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Latina borealis

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'
Type
Alignment
Head direction
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f v (ð) s z h
Affricate ts
Approximant j
Trill r
Lateral app. l

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid e o
Open a

AlphabetEdit

Letter Sound
A /a/
B /b/
C /ts/
D /d/ ~ /ð/
E /e/
F /f/
G /g/
H /h/
I /i/
J /j/
L /l/
M /m/
N /n/ ~ /ŋ/
O /o/
P /p/
Q /k/
R /r/
S /s/
T /t/
U /u/
V /v/
X /ks/
Z /z/

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

NounsEdit

As LB derived from Latin, it still possesses Latin's declensional system. However, many changes were made to simplify it.

Generally speaking, nouns are declined for ...

  1. their gender - male, female or neuter
  2. their number - singular or plural
  3. their case - nominative, genitive, dative, accusative or ablative

Depending on how a noun ends, it is declined according to one of the following declensions.

o/u-DeclensionEdit

All nouns ending in -o or -u belong in this group.

Singular Plural
Nominative -o / -u -i
Genetive -i -orm
Dative -e -is
Accusative -om / -u -os / -i
Ablative -e -is

Most nouns ending in -o are male, most nouns ending in -u are neuter.

a-DeclensionEdit

All nouns ending in -a belong in this group.

Singular Plural
Nominative -a -e
Genetive -e -arm
Dative -e -is
Accusative -am -as
Ablative -a -is

Most nouns ending in -a are female.

Consonantal declensionEdit

All nouns ending with a consonant belong in this group.

Singular Plural
Nominative - -es
Genetive -is -orm
Dative -i -ips
Accusative -um -es
Ablative -i -ips

Nouns in this group could be either male, female ore neuter - there is no regularity.

VerbsEdit

LB has inherited Latin's conjugational system, but simplified it.

Generally speaking, verbs are conjugated for ...

  1. their person - first, second or third
  2. their number - singular or plural
  3. their tense - present, perfect, pluperfect or future
  4. their voice - active or passive
  5. their mood - indicative, subjunctive or imperative

Depending on how the infinitive ends, verbs belong in one of the following conjugations.

a-ConjugationEdit

Infinitive Active Passive
Present -ar -ari
Perfect -avise PPP + esser
Suffix
PPA -ans
PPP -ato / -ata / -atu
Singular Plural
Imperative -a -ate

Present stemEdit

Present - indicativeEdit
Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -om -ams 1st person -or -amur
2nd person -as -ac 2nd person -ars -amni
3rd person -at -ant 3rd person -atur -antur
Present - subjunctiveEdit
Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -em -ems 1st person -er -emur
2nd person -es -ec 2nd person -ers -emni
3rd person -et -ent 3rd person -etur -entur
Future - indicativeEdit
Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -abom -abims 1st person -abor -abimur
2nd person -abis -abic 2nd person -abirs -abimni
3rd person -abit -abint 3rd person -abitur -abantur

Perfect stemEdit

Perfect - indicativeEdit

The passive is formed from the PPP plus the present indicative active form of esser.

Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -avim -avims 1st person PPP + sum PPP - sums
2nd person -avis -avic 2nd person PPP + es PPP + estis
3rd person -avit -avirnt 3rd person PPP + est PPP + sunt
Perfect - subjunctiveEdit

The passive is formed from the PPP plus the present subjunctive active form of esser.

Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -avem -avems 1st person PPP + sim PPP + sims
2nd person -aves -avec 2nd person PPP + sis PPP + sic / sitis
3rd person -avet -avent 3rd person PPP + sit PPP + sint
Pluperfect - indicativeEdit

The passive is formed from the PPP plus the perfect indicative active form of esser.

Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -avirm -avirms 1st person PPP + fui PPP + fuims
2nd person -avirs -avirc 2nd person PPP + fuis PPP + fuic
3rd person -avirt -avirnt 3rd person PPP + fuit PPP + fuint
Pluperfect - subjunctiveEdit

The passive is formed from the PPP plus the perfect subjunctive active of esser.

Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -avisem -avisems 1st person PPP + fuisem PPP + fuisems
2nd person -avises -avisec 2nd person PPP + fuises PPP + fuisec
3rd person -aviset -avisent 3rd person PPP + fuiset PPP + fuisent

e-ConjugationEdit

Infinitive Active Passive
Present -er -eri
Perfect -uise PPP + esser
Suffix
PPA -ens
PPP -eto / -eta / -etu
Singular Plural
Imperative -e -ete

Present stemEdit

Present - indicativeEdit
Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -om -ems 1st person -or -emur
2nd person -es -ec 2nd person -ers -emni
3rd person -et -ent 3rd person -etur -entur
Present - subjunctiveEdit
Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -am -ams 1st person -ar -amur
2nd person -as -ac 2nd person -ars -amni
3rd person -at -ant 3rd person -atur -antur
Future - indicativeEdit
Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -ebom -ebims 1st person -ebor -ebimur
2nd person -ebis -ebic 2nd person -ebirs -ebimni
3rd person -ebit -ebint 3rd person -ebitur -ebintur

Perfect stemEdit

Perfect - indicativeEdit

The passive is formed from the PPP plus the present indicative active form of esser.

Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -uim -uims 1st person PPP + sum PPP - sums
2nd person -uis -uic 2nd person PPP + es PPP + estis
3rd person -uit -uirnt 3rd person PPP + est PPP + sunt
Perfect - subjunctiveEdit

The passive is formed from the PPP plus the present subjunctive active form of esser.

Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -uem -uems 1st person PPP + sim PPP + sims
2nd person -ues -uec 2nd person PPP + sis PPP + sic / sitis
3rd person -uet -uent 3rd person PPP + sit PPP + sint
Pluperfect - indicativeEdit

The passive is formed from the PPP plus the perfect indicative active form of esser.

Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -uirm -uirms 1st person PPP + fui PPP + fuims
2nd person -uirs -uirc 2nd person PPP + fuis PPP + fuic
3rd person -uirt -uirnt 3rd person PPP + fuit PPP + fuint
Pluperfect - subjunctiveEdit

The passive is formed from the PPP plus the perfect subjunctive active of esser.

Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -uisem -uisems 1st person PPP + fuisem PPP + fuisems
2nd person -uises -uisec 2nd person PPP + fuises PPP + fuisec
3rd person -uiset -uisent 3rd person PPP + fuiset PPP + fuisent

i-ConjugationEdit

Infinitive Active Passive
Present -ir -iri
Perfect -ivise PPP + esser
Suffix
PPA -ins
PPP -ito / -ita / -itu
Singular Plural
Imperative -i -ite

Present stemEdit

Present - indicativeEdit
Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -om -ims 1st person -or -imur
2nd person -is -ic 2nd person -irs -imni
3rd person -it -int 3rd person -itur -intur
Present - subjunctiveEdit
Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -em -ems 1st person -er -emur
2nd person -es -ec 2nd person -ers -emni
3rd person -et -ent 3rd person -etur -entur
Future - indicativeEdit
Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -am -ams 1st person -ar -amur
2nd person -as -ac 2nd person -ars -amni
3rd person -at -ant 3rd person -atur -antur

Perfect stemEdit

Perfect - indicativeEdit

The passive is formed from the PPP plus the present indicative active form of esser.

Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -ivim -ivims 1st person PPP + sum PPP - sums
2nd person -ivis -ivic 2nd person PPP + es PPP + estis
3rd person -ivit -ivirnt 3rd person PPP + est PPP + sunt
Perfect - subjunctiveEdit

The passive is formed from the PPP plus the present subjunctive active form of esser.

Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -ivem -ivems 1st person PPP + sim PPP + sims
2nd person -ives -ivec 2nd person PPP + sis PPP + sic / sitis
3rd person -ivet -ivent 3rd person PPP + sit PPP + sint
Pluperfect - indicativeEdit

The passive is formed from the PPP plus the perfect indicative active form of esser.

Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -iverm -iverms 1st person PPP + fui PPP + fuims
2nd person -ivers -iverc 2nd person PPP + fuis PPP + fuic
3rd person -ivert -ivernt 3rd person PPP + fuit PPP + fuint
Pluperfect - subjunctiveEdit

The passive is formed from the PPP plus the perfect subjunctive active of esser.

Active Singular Plural Passive Singular Plural
1st person -ivisem -ivisems 1st person PPP + fuisem PPP + fuisems
2nd person -ivises -ivisec 2nd person PPP + fuises PPP + fuisec
3rd person -iviset -ivisent 3rd person PPP + fuiset PPP + fuisent

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1IContionary_Wiki
2you (singular)Contionary_Wiki
3heContionary_Wiki
4weContionary_Wiki
5you (plural)Contionary_Wiki
6theyContionary_Wiki
7thisContionary_Wiki
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17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
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20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
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30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


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