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Latirdo

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LATIRDO Edit

Latirdo

Latirdan Kess/ψoⱶιɥҷoⱱ ϑ϶ƽƽ

Type
Agglutinative/fusional
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
Yes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

Latirdo [lati:ɾdo] is a language spoken by close to 9 million Humanoids in the Latirda-Valley (Latirdanpiovi) area. It belongs to the group West-Isiat or the Isiat language family. This language I have been constructing for over a year now and its dictionary has gotten to 3,200 words. Latirdo traditionally uses the Isialuior Script, but for ease of reading and typing, in this article the Latin Script is used to write.

PhonologyEdit

Latirdo phonology is not that much different from European languages, although it is not in any way etymologically related to Indo-European. 

Labial Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive p t        d k          '
Fricative       b

þ      ð

s       z  x             j        g h
Affricate ts  tx            dj
Lateral           l
Nasal       m          n
Liquid       w                    y
Tap, flap          r
Trill          rr












VOWELS
Front Central Back
High i, i: ʏ ʏː u uː
Mid ɛ eː ʌ ɔ oː
Low æ a aː

MorphologyEdit

Latirdo is an agglutinative / fusional language, straddling the two categories. The rule is that if it's one idea, it's one word, and crazily long words can be made by not only making compound words but conjugating and declining to add on length. The longest recorded "official" compound is murniarkavatiellanlatsukkusutaihtunovinitivintodussuyukkéodustalle, and that means with the deciduous forest's admirable official general's office building's big windows.

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

In Latirdo, nouns can be declined according to case, and number. And because of the subject and object marking with case, syntax is very flexible although it usually follows a pattern of SVO.

NOUN CASESEdit

NOUN DECLENSION
CASE Singular Plural Suffix
Nominative Lira Lirat none
Accusative Liret Liratet -t, -et
Genitive Liran Liraten -n, -en
Comitative Liralte Liratalle -lte, -alle
Vocative Liras Lirates -s, -es

Latirdo has 5 noun cases.

PLURALIZATION

There are two numbers: singular, and plural. A noun is default singular alone, and requires a suffix to denote plurality, the suffix changes depending on the final letter of the noun, and nouns are pluralized BEFORE their case is specified.

lira → lirat (ending in -rV)

mluss → mlusst (ending in -s)

kava → kavar (ending in -V)

kúan → kúanar (ending in -nasal consonant)

ajor → ajorat (ending in -r)

tok → tokre (ending in plosive)

kiz → kizd (ending in -z)

     -note for accusative with type A, the first listed, the final vowel is changed automatically to -e to differentiate from the plural, as both are defined with the suffix -t

DIMINUTIVE AND AUGMENTATIVE

Nouns, before pluralization and declension, can take on a suffix denoting smallness, the diminutive, or largeness, the augmentative

diminutive -edis empowering -odus

lira → house, liredis → little house / cottage

                lirodus → big house / mansion

-note the final vowel is changed to the first vowel of the suffix*

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives are always placed AFTER the nouns they describe, and they must also change their endings depending on the next variable...

GENDERS

Adjective endings are changed depending on the gender of the noun they describe. Noun classes - or genders - in Latirdo have adjectives take the following forms...

Inanimate - lasiþ

Animate - lasið

Abstract - lasisk

Plural All - lasi

NOUNS DERIVED FROM ADJECTIVES

The simple suffix -e can be put on the end of any adjective in its default INANIMATE form to make it a noun possessing the quality denoted by the adjective.

goáiþ → red

goáiþe → "the red one"

these nouns can be declined and pluralized just like any other noun.

SUPERLATIVE AND COMPARATIVE

The superlative and comparative are made with the simple particles "iss mü" and "iz", which mean "more than" and "most". These can be attached hyphenated or not onto the front of any adjective, so the difference between (red, redder reddest) is (goáiþ, iss-goáiþ, iz-goáiþ)

AdverbsEdit

Adverbs in Latirdo are non-existent and the regular adjectives are simply used because they can describe both nouns and verbs, although since verbs do not have gender, the adjective takes the default -þ for INANIMATE ending.

Articles Edit

Articles do not exist in Latirdo, however to specify familiarity, the pronouns 'tai' for 'this/the' or 'nei' for 'one/a/an' are used, and they are put BEFORE the noun. In old Latirdo, there used to be a suffix -i denoting familiarity, it has long since been irradicated, yet still retains in some words (þtóri, tai, varía, mori, mirigí, etc...)

