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Lalakhmet

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Lalakhmet - *əlalāḵmēt
Morphological Type: Synthetic
Morphosyntactic Alignment: Ergative-Absolutive
Linguistic Head: Head Initial
Word Order: AV3**
Made by: Maxseptillion77


General InformationEdit

Lalakhmet (also known as Proto-Lalakhi) is an a priori, proto- lang. Proto-Lalakhi is an acient language spoken along the same period as Ancient Egyptian. 

(*) AV3, meaning animacy and verb third, is explained further under Syntax, but basically means that noun placement is always at the beginning of a sentence (preferrably OSV, which is used when noun of the same animacy appear) but will follow animacy rules (explained under Animacy in Nouns) with the verb always placed at the end of a clause. 


Phonology and OrthographyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

There are 18 consonants all of which, barring approximants, can be geminate (written as a double letter, /mm/ > *mm). Though typically realized as unvoiced, plosives and affricates are realized as voiced in between vowels (except if geminate).

Labial Coronal Dorsal Laryngeal
Dental Apical
Nasal

m

m

n

n

Plosive

p

p

t

t k k
Affricate ts z t̺s̺ j
Fricative f f θ ť ʂ χ ɦ h
Approximant w w ɫ l r j y ʕ

VowelsEdit

There are 7 vowels which contrast frontness and hight (while roundness does not technically contrast, the rounded vowels in the chart are actual realizations). Long vowels are marked with a macron (ī ē ȫ ū ō ā). Note that there are no diphthongs, with each vowel, on its own, consisting of one half-mora, or full mora if it's a long vowel (see Phonotactics for more information), including the schwa sound /ə/. 

A word can have either a high pitch, marked with acute accent, or low pitch, marked with an grave accent. Typically longer words can have a second pitch (*ťápanatahāzḕk, the freshness of fresh fallen snow, have a low pitch in the last mora, -zḕk). Words where a vowel goes across frontness changes pitch obligatorily and the pitch change goes in the opposite direction as the tone in the mora prior to the vowel in question. The first mora that has the different tone is realized as a "rising" (if low > high pitch) or "falling" (if high > low) pitch, however the remainder of the word keeps that high/low pitch.  Functional words and cliques don't have any pitch. The accent marks are not necessarily always written down (such as the vowel markings in Arabic or Hebrew).

Front Central Back
High i i u u
Mid ɛ e ə ə ɔ o
Low ɶ ö ɑ a

Stress and MoraeEdit

Lalakhmet is a mora-timed language with stress falling on the last syllable of a pure vowel (as in, stress cannot fall on /ə/, the schwa). A single mora is defined as: two, short-vowel, open syllables (*ťápanaə, snow, is split into two morae: ťápa-náə); a syllable with a long vowel (*ḵḕjḕ, a cook, is two morae: ḵḕ-jḕ); a short-vowel, open syllable and the start geminate consonant (*záttȫ̀, bone, is two morae: zát-tȫ̀); or a closed syllable, in which vowels are automatically elongated (*hā̀sníke, a weed, is two morae: hā̀s-níke).

PhonotacticsEdit

  • A content word cannot have "radical morae" (or half-morae that don't have a pair). This is typically resolved with the addition of the -ə- adfix (which has no real meaning other than resolving the mora limitations).
    • this -ə- adfix can only be placed in open syllables but cannot interrupt a full-mora set. Therefore, it can be palced at the front of a word (like the word for Lalakhmet, *əlalāḵmēt), at the very end of a word (like word for snow, *ťapanaə), in between full morae (  ****FINISH
  • Approximants are limited to being between vowels or following consonants
  • Two consonants of the same place of articulation (except approximants) cannot juxtapose each other, except the cluster /tr/
  • Closed syllables must have long vowels (except if they are formed by geminate consonants)
  • More than two long vowels can't be in adjacent morae

MorphophonologyEdit

Lalakhmet features consonant apophony which affects tense in verbs and case in nouns 

