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Language of the Valley

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OverviewEdit

General backgroundEdit

The Language of the Valley is a dead language spoken by a fictional Elven race who lived in a prosperous valley before the arrival of the Human race. After immigration, Humans found only ruins of palaces, monuments and common houses. They began to study the inscriptions, manuscripts and books left by this mysterious Elven race and adopted the language for its cultural worth and beauty. Since then, the Language of the Valley took the same role as Latin for Romance languages​​, although not directly descendant. Thus, there was the differentiation between the Educated Language and the Common Speech.

The Language of the Valley means to be simple and agglutinative. It 's based on syllables that can express a verbal or nominal value, depending on the suffixes they take.

The main features are:

  • 5 vowels: up to 7 sounds if we includes the couples /e, ɛ/ and /o, ɔ/ as allophones
  • 14 consonants: [sh] is considered as a digraphs for /ʃ/; [j] has 3 allophones /ʒ, dʒ, tʃ/.
  • nominative-accusative alignment: subjects of a transitive or intransitive verb are treaten as same.
  • topic-prominent alignment: the word order emphatizes the sentence topic, allowing a "double subject" - topic+subject.
  • strongly pro-drop: the personal pronouns are often omitted. They can be used with emphatic effect in both nominative and vocative cases.
  • case inflection: the grammatical role of the word is descirbed by the suffix case.
  • large use of verbal modificators (suffix) that enrich verb meanings.


ScriptEdit

Note: It's an adaptation of the Korean Hangeul.

B P HA HI HO HE HU
D T HAI HEI
G K YA YO YE YU
Z S YAI YEI
SH J HOA WI WE
M N HOAI WEI
R L
H Mute

Vowels and consonants are linked together in a squared block.

Exemples:

  • bol (pot) =
  • jom (fire) =
  • hus (beauty) =
  • kun (smooth) =
  • mos (defend) =

They are mostly used as ideograms than phomenes, yet don't lose their phonological role:

  • 쿤이(kun-hi) and not 쿠니 (ku-ni) [beautiful]
  • 봏아니 (bol-ha-ni) and not 보하니 (bo-la-ni) [in the pot]

The only exception is -m for the first singolar person of the verb. It can be written both:

  1. 실아(zir-ha-shim) > zirashim = I am
  2. 실아지(zir-ha-shi-m) > zirashim = I am

The 1° is considered as a contraction of 2°, but is more common.

Note: when reduction or reinforcement occured, the syllable changes:




  1. joam (reinforced) = forest-fire
  2. jom (basic) = fire
  3. jyom (reduced) = flame


PhoneticEdit

SyllableEdit

Type: CVC

The syllables are the basic units for nouns, adjectives and verbs. Each syllable is made up by an initial consonant ("head"), a central vowel ("body") and a final consonant ("tail").

The script system is the Korean Hangeul, but used in a way far different.

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Alveolar Post-Alveolar Velar
Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless
Stop ㅂ [b] ㅍ [p] ㄷ [d] ㅌ [t] ㄱ [g] ㅋ [k]
Affricate ㅍ [f]

ㅈ [dʒ] ㄷ [dʒ]

ㅌ [tʃ]
Fricative ㅅ [z] ㅅ [s] ㅈ [ʒ] ㅅ [ʃ]
Nasal ㅁ [m] ㄴ [n] ㄴ [n] ㄴ [ŋ]
Trill ㄹ [r]


ㅇhEdit

Pron. Trascr.
Initial - h
Final - h

is always mute and can be found at the beginning or end of a syllable. At the beginning, it's linked to the vowel otherwise "unpaired"; at the end it's used to mark a special class of words (such as adverbs, etc...).


ㅍ f / pEdit

Pron. Trascr.
Initial f f
Post-consonant p p
Final f f

It sounds as [f] and is trascribed as "f". If it has preceded by a consonant, it sounds as [p] and trascribed as "p".


ㅈ jEdit

Pron. Trascr.
Initial dʒ j
Final ʒ j

It has two allophons: [dʒ] at the beginning and [ʒ] in all the other context; however they are quite exchangeble and their rendering depends on the general emphasis.


ㅅ s / z / shEdit

Pron. Trascr.

Before [a, e, o, u]

s s
Before [i] ʃ sh
Intervocalic z z
Final s s

It sounds like [s] before [a], [e], [o] and [u]. It sounds [ʃ] before [i] and trascribed as "i". If it's surrounded by vowels, it sounds as [z] and trascribed as "z".


