progressive Will be under way. I will be going home.
Conditional Future Could/would take place in the future. If I could go home (in the future), I would go home (in the future).
Conditional-Progressive Future Combination of the conditional and progressive future tenses. If I could be going home (in the future), I would be going home (in the future).
Immeidate Future Will take place right away. I will go home immediately.
Near Future Will take place soon. I will go home soon.
Hodiernal Future Will take place later today. I will go home later today.
Crastinal Future Will take place tomorrow. I will go home tomorrow.
Distant Future Will take place in the distant future. I will go home in a long time.
Simple Present Anytime in the present. I go home.
Present Progressive Currently under way. I am going home.
Conditional Present Could/would take place in the present. If I could go home, I would go home.
Conditional-Progressive Present Combination of the conditional and progressive present tenses. If I could be going home, I would be going home.
Simple Past Anytime in the past. I went home.
Past Progressive Was under way. I was going home.
Conditional Past Could/would have taken place in the past. If I could’ve gone home, I would’ve gone home.
Conditional-Progressive Past Combination of the conditional and progressive past tenses. If I could have been going home, I would have been going home.
Immediate Past Just took place. I just went home.
Near Past Recently took place. I recently went home.
Hodiernal Past Took place earlier today. I went home earlier today.
Crastinal Past Took place yesterday. I went home yesterday.
Distant Past Took place in the distant past. I went home a long time ago.

Ladérà has many "markers" that would otherwise denote a case, but for the sake of simplicity are simply described the section on circumpositions.

PersonsEdit

Ladérà has four persons. These are:

Person Refers To: Example
1st Oneself. I am a happy person most of the time.
2nd The thing being talked to. You should have fun more often.
3rd Something visible but not talked to. He is sitting over there.
4th Something out of sight/intangible. China is very far away. Patience is a virtue.

VerbsEdit

Verbs in Ladérà agree to the gender, number, and person of its subject. Verbs also agree to tenses and moods (there is no other element of Ladérà that explicitly agrees with mood). Each conjugated verb is in the following setup:

Element Verb Conjugation Mood
Tense Number / Person Gender
Function Base word. Denotes when the action occurred. Denotes who performed the action. Denotes the gender of the subject. Further describes the verb.

The conjugation element of a verb includes all forms of the word, including the infinitive. Note that the three sub-elements of conjugation are not clearly defined from one another.

Note that if a verb is progressive, it must be in the progressive or conditional-progressive tense (whichever is applicable). If it is unknown when a verb took place other than if it was the past, present, or future, then the simple tense is to be used. There is no real rule to when the near future or past is to be used.

A verb in its infinitive form has the suffix “–bö” at its end. Whenever a conjugation is made, this suffix is replaced by the conjugation. A plural form of a verb is the same as its singular form, except preceeded by the affix “–žu–”.

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person 4th Person
Masc. Fem. Neu. Div. Masc. Fem. Neu. Div. Masc. Fem. Neu. Div. Masc. Fem. Neu. Div.
F
u
Simple -séra -şéra -şérà -şéré -mörà -törà -möré -töré -puré -pudé -meré -mudé -fara -fare -fère -fèré
Progressive -raté -ratà -ramé -rumé -petè -petà -peti -purà -seşé -sece -séşé -save -pörà -pöté -poto -pozé
Conditional -nidu -nipu -nimé -nivu -ruré -rumé -duné -féşé -bébé -bétà -bète -babö -pétà -pelo -vétà -vélo
Pro-Cond -susé -suzé -semé -seré -turé -turà -ture -téré -garé -gara -gonà -gaba -doré -dora -dore -doşà
Immediate -nana -nanà -ninu -ninà -valé -vala -valà -véla -nàna -nànà -nuré -nulo -ñopa -ñana -ñàpö -ñata
Near -ruré -rura -rurà -ruñé -nicé -nica -nişé -nisa -papo -papé -papè -para -rèfe -rèla -rèmà -rana
Hodiernal -hora -horà -horo -horé -himi -himo -himu -himö -hörö -höra -höru -hörà -haşé -haşa -haşà -hamà
Crastinal -şéñé -şépa -şupé -şupà -zoro -zorà -zoto -zoşà -tape -tèpé -tépè -tépé -şöfu -şöfè -şöfé -şöşi
Distant -gada -gadà -gade -garé -simi -sima -susö -sişé -méto -métà -meta -mété -lété -sébo -càti -fébo
P
r
Simple -bumà -bèmà -bomà -buşà -pora -sora -porà -sèra -ména -méne -méba -meşà -pulo -pulö -puré -mulö
Progressive -sétà -càfi -filo -séti -keba -zésu -défé -siké -lédo -séti -kedu -žura -sike -žuko -hiso -rike
Conditional -žepà -sedà -ceže -suhi -vavé -dižà -žàce -röso -tàdi -sece -žete -disé -celi -pàsé -bocö -toro
Pro-Cond -siže -tavé -dice -žetà -meva -vece -tömà -cere -bisé -mépa -casé -care -lile -pàpe -töžö -rehe
P
a
Simple -rase -levì -seba -càtò -nasö -hafö -càti -liba -sare -deca -fère -hune -bèle -vidà -lepì -tàdi
Progressive -pame -réso -bezì -pörè -tàfo -reme -pöre -séro -mepa -segò -deşà -cilö -nöfo -fèri -rune -vere
Conditional -libè -pàmö -rusi -lédi -ficu -leté -suri -möpà -bèli -redo -maže -pöre -töle -démé -žépö -lahö
Pro-Cond -zaga -löbà -pumi -rösà -dela -sörà -mipu -bàlö -gaza -rété -rega -dema -mòde -şàsi -desu -sise
Immediate -caza -zogo -lubu -pama -rèsè -mapa -bulu -gozo -zaca -vèbe -hépu -sažé -sutö -téhà -şàžò -töve
Near -zugu -làbö -pimu -sàrö -vidà -ràsö -mupi -bölà -guzu -žepö -réfè -pèrè -seci -tere -same -töte
Hodiernal -lèbi -pömà -siru -lacè -lenö -some -risu -màpö -bilè -sébì -rela -sece -line -nöca -lenö -lébo
Crastinal -pema -soré -cöhì -séha -töžö -resì -temi -rosé -mape -tösa -fète -tèmi -fòpe -rase -lace -nure
Distant -sera -zère -calò -nöfè -remì -tenà -cili -népu -resa -pönö -cese -némé -pöla -sise -vidà -dela

Mood Edit

The moods of Ladérà are added after the conjugation. The priority index indicates what mood will be used when there is an overlap. For instance, if a verb could be in the Jussive and Interrogative mood, the Jussive mood used because it has a higher priority. These moods are:

Name Used When Suffix Priority
Jussive Pleading; begging. -tàpiŋ 1
Optative Discussing hopes and wishes. -žèpèŋ 2
Potential Discussing something likely to happen. -žecaŋ 3
Interrogative Asking something. -situŋ 4
Subjunctive Discussing things that are not true/real. -pavéŋ 5
Conditional Discussing things that could be true/real. -pöraŋ 6

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