Consonant Change m / n t / ṭ p / k z / j ť / ṣ f / ḵ r / l w / y ‘ / h
Grade 1 m / n t / ṭ p / k z  / j ť / ṣ f  / ḵ r / l w / y ‘ / h
Grade 2 m / l z / j h / ḵ f ū_ / ī_ ē_ / ā_
Grade 3 ū_ / l t / ṭ p / k z / j t / ṭ p / k w / y
Grade 4 mm / nn tt / ṭṭ pp / kk tz  / ṭj tt / ṣṣ pp / ḵḵ ḵḵ / ll mmw / nny ḵḵ / ḵḵ


GrammarEdit

VerbsEdit

ConjugationEdit

The -t- or -z- is the given consonant, but can be any. Grade 1 consonant apophony affects the immediate past, grade 2 for the preterite and imperfect, and grade 3 for the expectant and unknown future. 

IndicativeEdit

The regular conjugation of a verb in the indicative.

Active Passive
1st 2nd 3rd Plural 1st 2nd 3rd Plural
Immediate Past -tāl -tāk -tyā -tȫ -trala -traka -traya -trȫ
Preterite -zāl -zāk -zyā -zȫ -zərāla -zərāka -zərāya -zərö
Imperfect -zəlāṣə -zəkāṣə -zəyāṣə -zȫṣ -zərəlāṣ -zərəkāṣ -zərəyāṣ -zərȫṣə
Expectant Future -tāpilə -tāpikə -tāpiyə -tāpī -trāpilə -trāpikə -trāpiyə -trāpī
Unknown Future -tāpilāṣə -tāpikāṣə -tāpiyāṣə -tāpīṣ -trāpilāṣə -trāpikāṣə -trāpiyāṣə -trāpīṣ
Volative Edit

The volative means "want that" or "desire that" and used in cohortative phrases such as "if only _" or "may _". 

Active Passive
1st 2nd 3rd Plural 1st 2nd 3rd Plural
Immediate Past -tolə -tokə -toyə -toö -trolə -trokə -troyə -troö
Preterite -zolə -zokə -zoyə -zoö -zərōla -zərōka -zərōya -zərōö
Imperfect -zōləṣə -zōkəṣə -zōyəṣə -zoöṣ -zərəlōṣ -zərəkōṣ -zərəyōṣ -zərōö
Expectant Future -tōpilə -tōpikə -tōpiyə -tōpī -trōpilə -trōpikə -trōpiyə -trōpī
Unknown Future -tōpilōṣə -tōpikōṣə -tōpiyōṣə -tōpīṣ -trōpilōṣə -trōpikōṣə -trōpiyōṣə -trōpiṣ
PotentialEdit

The potential (which also functions as a hypothetical mood) means "can", "able to", "possible to", or "could have _".

Active Passive
1st 2nd 3rd Plural 1st 2nd 3rd Plural
Immediate Past -tēlē -tēkē -tēyē -tēȫ -trēlē -trēkē -trēyē -trēȫ
Preterite -zēlē -zēkē -zēyē -zēȫ -zərəlē -zərəkē -zərəyē -zərəȫ
Imperfect -zēleṣe -zēkeṣe -zēyeṣe -zēȫṣ -zərəlēṣ -zərəkēṣ -zərəyēṣ -zərəȫṣ
Expectant Future -tēpilə -tēpikə -tēpiyə -tēpī -trēpilə -trēpikə -trēpiyə -trēpī
Unkown Future -tēpilāṣ -tēpikāṣ -tēpiyāṣ -tēpīṣ -trēpilāṣ -trēpikāṣ -trēpiyāṣ -trēpīṣ
NecessitativeEdit

The necessitative means "need" or "required" or "have to".

Active Passive
1st 2nd 3rd Plural 1st 2nd 3rd Plural
Immediate Past -tāhēl -tāhēk -tyāhē -tāhȫ -trāhēl -trāhēk -trāhēy -trāhȫ
Preterite -zāhēl -zāhēk -zyāhē -zāhȫ -zərəhēl -zərəhēk -zərəhēy -zərəhȫ
Imperfect -zāhlēṣə -zāhkēṣə -zāhyēṣə -zāhȫṣ -zərāhleṣə -zərāhkeṣə -zərāhyeṣə -zərāhȫṣ
Expectant Future -tāhpilə -tāhēpikə -tāhēpiyə -tāhpī -trāhpilə -trāhpikə -trāhpiyə -trāhpī
Unknown Future -tāhpilēṣ -tāhpikēṣ -tāhpiyēṣ -tāhpīṣ -trāhpilēṣ -trāhpikēṣ -trāhpiyēṣ -trāhpīṣ
ImperativeEdit

The imperative (which acts as a general hortative) means "let _", "may _", "do _", &c.