ㄷ d and ㅌ tEdit

ㄷ / ㅌ Pron. Trascr.

Before [a, e, o, u]

d, t d, t
Before [i] dʒ, tʃ dj, ch

They are pronunced as [d] and [t] before [a, e, o, u]. They also can gain a light aspiration depending on the emphasis. Before [i], they become [dʒ] and [tʃ], and trascribed as "dj" and "ch".


ㅁ m and ㄴ nEdit

ㅁ / ㄴ Pron. Trascr.

Isolated (inital and final)

m, n m, n
Before [p, b] m mC, nC
Before the others n mC, nC

They are respectively [m] and [n], however their distinction isn't sharp: when they are preceded by a consonant, they can converged to each other, assimilating the same place of articolation of the following consonant.


ㄹ rEdit

Pron. Trascr.

Isolated (inital and final)

r r
Before consonant i y

It sounds as [r] (some speacker can render it [l] too), before consonant becomes [i] and trascribed "y".


GeminateEdit

Geminate consonants (or double consonants) are the following: ㅃ (pp), ㄸ (tt), ㄲ (kk), ㅉ (jj).

Before [i], ㄸ sounds as [ttʃ] ("cch") and ㅆ sounds as [ʃʃ] ("ssh").

Only ㅆ can be found at the end of a syllable.

Trascription tableEdit

Pron. ʒa ʒʒa da tta ta sa ssa
Trascr. ja jja da tta ta sa ssa
Pron. ʒi ʒʒi dʒi ttʃi tʃi ʃi ʃʃi
Trascr. ji jji dji cchi chi shi sshi
Pron. ʒa ʒʒa dʒa ttʃa tʃa ʃa ʃʃa
Trascr. jya jjya dja ccha cha sha ssha

FusionEdit

If the consonants meet each other because of the flection of words, they merge together according to following rules.

Stop Sibilant Nasal Trill
Stop Gemination Gemination Nasal (B) -
Sibilant Compound Gemination - Compound
Nasal Nasal (A) Nasal (A) Nasal (A) ???
Trill Trill Trill Trill

Note: sibilant is meant for fricative ㅅ [s, z, sh] plus affricate ㅈ [ʒ].

GeminationEdit

  • stop + stop
  • stop + sibilant
  • sibilant + sibilant

The second syllable head is doubbled, the first syllable tail is mute and not trascribed.

Exemples:

hab + 산san = 압싼hassan [ha(b) + ssan]

hab + 발bar = 압빨happar [ha(b) + ppar]


Compound consonantEdit

  • sibilant + stop
  • sibilant + trill

Compound consonants are a particular end clusters: 읎 (ps), 읐 (ss, coming from ts) and 윿 (ks). They are the result of an inversion between head and tail consonants.

Exemples:

has + 캄kam = 앇캄haksam [haks (k)am]

has + 롬rom = 았롬hassom [hass (r)om]


NasalEdit

A. Tail nasal (first syllable ending)

  • nasal + stop
  • nasal + sibilant
  • nasal + nasal

They are graphically unchanged, but the nasal place of articulation converge to the following consonant.

Exemples:

ham + 콘kon = 암콘hamkon [sounds like ankon]

han + 본 bon = 안본hanbon [sounds like hambon]


B. Head nasal (second syllable beginning)Edit
  • stop + nasal
  • sibilant + nasal

They are graphically unchanged, but stops and sibilants are mute and nasals are pronounced as they were doubbled.

They are trascribed as double nasals to semplify the reading.

Exemples:

hat + 만man = 앝만hamman [ha(t) man]

TrillEdit

  • trill + stop
  • trill + sibilant
  • trill + nasal

They are graphically unchanged, but [r] changed into [i] and it's trascribed as "y".

Exemples:

har + 만man = 알만hayman

hair + 만man = 앨만haiyman

VowelsEdit

Weak Basic Strong
Plain ㅑ [ja] ㅏ [a] ㅘ [wa]
Plain ㅕ[je] ㅓ[e] ㅝ [we]
Plain ㅟ [wi] ㅣ[i] ㅔ[ei]
Plain ㅛ [yo] ㅗ [o] ㅘ [wa]
Plain ㅟ [ju] ㅜ [u] ㅝ [we]
Natural ㅒ[jai] ㅐ [ai] ㅙ [wai]
Natural ㅖ [jei] ㅔ[ei] ㅞ [wei]

Note: ㅗ and ㅓ can be both open [ɔ, ɛ] or close [o, e]. In ㅔ, the sound [i] is really short.