Numerals Edit

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 20 30 100 1000
number ulla nei kej xa loi góa kóa suvi dra vér vérnei vermú vérkej múver kejver dóyu vérdóyu
ordinal uliþ neiþ múlþ keiþ xaþ loiþ góaþ kóaþ suviþ draþ véreþ vérneiþ vérmúlþ vérkeiþ múvéreþ kejvéreþ dóyuþ vérdóyuþ
piece semi ómi ximua xikua xixua xiloua xigoa xikoa xisuvua xidraua xivérua xivérneiua xivérmúa xivérkua ximúverua xikejverua xidóyua xiverdóyua

VerbsEdit

Verbs are by far the most complex part of speech in Latirdo, as every verb can have up to five hundred and some possible conjugations, since person, number, and mood are all denoted in the conjugation via prefixing and suffixing. Instead of building onto conjugation making long, incredibly complex verb forms, one may use the default verb "ft-" for mood and the verb done by the subject with conjugation.

CONJUGATION 

↓person↓ Pluperfect Past perfect Perfect Past Recent Present Future Imminent
1sg mlimeksi mlimelessa mlimessa mlimel mlimelli mlime mlimetti mlimettili
2sg mlimoksi mlimolossa mlimossa mlimol mlimolli mlimo mlimotti mlimottili
3sg mlimaksi mlimalassa mlimassa mlimal mlimalli mlima mlimatti mlimattili
3sg inan. mlimauksi mlimulussa mlimaussa mlimul mlimulli mlimau mlimautti mlimauttili
1pl mlimemiksi mlimemilessa mlimensa mlimemil mlimemilli mlimem mlimenti mlimentili
2pl mlimomiksi mlimomilossa mlimonsa mlimomil mlimomilli mlimom mlimonti mlimontili
3pl mlimamiksi mlimamilassa mlimansa mlimamil mlimamilli mlimam mlimanti mlimantili
1pl inc. mliméoksi mliméolossa mliméossa mliméol mliméolli mliméo mliméotti mliméottili

verb in use: "mlimea" (to drink)

(inc. - inclusiveinan. - inanimate)

THE PROGRESSIVE

the progressive tense is denoted by adding the particle "sa" after the verb, and can be added onto any verb with any conjugation and tense.

MOODS

Mood Latirdo Translation
Normal indicative kuote I want
Interrogative kuote do I want?
Negative uy-kuote I do not want
Imperative kuote I must want
Possible kuotenus I may/can want

-if moods are to be used together, they are to be attached in the order that they are displayed in the chart.-moods are indicated AFTER personal and tense conjugation. 

THE INFINITIVE

The infinitive in Latirdo is formed by adding -ea or -rea on the end of the stem depending on if it ends in a vowel (except for u-), or not. If yes, the latter is used, if no, the former.

ai- → airea

kuot- → kuotea

vin- → vinea

mi- → mirea

Infinitives can also be treated like nouns, and can be declined, like in the sentence (I like to read) one would use the form "luea" as a noun, taking the COMITATIVE case as is required with the verb "mirea", it would become (Eté mie luealte)

TRANSITIVE VERBS

Any verb can be done by the object by the addition of a particle 'ti' after the suffix -issi / -ssi, denoting that the object is also a subject. It is the equivalent of english 'make ___ do something', and can be substituted with the verb "hrűea", meaning 'to force', and this construction does not require the particle 'ti'. Take the following examples...

Toise - I sleep

Toise ossi ti - I make you sleep

Huíremil - we sang

Huíremil amissi ti - we made them sing

IRREGULAR VERBS

There are charted 15 irregular verbs in Latirdo, making it fairly low on irregularities. the following common verbs are irregular... airea, vintea, iestea, islairea, namea, ðoirea, erea. In this article, they will not be conjugated.

PronounsEdit

PERSONAL

Nominative Accusative Genitive Comitative
1sg eté es en elte
2sg otó os on olte
3sg atá as an alte
3sg inan. űr űret űn űlte
1pl enté est eng emalle
2pl ontó ost ong omalle
3pl antá ast ang amalle
1pl inc. etéo eost eon eolle
1+2+3 itoi oist oinen oille

-there is no gender distinction in pronouns

RELATIVE

interrogative conjunctive this... that... none... every/all...
PERSON mar marmu marí marú semar ðumar
THING mer mermu tai tai semer ðumer
TIME mor mormu mori urú semor ðumor
PLACE muér muérmu étte ótte, urú semuér ðumuér
REASON mirki mirkimu mirkí mirkú semirki ðumirki
MEANS miriga mirig(a)mu mirigí mirigú semiriga ðumiriga

NOTE ON CONJUNCTIVE: In the conjunctive to say for example "with he who", one would use the conjunctive of person "marmu" and decline the "mar" to "malle" to get "mallemu - with he who", and this can be done with any of them by removing -r and adding -lle (mallemu, mellemu, mirkillemu, muéllemu) this also is done for accusative and other cases (metmu, matmu, muétmu).