Active Passive
1st 2nd 3rd Plural 1st 2nd 3rd Plural
Immediate Past -tōnkələ -tōnkəkə -tōnkəyə -tōnkȫ -trōnkələ -trōnkəkə -trōnkəyə -trōnkȫ
Preterite -zōnkələ -zōnkəkə -zōnkəyə -zōnkȫ -zərōnkēlə -zərōnkēkə -zərōnkēyə -zərōnkö
Imperfect -zōnklēṣ -zōnkəkēṣə -zōnkyēṣ -zōnkȫṣ -zərōnklēṣə -zərōnkəkēṣə -zərōnkyēṣə -zərōnkȫṣə
Expectant Future -tōmpilə -tōmpikə -tōmpiyə -tōmpī -trōmpilə -trōmpikə -trōmpiyə -trōmpī
Unkown Future -tōmpilēṣə -tōmpikēṣə -tōmpiyēṣə -tōmpīṣ -trōmpilēṣə -trōmpikēṣə -trōmpiyēṣə -trōmpīṣ
CausativeEdit

The causative means "make _", "cause _", "originate _", &c.

Active Passive
1st 2nd 3rd Plural 1st 2nd 3rd Plural
Immediate Past -tārpāl -tārpāk -tārpāy -tārpȫ -trāpāl -trāpāk -trāpāy -trāpȫ
Preterite -zārpāl -zārpāk -zārpāy -zārpȫ -zərəpāl -zərəpāk -zərəpāy -zərəpȫ
Imperfect -zārplāṣ -zārkāṣ -zārpyāṣ -zārpȫṣ -zərəplāṣ -zərāpkāṣə -zərəpyāṣ -zərəpȫṣ
Expectant Future -tārpilə -tārpikə -tārpiyə -tārpī -trāpilə -trāpikə -trāpiyə -trāpī
Unknown Future -tārplīṣ -tārkīṣ -tārpīṣ -trāplīṣ -trāpkīṣ -trāpīṣ


NounsEdit

DeclensionEdit

The -t- or -z- is the given consonant, but can be any. Grade 1 consonant apophony affects the ergative, absolutive, and accusative, grade 2 for the dative and instrumental, and grade 3 for the stative and dynamic. 

"Collective" refers to the noun in general (referred in English as mass nouns) or an uncountable grouping of said noun (e.g., He ate rice - rice is an uncountable grouping of many grains of rice ; He saw a school of fish - in Lalakhmet, "fish" would be in the collective because a school of fish is an uncountable grouping ; Dogs like to play fetch - the word "dog" is referring is to that dogs in general tend to enjoy playing fetch).

The "singulative" however refers to a single item, a small unit of said item, or when the noun's number is smaller than one (e.g., There was a grain of rice on the counter - a "grain of rice" is a single unit of rice ; There was not but a drop of water in the well - a "drop of water" is a small unit of water, as opposed to a glass of water, an ocean made of water, &c ; Yeah, I bought a dog - "a dog" is a singular dog, which could be qualified as well as "we could only afford one dog"). 

The stative and dynamic cases are used in postpositional phrases within which the dynamic case applies to postpositions indicating movement or change and stative for anything else. 

StativeEdit

stative noun is the pure lexical noun itself. 

Collective Singulative
Ergative -tā -tāf
Absolutive -tā‘ -t‘āf
Accusative -tū̀n -tū̀mh
Dative -zāḵ -zāḵəfə
Instrumental -zəḵāḵə -zāḵāf
Stative -taḵa -təḵāfə
Dynamic -tòṣīmə -tòṣīmāfə
Augmentive

An augmentive noun is a noun whose size is meaningfully increased or whose importance is amplified.