Basic: these vowels are found in basic syllables.

Weak (y + basic): these vowels are the weakened (or palatized) version of the basic ones. Weakening is a productive phenomena to create new words. It expresses generally something "smaller" than the basic (such as 좀jom fire > 죰jyom flame).

Strong (w + basic): these vowels are the stenghten (or rounded) version of the basic ones. Strenghtening is also another phenomena to create new words. It express generally something "bigger" than the basic (such as 좀jom fire < 좜joam forestfire).

Natural (basic): are diphtongs admitted in the basic syllables.

Trascription note: "h" are omitted before "y" and "w"; ㅘ and ㅙ are written "wa" and "wai" at the beginning and "oa" and "oai" if preceded by a consonant.


GrammarEdit

Word OrderEdit

  1. Topic
  2. Subject
  3. Dative
  4. Object
  5. (Adverb) Predicate

Word order is quite free in the speech, but it's prefered the standard order in the writing.

The following could be a typical phrase:

"This morning, Mark gave to Paul the book as promised"

넛싼요, 매코삼아포로삼키톨고넬반시먼더킴바툐.

Nessanyo, Mayko-sama Foro-samki toygo neiyban-shimende kimbacho.

In details:

넛싼요nessanyo = morning (요 topic)

말코삼아Mayko-sama = (Mr.) Mark (아 subject)

포로삼키 Foro-samki = (Mr.) Paul (키 dative)

톨고 toygo = the book (고 object)

넬반시먼더neiyban-shimende = as promised (더 mode)

킴바툐kimbacho = gave.

NounsEdit

Case markersEdit

The cases are suffixes attached to the syllable they modify:

Plain Merged Main function
요 yo - topic
아 a - subject
고 go 꼬 kko object
도 do 또 tto additive
더 de 떠 de locative
시 shi 씨 sshi genitive
키 ki 끼 kki dative


The four direct casesEdit

Topic markerEdit

The main function is to mark the topic of the action and can be translated by "as per..." or "about...":

Function Exemple Meaning
Non-emphatic subject

켬키텃아쇼.

I go home.
Time of the event

켬키텃아쇼.

Today, I go home.
Place of the event

번아텃아쇼.

Home... I'm going.
Opinion , 텀아쿤다내낭. In my opinion, you're not kind.
Subject "container" 툘아원바쇼. As per the book, its pages are studied.
Subject "owner" 톨아날다시자. My book is really nice.


Subject markerEdit

The main function is to mark the subject of the action:


Function Exemple Meaning
Emphatic subcjet

켬키텃아쇼.

I go home myself.
Contrast 번요켬키텃아시, 텀셍다시낭. I go home, you stay here.


Additive markerEdit

This marker could be a little bit hard to understand. Let's say that mainly it means "with/and" and can be apply to any other marker:


Function Exemple Meaning
In place of subject

넝!

Me too!
Along with subject

텀요...

You and I...
Along with object 돈고언아터낭. I saw you to​o (as well as other people).



Object markerEdit

Its function is to mark the object of the action.

Function Exemple Meaning
Object

번요텀어나시.

I'm watching you.


The three indirect casesEdit

Locative markerEdit

Function Exemple Meaning
Place (in, at)

in town
Time (in, at) today / during the day
Cause

because of / thanks to you
Mode by foot
Agent ...텀언바터 ... be seen by you (passive clauses)
Object ...톨킴안 ... that buys the book (relative clauses)


Genitive markerEdit

Function Exemple Meaning
Property

톨요

my ("of me") book
Place (from)

from the town
Time (since) since today
Relationship 로마컴요 town of Rome


Dative markerEdit

Function Exemple Meaning
Place (to)

into/to town
Target (to, for)

for/to you
Along with vebrs 언엔 to see / for seeing


Other locative casesEdit

Exemple Meaning
맬 (face) 시맬더 in front of me / before me
(back) 시 떠 behind me / after me
발 (head) 시발더 on me / over me
틸 (feet) 시틸더 under me / beneath

더 can be change by 키 or 시 too.

"I'm going behind the house" = 번요켬시 끼텃아쇼benyo kyemshi reikki tezasho.

