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Lavinés

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Lavinese
Lavinés
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Lavinese (Lavinés) is a romance language spoken in Lavinya in the north of real-world Italy. It has evolved from vulgar Latin but, unlike other romance languages, also kept some aspects from standard Latin, e.g. declension.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Labiovelar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f v s z h
Affricate t͡ʃ d͡ʒ
Approximant j w
Liquid l
Trill r

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close i u
Close-mid e
Open-mid ɜ
Open a

AlphabetEdit

Lavinese uses the standard Latin alphabet:

letter IPA
a /a/
b /b/
c /k/~/t͡ʃ/¹
d /d/
e /e/
f /f/
g /g/~/d͡ʒ/¹
h /h/
i /i/
j /d͡ʒ/
k /k/
l /l/
m /m/
n /n/
o /ɜ/
p /p/
q /k/²
r /r/
s /s/
t /t/
u /u/³
v /v/
w /w/
x /k͡s/
y /j/
z /z/

¹/k/ and /g/ before a, h, o, u, and y; /t͡ʃ/ and /d͡ʒ/ before e and i

²only in the digraph qu /k͡w/

³/w/ before other vowel

DigraphsEdit

Lavinese has the following digraphs:

digraph IPA
ay /aj/
ch /k/
ci /t͡ʃ/¹
ey /ej/
gh /g/
gi /d͡ʒ/¹
ng /ŋ/
nk /ŋk/
oy /ɜj/
qu /k͡w/
ti /t͡si/¹
uy /uj/

¹only in front of a vowel

StressEdit

Stress is either on the second to last syllable or, if a syllable is marked with an acute accent, on that syllable. As loanwords are always fit to the Lavinese spelling rules, there is no exception to that rule.

PhonotacticsEdit

(C)(C)V(C)

The second consonant can only be a liquid, trill, or approximant behind a plosive or fricative (approximants also behind nasals and affricates).

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Participles Yes No Yes No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

VerbsEdit

There are four conjugation classes in Lavinese: a, e, long i, and short i

An example for a-conjugation is imari (to love)

1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Singular imo imas ima
Plural imam imat iman
Participle imat

An example for e-conjugation is hiberi (to have)

1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Singular hibo hibes hibe
Plural hibem hibet hiben
Participle hibet

An example for long-i-conjugation is veniri (to come)

1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Singular venyo venis veni
Plural venim venit venyun
Participle venit

An example for short-i-conjugation is agir (to act)

1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Singular ago agis agi
Plural agim agit agyun
Participle act (irregular*)
  • The participle of the short-i-conjugation has no regular form.

Imperfect (Imperféct)Edit

The imperfect is used for continuous actions in the past. It is formed by dropping all letters of the infinitive ending except the first and adding -v- and the corresponding present ending of the a-conjugation. In short-i-conjogation the stress stays on its position in the infinitive, marked by an acute accent.

imari --> ima-v-o

Perfect (Perféct)Edit

The perfect is used for actions starting at a certain point in the past. It is the present form of hiberi plus the participle of the verb.

hibo imat

Pluperfect (Pyus que perféct)Edit

The pluperfect is used for something that happened, before something else in the past (expressed by imperfect) happens. It is the imperfect form of hiberi plus the participle of the verb.

hibevo imat

Future (Futúr I)Edit

The future is used for actions expected to take place in the future. It is formed by dropping the final -i of the infinitive ending (except in short-i-conjugation, which doesn't have a final -i) and adding -ib- and the corresponding present ending of the e-conjugation.

imari --> imar-ib-o

Future perfect (Futúr II)Edit

The future perfect is used for actions that will have taken place before another action in the future (expressed by future). It is the future form of hiberi plus the participle of the verb.

hiberibo imat

CopulaEdit

The copula is the English verb to be. In Lavinese it is essi.

The following table shows the conjugation of essi:

1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Present Singular so es es
Plural sum est sun
Imperfect Singular ero eras era
Plural eram erat eran
Future Singular esso esses esse
Plural essem esset essen
Participle est

VoicesEdit

Lavinese has two voices: active and passive.

The passive voice is is formed with any form of essi + the participle of the verb.

NounsEdit

There are four cases in Lavinese: nominative, genitive, dative, and accusative

There are three declension classes, each belonging to one gender: a/feminine, short u/masculine, and long u/neuter.

An example for a-declension is lengua (language/ tongue).

nominative genitive dative accusative
Singular lengua lengui lengui lenguan
Plural lengui lenguar lenguis lenguas

An example for short-u-declension is sol (sun).

nominative genitive dative accusative
Singular sol soli solu solun
Plural soli solur solis solus

An example for long-u-declension is ovun (egg)

nominative genitive dative accusative
Singular ovun ovi ovu ovun
Plural ova ovur ovis ova

In short-u-declension the stem is sometimes changed in all cases but nominative (hom; homini (human; man)) or only if the ending begins with a u (fil; fili; filyu (son))

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives always agree with the noun they describe in number, case, and gender.

VocabularyEdit

Lavinese dictionary


No. English
1IContionary_Wiki
2you (singular)Contionary_Wiki
3heContionary_Wiki
4weContionary_Wiki
5you (plural)Contionary_Wiki
6theyContionary_Wiki
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatContionary_Wiki
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


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