CASES: Often pronouns are declined, which is done by removing -r and adding -t, which is a fairly simple rule. This chart only shoes the pronouns in their NOMINATIVE form. For example, to say "what are you doing?", the "what" is in the accusative, so mer → met (met oiro sa?)

-note that if an interrogative pronoun is used, the interrogative particle is not needed

PrepositionsEdit

Prepositions in Latirdo work the same way as they do in English. Here are some prepositions...

ðu - in

arðu - into

el - of

mlá - away from

geue - by

algeue - alongside

uf - over

el nuvu el - under

okxi - next to

el nóy (el) - outside

ðu þrú (el) - inside

ar - to

tilla - through

ulja - across

lúm - in terms of

Language ExamplesEdit

ARTICLE #1 OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS DECLARATION:

  Óm ajorat nolam horþ su vartarþ lúm sástolla su kuórmia. Antá fam malirþ tiyot su tissodat su faramassanü safkailanívkualte.

FIRST PARAGRAPH OF THE BOOK 'ULMUSEA' WRITTEN IN LATIRDO:

  Femil toirþ ar tuðen jertar geue póvifojna uiknavissiþ el toroskira mu kaksal sa ar enté oz ivuttariar fíttaralle. Iss su iss aréjmemil, sti ðumor ugamil est. Uy-erul skúa nurkentiedis mu kassolnamil eng naset. Sti ftamil ðu tuss su siesodus. Sies erul xo el eng árastre, űret mu uy-gúremilus úai listrosemilus, ðumor holkemiksi sa ar kiri, merur quéar semor vinamiksi el fea nurkairþ. Okonar tiffarmisinamil, dauestottar ftamil véo, tvuirat iz essirirþ ar enté famil polstirþ.
     using Latin script


     using Isialuior script
  (σ϶өιψ ⱶơιɥƿ oɥ ⱶɞӈ϶ⱱ ҧ϶ɥⱶoɥ ɤ϶ɞ϶ ϱớϻισơҧⱱo ɞιϑⱱoϻιƽƽιƿ ϶ψ ⱶơɥơƽϑιɥo өɞ ϑoϑƽoψ ƽo oɥ ϶ⱱⱶɜ̃ ơƨ ιϻɞⱶⱶoɥιoɥ σíⱶⱶoɥoψψ϶. ιƽƽ ƽɞ ιƽƽ oɥɜ̃ҧө϶өιψ, ƽⱶι ӈɞөơɥ ɞɤoөιψ ϶ƽⱶ. ɞԇ-϶ɥɞψ ƽϑɞ᾿o ⱱɞɥϑ϶ⱱⱶι϶ҷιƽ өɞ ϑoƽƽơψⱱoөιψ ϶ⱱɤ ⱱoƽ϶ⱶ. ƽⱶι σⱶoөιψ ӈɞ ⱶɞƽƽ ƽɞ ƽι϶ƽơҷɞƽ. ƽι϶ƽ ϶ɥɞψ ɕơ ϶ψ ϶ⱱɤ óɥoƽⱶɥ϶, үүɥ϶ⱶ өɞ ɞԇ-ɤɞ᾿ɥ϶өιψɞƽ ɞ᾿oι ψιƽⱶɥơƽ϶өιψɞƽ, ӈɞөơɥ ɂơψϑ϶өιϑƽι ƽo oɥ ϑιɥι, ө϶ɥɞɥ ϑɞɜ̃oɥ ƽ϶өơɥ ϻιⱱoөιϑƽι ϶ψ σ϶o ⱱɞɥϑoιɥƿ. ơϑơⱱoɥ ⱶισσoɥөιƽιⱱoөιψ, ҷoɞ϶ƽⱶơⱶⱶoɥ σⱶoөιψ ϻɜ̃ơ, ⱶϻɞιɥoⱶ ιƨ-϶ƽƽ϶ψιɥƿ oɥ ϶ⱱⱶɜ̃ σoөιψ ϱơψƽⱶιɥƿ.)
Latirdo comic

This is a comic showing the intricate conjugations of the verb "erea" (to be) in Latirdo, playing into the 'europe vountry balls' series thing. Latirdo ball relates with Finland ball because they both have complex verbs whereas the Germanic countries are dying because their conjugation is very simple.

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