AdjectiveEdit

Positive grade (or zero grade)Edit

  • Radix + -i () (Invariable).

Exemple:

  • huzi = good, genuine (from hus "genuinity")


Comparative gradeEdit

  • Majority: adjective + -ka ()
  • Minority: adjective + -shi ()
  • Equality: adjective

Exemples:

  • huzi = good / as good as
  • huzika = better
  • huzishi = less good


Comparative word orderEdit

  • With noums: adjective + comparative + genitive.
  • With adjectives: majority + minority

Exemples:

  • wih noums: huzika masho = better than me (litt. better of me)
  • with adjectives: huzika ranishi = better than happy (litt. more good and less happy, e.g. "she's more good than happy")


Superlative gradeEdit

It uses the same comparative form with nothing next.

Exemple:

  • huzika = the best

Potential gradeEdit

DemostrativeEdit

  • Sheh (): "here", but also "this/these".
  • Teh (): "there", but also "that/those".

Sheh and teh are adverbs but are evoleved as demostratives too.

Exemples:

  • sheh bola = this pot, the pot here.
  • teh bola = that pot, the pot there.


Verbal adjective (nominal phrase)Edit

  • Adjective + -z () + verbal inflection.


An verbal ajdecite is simply an adjective merged with the contraction of "to be" (zir > -z). It acts as a verb.

Exemple:

  • I am good = huzizam (litt. "good-be-me").
  • huzi = good > huziz- = to be good.


As adjectives do, an adjectival verb can get superlative grade too.

Exemple:

  • I am better/the best = huzikazam (litt. "good-more-be-me").
  • huzi = good > huzika = better > huzikaz- = to be better.



ParticipleEdit

The participle is a verb mood with a nominal and adjectival function. Unlike other languages​​, elven participle is divided into two voices, rather than tences: solar (or active) and lunar (or passive).

  • Solar form: radix + -ai
  • Lunar form: radix + -ui


The solar form gives an active diathesis (voice) to the participle, while the lunar gives a passive one.

  • ran- = basic syllable for "happiness"
  • rani (adjective) = happy
  • ranai (solar) = amusing (that is making happy)
  • ranui (lunar) = amused (that is made happy)


Solar form is "giving the action", while the lunar form is "receiving the action", like in the exemple below:

  • ranai suda ranui sudadari ranizashi = an amusing person is making happy many amused persons.
  • suda ranai kojada kimara = a person takes an amusing book.
  • kujasho ranui, suda kujada kimate = amused by the book, a person bought it.


The participle can be also used to form agent nouns:

  • ran (happiness) + ai (solar) = ranai > toy (the thing that is amusing)</li></li>
  • jom (fire/burn) + ai (solar) = jomai > burner or kettle (the thing that is burning)</li>
      • jom (fire/burn) + ag (causative) + ai (solar) = jomagai > stewpan (the thing that is coocking)
      • jom (fire/burn) + ag (causative) + ui (lunar) = jomagui > stew (the thing that is cooked)

    Personal pronoumsEdit

    Personal pronoum: ma (me)Edit

    Singolar

    Plural

    Nominative

    Ma

    I

    Nominative

    Mari

    We

    마리

    Vocative

    A ma

    Just me

    Vocative

    A mari

    Just we

    아 마

    아 마리

    Accusative

    Mada

    Me

    Accusative

    Madari

    Us

    마타

    마타리

    Dative

    Mida

    To me

    Dative

    Midari

    To us

    미타

    미타리

    Genitive

    Masho

    Mine

    Genitive

    Mashori

    Ours

    마조

    마조리

    Ablative

    Misho

    From me

    Ablative

    Mishori

    From us

    미조

    미조리

    Locative

    Mani

    Inside me

    Locative

    Maniri

    Inside us

    마니

    마니리

    Illative

    Mini

    Toward me

    Illative

    Miniri

    Toward us

    미니

    미니리


    Personal pronoum: ka (you)Edit

    Singolar

    Plural

    Nominative

    Ka

    You

    Nominative

    Kari

    You all

    카리

    Vocative

    A ka

    Hey you

    Vocative

    A kari

    Hey y'all

    아 카

    아 카리

    Accusative

    Kada

    You

    Accusative

    Kadari

    You

    카타

    카타리

    Dative

    Kida

    To you

    Dative

    Kidari

    To you

    키타

    키타리

    Genitive

    Kasho

    Your

    Genitive

    Kashori

    Your

    카조

    카조리

    Ablative

    Kisho

    From you

    Ablative

    Kishori

    From you

    키조

    키조리

    Locative

    Kani

    Inside you

    Locative

    Kaniri

    Inside you

    카니

    카니리

    Illative

    Kini

    Toward you

    Illative

    Kiniri

    Toward you

    키니


    Personal pronoum: sha (he/she)Edit

    Note: It doesn't distinguish the gender.