Collective Singulative
Ergative -tāz‘ā -tāz‘āf
Absolutive -tā‘z -t‘āzəfə
Accusative -tū̀nz‘ā -tū̀nz‘āf
Dative -zāḵzā -zāḵzāf
Instrumental -zəḵāzə -zāḵzīf
Stative -taḵāza -tāḵzəfə
Dynamic -tòṣīzmə -tòṣīzmāf
Diminutive

diminutive noun is a noun whose size is meaningfully diminished, whose importance is decreased, or shows endearment for the noun by the speaker.Edit

Collective Singulative
Ergative -tali -tālīf
Absolutive -t‘āl -t‘ālīf
Accusative -tū̀līn -tū̀līmh
Dative -zāḵə̀lə -zāḵəlāfə
Instrumental -zəḵālə -zəḵālīfə
Stative -taḵi -təḵīfə
Dynamic -tòṣīlmə -tòṣīlmāf


AnimacyEdit

Lalakhmet uses an animacy system stolen from similar to Navajo's. It distinguishes this animacy hierarchy, from most to least animate:

(God >>) Human > Animal >> Water/Air > Sun/Moon > Plants > Inanimate

There are three groupings: divine (God), animate (human & animal), and inanimate (water/air, sun/moon, plants, & inanimate) Navajo, the higher a noun is on the animacy hierarchy, the closer it will be to the beginning of the sentence.

Animacy is not marked except in nouns whose markings resemble more gender. They are marked on nouns via prefixes: əro-/əre-, masculine human; əza-/əzö-, feminine human; əko-/əke-, animal; əpu-/əbi-, general inanimate. The markings keep the same tone as the first syllable of their modifying noun does. 

PronounsEdit

PersonalEdit

The number system changes semantically among pronouns.

The collective number here means a decently large group of people. This would be used when addressing an army, an assembly of people, a legislative body, &c. The singulative number is used when referring to a small group of people or a subgroup within a larger group, employed when addressing a classroom, a team, council or committee, or a group of friends. The difference however is productive and can be used rhetorically; as in, the head of state or king addressing the people using the singulative to show solidarity. 

Clusivity plays a small connotative role. Collectives are "detached inclusive" (meaning that, while including the audience and the speaker, it does not hold them as interacting, but that the audience is simply listening on, nearly third person): "we as a society should learn to _," "that's just what we [Walmart employees] do," "we are the United States army, and we will not be defeated." Singulatives show solidarity, friendship, and closeness among a small group (strangers or simple acquaintances would use first person collective with the diminuative suffix -īl): "our platoon will come out in victory!," "we don't want you sitting at our table anymore," "we're the best curling players in the world." That is to say, among new acquaintances or strangers, the collective is used in the augmentive. 

1st, 2nd, and 5th ​PersonsEdit

Stative
1st 2nd 5th
Collective Singulative Collective Singulative
Ergative lī́ lyȫ́ kī́ kyȫ́ hā́
Absolutive lḕ‘ lyȫ̀‘ kḕ‘ kyȫ̀‘ hā́‘
Accusative lȫ̀n lyȫ̀n kȫ̀n kyȫ̀n hṑn
Dative lī́ḵ lyȫ́ḵ ḵī́ḵ ḵyȫ́ḵ ḗḵ
Instrumental lə́ḵēḵə líḵyȫḵə ḵə́ḵēḵə ḵíḵyȫḵə ḕḵāḵ
Stative líḵi lyö́ḵi kíḵi kyö́ḵi ḵáḵa
Dynamic léṣīmə lèṣyȫmə kíṣīmə kìṣyȫmə ḵáṣīmə
Augmentive

Otherwise known as the honorary, the augmentive in pronouns shows respect for the subject. Usually limited to the second person, the first person collective is the exception and is used regardless of the amount of people it is referring to.

