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Conlang

Latina borealis

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[[]]
'
Type
Alignment
Head direction
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f v (ð) s z h
Affricate ts
Approximant j
Trill r
Lateral app. l

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid e o
Open a

AlphabetEdit

Letter Sound
A /a/
B /b/
C /ts/
D /d/ ~ /ð/
E /e/
F /f/
G /g/
H /h/
I /i/
J /j/
L /l/
M /m/
N /n/ ~ /ŋ/
O /o/
P /p/
Q /k/
R /r/
S /s/
T /t/
U /u/
V /v/
X /ks/
Z /z/

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

NounsEdit

As LB derived from Latin, it still possesses Latin's declensional system. However, many changes were made to simplify it.

Generally speaking, nouns are declined for ...

  1. their gender - male, female or neuter
  2. their number - singular or plural
  3. their case - nominative, genitive, dative, accusative or ablative

Depending on how a noun ends, it is declined according to one of the following declensions.

o/u-DeclensionEdit

All nouns ending in -o or -u belong in this group.

Singular Plural
Nominative -o / -u -i
Genetive -i -orm
Dative -e -is
Accusative -om / -u -os / -i
Ablative -e -is

Most nouns ending in -o are male, most nouns ending in -u are neuter.

a-DeclensionEdit

All nouns ending in -a belong in this group.

Singular Plural
Nominative -a -e
Genetive -e -arm
Dative -e -is
Accusative -am -as
Ablative -a -is

Most nouns ending in -a are female.

Consonantal declensionEdit

All nouns ending with a consonant belong in this group.

Singular Plural
Nominative - -es
Genetive -is -orm
Dative -i -ips
Accusative -um -es
Ablative -i -ips

Nouns in this group could be either male, female ore neuter - there is no regularity.

VerbsEdit

LB has inherited Latin's conjugational system, but simplified it.

Generally speaking, verbs are conjugated for ...

  1. their person - first, second or third
  2. their number - singular or plural
  3. their tense - present, perfect, pluperfect or future
  4. their voice - active or passive
  5. their mood - indicative, subjunctive or imperative

Depending on how the infinitive ends, verbs belong in one of the following conjugations.

a-ConjugationEdit

Infinitive Active Passive
Present -ar -ari
Perfect -avise PPP + esser
Suffix
PPA -ans
PPP -ato / -ata / -atu
Singular Plural
Imperative -a -ate

Present stemEdit

Present - indicativeEdit
Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -om -ams 1st person -or -amur
2nd person -as -ac 2nd person -ars -amni
3rd person -at -ant 3rd person -atur -antur
Present - subjunctiveEdit
Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -em -ems 1st person -er -emur
2nd person -es -ec 2nd person -ers -emni
3rd person -et -ent 3rd person -etur -entur
Future - indicativeEdit
Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -abom -abims 1st person -abor -abimur
2nd person -abis -abic 2nd person -abirs -abimni
3rd person -abit -abint 3rd person -abitur -abantur

Perfect stemEdit

Perfect - indicativeEdit

The passive is formed from the PPP plus the present indicative active form of esser.

Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -avim -avims 1st person PPP + sum PPP - sums
2nd person -avis -avic 2nd person PPP + es PPP + estis
3rd person -avit -avirnt 3rd person PPP + est PPP + sunt
Perfect - subjunctiveEdit

The passive is formed from the PPP plus the present subjunctive active form of esser.

Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -avem -avems 1st person PPP + sim PPP + sims
2nd person -aves -avec 2nd person PPP + sis PPP + sic / sitis
3rd person -avet -avent 3rd person PPP + sit PPP + sint
Pluperfect - indicativeEdit

The passive is formed from the PPP plus the perfect indicative active form of esser.

Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -avirm -avirms 1st person PPP + fui PPP + fuims
2nd person -avirs -avirc 2nd person PPP + fuis PPP + fuic
3rd person -avirt -avirnt 3rd person PPP + fuit PPP + fuint
Pluperfect - subjunctiveEdit

The passive is formed from the PPP plus the perfect subjunctive active of esser.

Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -avisem -avisems 1st person PPP + fuisem PPP + fuisems
2nd person -avises -avisec 2nd person PPP + fuises PPP + fuisec
3rd person -aviset -avisent 3rd person PPP + fuiset PPP + fuisent

e-ConjugationEdit

Infinitive Active Passive
Present -er -eri
Perfect -uise PPP + esser
Suffix
PPA -ens
PPP -eto / -eta / -etu
Singular Plural
Imperative -e -ete

Present stemEdit

Present - indicativeEdit
Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -om -ems 1st person -or -emur
2nd person -es -ec 2nd person -ers -emni
3rd person -et -ent 3rd person -etur -entur
Present - subjunctiveEdit
Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -am -ams 1st person -ar -amur
2nd person -as -ac 2nd person -ars -amni
3rd person -at -ant 3rd person -atur -antur
Future - indicativeEdit
Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -ebom -ebims 1st person -ebor -ebimur
2nd person -ebis -ebic 2nd person -ebirs -ebimni
3rd person -ebit -ebint 3rd person -ebitur -ebintur

Perfect stemEdit

Perfect - indicativeEdit

The passive is formed from the PPP plus the present indicative active form of esser.

Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -uim -uims 1st person PPP + sum PPP - sums
2nd person -uis -uic 2nd person PPP + es PPP + estis
3rd person -uit -uirnt 3rd person PPP + est PPP + sunt
Perfect - subjunctiveEdit

The passive is formed from the PPP plus the present subjunctive active form of esser.

Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -uem -uems 1st person PPP + sim PPP + sims
2nd person -ues -uec 2nd person PPP + sis PPP + sic / sitis
3rd person -uet -uent 3rd person PPP + sit PPP + sint
Pluperfect - indicativeEdit

The passive is formed from the PPP plus the perfect indicative active form of esser.

Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -uirm -uirms 1st person PPP + fui PPP + fuims
2nd person -uirs -uirc 2nd person PPP + fuis PPP + fuic
3rd person -uirt -uirnt 3rd person PPP + fuit PPP + fuint
Pluperfect - subjunctiveEdit

The passive is formed from the PPP plus the perfect subjunctive active of esser.

Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -uisem -uisems 1st person PPP + fuisem PPP + fuisems
2nd person -uises -uisec 2nd person PPP + fuises PPP + fuisec
3rd person -uiset -uisent 3rd person PPP + fuiset PPP + fuisent

i-ConjugationEdit

Infinitive Active Passive
Present -ir -iri
Perfect -ivise PPP + esser
Suffix
PPA -ins
PPP -ito / -ita / -itu
Singular Plural
Imperative -i -ite

Present stemEdit

Present - indicativeEdit
Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -om -ims 1st person -or -imur
2nd person -is -ic 2nd person -irs -imni
3rd person -it -int 3rd person -itur -intur
Present - subjunctiveEdit
Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -em -ems 1st person -er -emur
2nd person -es -ec 2nd person -ers -emni
3rd person -et -ent 3rd person -etur -entur
Future - indicativeEdit
Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -am -ams 1st person -ar -amur
2nd person -as -ac 2nd person -ars -amni
3rd person -at -ant 3rd person -atur -antur

Perfect stemEdit

Perfect - indicativeEdit

The passive is formed from the PPP plus the present indicative active form of esser.

Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -ivim -ivims 1st person PPP + sum PPP - sums
2nd person -ivis -ivic 2nd person PPP + es PPP + estis
3rd person -ivit -ivirnt 3rd person PPP + est PPP + sunt
Perfect - subjunctiveEdit

The passive is formed from the PPP plus the present subjunctive active form of esser.

Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -ivem -ivems 1st person PPP + sim PPP + sims
2nd person -ives -ivec 2nd person PPP + sis PPP + sic / sitis
3rd person -ivet -ivent 3rd person PPP + sit PPP + sint
Pluperfect - indicativeEdit

The passive is formed from the PPP plus the perfect indicative active form of esser.

Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -iverm -iverms 1st person PPP + fui PPP + fuims
2nd person -ivers -iverc 2nd person PPP + fuis PPP + fuic
3rd person -ivert -ivernt 3rd person PPP + fuit PPP + fuint
Pluperfect - subjunctiveEdit

The passive is formed from the PPP plus the perfect subjunctive active of esser.

Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -ivisem -ivisems 1st person PPP + fuisem PPP + fuisems
2nd person -ivises -ivisec 2nd person PPP + fuises PPP + fuisec
3rd person -iviset -ivisent 3rd person PPP + fuiset PPP + fuisent

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


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