    Singolar

    Plurale

    Nominative

    Sha

    He

    Nominative

    Shari

    They

    자리

    Vocative

    A sha

    Oh him!

    Vocative

    A Shari

    Oh them!

    아 자

    아 자리

    Accusative

    Shada

    Him

    Accusative

    Shadari

    Them

    자타

    자타리

    Dative

    Shida

    To him

    Dative

    Shidari

    To him

    지타

    지타리

    Genitive

    Shasho

    His / her

    Genitive

    Shashori

    Their

    자조

    자조리

    Ablative

    Shisho

    From him

    Ablative

    Shishori

    From them

    지조

    지조리

    Locative

    Shani

    Inside him

    Locative

    Shaniri

    Inside them

    자니

    자니리

    Illative

    Shini

    Toward him

    Illative

    Shiniri

    Toward them

    지니리


    VerbEdit

    Verb structureEdit

    Verbs are structured as following.


      1. Radix = the meaning-career part of the verb
      2. Diathesis = the voice that express the relationship between verbs and their arguments.
      3. Mood = the modality which the speaker expresses their attitude toward the action.
      4. Aspect = indicates if the action is ended or continous.
      5. Person = indicates who's doing the action.
      6. Number = indicates singolarity or plurality.

    Exemple using all the stems:

      • Junijishimi = We can see each other (but also "we can meet").

    Let's break the verb down:

      1. Jun = the radix syllable meaning "to see".
      2. -ij- = diathesis/voice that express reciprocity and can evolves the verb from "see each other" to "meet". "Seen each other" means "we stand one in front of the other, we meet each other".
      3. -i- = potential mood, expressing possibility.
      4. -shi- = imperfective indicates that the action is actual and it's not yet over.
      5. -m- = first person.
      6. -i- = plural for the first person.

    Another exemple:

      • Junagutekari = You (plural) would had the desire to show.

    Let's break it down:

      1. Jun = the radix syllable meaning "to see".
      2. -ag- = diathesis/voice that express causativity and can evolves the verb from "see" to "make see/show".
      3. -u- = optative mood, expressing desire or will.
      4. -te- = perfective indicates that the action is over.
      5. -ka- = second person.
      6. -ri- = plural for the second and third person.


    Note: Since the language was originally spoken by an Elf race, the language itself prefers aspects than tences. For an almost immortal Elf, time/tence is not that important. He doesn't care if the action was in the past, in the future or is happening right now. The point is "Is it already done/finished?". A verb like huzizashim means a sort of "I'm good and I'm continuing to be like that", while huzizatem means "I am good and I've finished to be like that".


    Diathesis (voice)Edit

      • Active: zero-stem


      • Passive: -ib- (ㅣㅂ)


      • Reflexive: -em- (ㅓㅁ)


      • Reciprocal: -ij- (ㅣㅊ)


      • Causative: -ag- (ㅏㄱ)

    Diathesis can make the verb evolving into what in English seems to be another verb.

    Exemple:

      • Junib = passive "been saw"
      • Junem = reflexive "see myself"
      • Junij = reciprocal "see each other" -> "meet"
      • Junag = causative "make see / let see" -> "show"
      • Johnada holemam = reflexive "I call myself John" -> "my name is John" [hol = "call, name"]
      • Holag = causative "send someone to call someone else" -> "to summon".
      • Jomag = causative "make something burns" -> "boil, coock" [jom = "fire"].

    Even mixing each other:

      • Junijib = reciprocal + passive "been met"
      • Junijem = reciprocal + reflexive "meet myself"
      • Junagem = causative + reflexive "show myself, be present at something, preside, take part in"


    MoodEdit

      • Indicative: -a- () ( I see)


      • Optative: -u () (I want to see, I would like to see, I desire to see, I would see)


      • Potential: -i () (I can see, I could see)


      • Imperative: -oa () (I must see, I have to see, I should see)

    Exemples:

      • Junam = I see.
      • Junum = I want to see, I would see, I would like to see, I desire to see.
      • Junim = I can see, I could see, there's a chance, probability or possibility that I see.
      • Junoaka = See!, you must see, you have to see, you should see.