1st Collective 2nd
Collective Singulative
Ergative lī́z kī́z kyȫ́z
Absolutive ə̀l‘ēzə k‘ḕz kyȫ̀z
Accusative lȫ̀nz kȫ̀nz kyȫ̀nz
Dative lī́ḵzē ḵī́ḵzē ḵyȫ́ḵzē
Instrumental lə́ḵēzḵə ḵíḵēzḵə ḵíḵyȫzḵə
Stative líḵīzi kíḵīzi kyö́ḵīzi
Dynamic léṣīzmə kíṣīzmə kíṣyȫzmə
Diminutive

Among pronouns, the diminutive shows endearment. For this reason, it is almost strictly limited to the singulative. The exception is the second collective diminutive, which a person in authority or a comrade (esp. in the military) uses to signal endearment for a group of people.

1st Singulative 2nd
Collective Singulative
Ergative lyȫ́l kī́l kyȫ́l
Absolutive lyȫ̀‘īl k‘ḕl kyȫ̀‘īl
Accusative lyȫ́līn kī́līn kyȫ́līn
Dative lyȫ́ḵə̀lə ḵī́ḵə̀lə ḵyȫ́ḵə̀lə
Instrumental lyȫ́ḵīl ḵə́ḵīlə ḵyȫ́ḵīl
Stative lyȫ́ḵīl kī́ḵīl kyȫ́ḵīl
Dynamic lèṣyȫlmə kòṣīlmə kèṣyȫlmə

3rd PersonEdit

The third person third person works as a personal pronoun and as a deictic pronoun (e.g., "he" would also mean "this/that").

These pronouns follow a hierarchy of salience from salient, obviative, supersalient, antisalient. The salient means the noun that is of importance or is at hand. Salient is insinuated to be proximal as well, but is not required to. Obviative means the noun is of less important or is in the background (read, not at the forefront of the situation; not at hand). This is insinuated as distal, but like salient, is not required to be. Supersalient is the noun of upmost importance or is the one of most crucial importance to the situation. Supersalience, from super- above + 'salient', is a sort of "superlative" of nouns. Antisalient, from anti- opposite + 'salient', is the noun of least importance or the one that is the most useless or unneeded to a situation. Like supersalience, it is the "negative superlative" of nouns. 

Diminutive and Augmentive forms work the same way as they do the first/second/fifth person pronouns, but only when they refer to a human or animal. When they refer to general inanimate, they function the same as general nouns do. That is to say, connotations like endearment and honorifics only apply to animate nouns (and only honorifics applies to divine nouns).

Stative
Collective Singulative
Sal Obv SupS AntiS Sal Obv SupS AntiS
Ergative hā̀r mrā̀r hā́hhāk mrā̀z hā̀rf mrā̀rf hā́hhāf mrā̀zf
Absolutive hā̀‘ mrā̀‘ hā̀hhāk mrā̀z‘ā hā̀‘f mrā̀‘f hā̀hhāf mrā̀‘zf
Accusative hā̀rūn mrā̀rūn hā́ffūnk mrā̀zūn hā̀rūmh mrā̀rūmh hā́ffūnkf mrā̀zūmh
Dative ḕrā́ḵ mrā̀ḵ ḗḵḵāk mrā̀ḵz ḕrā́ḵf mrā̀ḵf ḗhhā̀f mrā̀ḵzf
Instrumental ḕrḵā́ḵ mrə̀ḵā́ḵə̀ ḗrḵāk mrə̀ḵā́zḵə̀ ḕrḵā́ḵf mrə̀ḵā́ḵf ḗrḵā̀f mrə̀ḵā́ḵzf
Stative ḵara ū̀rā ḵáḵḵākə ū̀zā ḵrāf ū̀rāf ḵáḵḵākfə ū̀zāf
Dynamic ḵáṣī̀mə ū́ṣī̀mərə ḵáṣṣīmkə ū́ṣī̀zmərə ḵáṣī̀mīf ū́ṣī̀mərīfə ḵáṣṣī̀mkīf ū́ṣī̀zmərīfə
Diminutive






–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––

Ideas:

  • Adjectives with degrees of connotativeness (heinous, bad, neutral, good, wonderful) and voice (positive/negative, active/passive) with comparativeness made with another specifically declining adjective
  • Roots be at the base with verbs, noun, and adjectives being formed therefrom
  • Strong emphasis on reflexive (esp. with antipassive)

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