    AspectEdit

      • Aorist: zero-stem


      • Imperfective: -shi- ()


      • Perfective: -te- ()


      • Future: -ra- ()

    Exemple:

      • zira = it is (undeniable truth over times)
      • zirashi = it is (still running)
      • zirate = it is (over)
      • zirara = it will be

    Again:

      • Johnada ziram = I'm John, I'm always been John and will be John even when I'll be dead.
      • Johnada zirashim = at the moment, I'm John
      • Johnada ziratem = I'm John nomore, I finished to be John (it's not really a past or a negation, it simply states that the "action of been John" is done, is over).
      • Johnada ziraram = I will be John, one day...

    We can say also:

      • Aorist = the door is always opened, forever.
      • Imperfective = I'm closing the door.
      • Perfective = the door is closed.
      • Future = the door isn't closed yet, but it will be.


    Note 1: As we stated before, the language is more aspectual than temporal. However the imperfective has a sense of present, while perfective has a sense of past. For instance, we can state that "I'm sitting, I sit" is imperfective, while "I'm seated" is perfective.

    Note 2: as per the verb zir (to be), the future plays an unexpected effect. Let's see below:


      • I will be in the town (static) = kemani ziraram (town.LOC be.IND.FUT.1sp)


      • I go to the town (dynamic) = kemini ziraram (town.ILL be.IND.FUT.1sp)

    "I will be" somehow also express that "I go" (...so I will be there.)


    Also with verbal adjective contrustions (let's remember that -z is a contraction of zir)​:


      • I'm good = huzizam (genuinity.ADJ.be.IND.1sp)


      • I become good = huzizaram (genuinity.ADJ.be.IND.FUT.1sp)

    "I will be good" express that "I become good" (... so I will be good). Thus, we can assume that the verb zir (to be) can also mean "to become" and/or "to go" by the future aspect.


    PersonEdit

      • First: -m ()


      • Second: -ka ()


      • Third: zero-stem


    NumberEdit

      • Singolar: zero-stem.
      • Plural for the first person: -i ()
      • Plural for the other persons: -ri ()



    Flection of jom (fire)Edit

    Basic syllables and derivations

      • Radix: jom = basic meaning "fire, to burn"

      • Reduced: jyom = flame
      • Reinforced: joam = forestfire

    Plural (valid for any forms: noun and verbs)

      • Plural (nominative): jyomari = flames

    Cases

      • Nominative: joma = the fire (subject)
      • Vocative: a joma = oh the fire!
      • Accusative: jomada = the fire (object)
      • Genitive: jomasho = of the fire
      • Locative: jomani = in the fire (without motion)
      • Dative: jomida = to the fire, for the fire
      • Ablative: jomisho = from the fire (with motion)
      • Illative: jomini = to the fire, in the fire, toward the fire (with motion)

    Adjectives and derivations

      • Adjective: jomi = warm, hot
      • Comparative of majority: jomika = warmer, hotter
      • Comparative of minority: jomishi = less warm, less hot
      • Adjectival verb: jomiz- = to be warm, to be hot

    Participles

      • Active: jomari = burning / "bern-er" -> kettle
      • Passive: jomui = burned
      • Potential: jomidi = inflammable

    Diathesis or voices

      • Active: jom- = to burn
      • Passive: jomib- = to be burned
      • Reflexive: jomem- = to burn oneself -> to get burned


      • Reciprocal: jomij- = to burn each other -> to talk excitedly (figurative)
      • Causative: jomag- = to make burn -> to boil, to coock

    Moods

      • Indicative: joma- = burn
      • Optative: jomu- = would burn, want to burn
      • Potential: jomi- = could burn, can burn
      • Imperative: jomoa- = should burn, must burn, have to burn

    Aspects (in the indicative mood)

      • Aorist: joma- = (never-ending) burn
      • Imperfective: jomashi'''''- = is/are burning (right now)
      • Perfective: jomate- = is/are done with burning (burning is over)
      • Future: jomara- = will burn, going to burn

    Persons (plus indicative mood and imperfective aspect)

      • First: jomashim = I'm burning
      • Second: jomashika = you are burning
      • Third: jomashi = he/she/it is burning

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