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Lavinés

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Lavinese
Lavinés
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Lavinese (Lavinés) is a romance language spoken in Lavinya in the north of real-world Italy. It has evolved from vulgar Latin but, unlike other romance languages, also kept some aspects from standard Latin, e.g. declension.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Labiovelar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f v s z h
Affricate t͡ʃ d͡ʒ
Approximant j w
Liquid l
Trill r

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close i u
Close-mid e
Open-mid ɜ
Open a

AlphabetEdit

Lavinese uses the standard Latin alphabet:

letter IPA
a /a/
b /b/
c /k/~/t͡ʃ/¹
d /d/
e /e/
f /f/
g /g/~/d͡ʒ/¹
h /h/
i /i/
j /d͡ʒ/
k /k/
l /l/
m /m/
n /n/
o /ɜ/
p /p/
q /k/²
r /r/
s /s/
t /t/
u /u/³
v /v/
w /w/
x /k͡s/
y /j/
z /z/

¹/k/ and /g/ before a, h, o, u, and y; /t͡ʃ/ and /d͡ʒ/ before e and i

²only in the digraph qu /k͡w/

³/w/ before other vowel

DigraphsEdit

Lavinese has the following digraphs:

digraph IPA
ay /aj/
ch /k/
ci /t͡ʃ/¹
ey /ej/
gh /g/
gi /d͡ʒ/¹
ng /ŋ/
nk /ŋk/
oy /ɜj/
qu /k͡w/
ti /t͡si/¹
uy /uj/

¹only in front of a vowel

StressEdit

Stress is either on the second to last syllable or, if a syllable is marked with an acute accent, on that syllable. As loanwords are always fit to the Lavinese spelling rules, there is no exception to that rule.

PhonotacticsEdit

(C)(C)V(C)

The second consonant can only be a liquid, trill, or approximant behind a plosive or fricative (approximants also behind nasals and affricates).

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Participles Yes No Yes No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

VerbsEdit

There are four conjugation classes in Lavinese: a, e, long i, and short i

An example for a-conjugation is imari (to love)

1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Singular imo imas ima
Plural imam imat iman
Participle imat

An example for e-conjugation is hiberi (to have)

1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Singular hibo hibes hibe
Plural hibem hibet hiben
Participle hibet

An example for long-i-conjugation is veniri (to come)

1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Singular venyo venis veni
Plural venim venit venyun
Participle venit

An example for short-i-conjugation is agir (to act)

1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Singular ago agis agi
Plural agim agit agyun
Participle act (irregular*)
  • The participle of the short-i-conjugation has no regular form.

Imperfect (Imperféct)Edit

The imperfect is used for continuous actions in the past. It is formed by dropping all letters of the infinitive ending except the first and adding -v- and the corresponding present ending of the a-conjugation. In short-i-conjogation the stress stays on its position in the infinitive, marked by an acute accent.

imari --> ima-v-o

Perfect (Perféct)Edit

The perfect is used for actions starting at a certain point in the past. It is the present form of hiberi plus the participle of the verb.

hibo imat

Pluperfect (Pyus que perféct)Edit

The pluperfect is used for something that happened, before something else in the past (expressed by imperfect) happens. It is the imperfect form of hiberi plus the participle of the verb.

hibevo imat

Future (Futúr I)Edit

The future is used for actions expected to take place in the future. It is formed by dropping the final -i of the infinitive ending (except in short-i-conjugation, which doesn't have a final -i) and adding -ib- and the corresponding present ending of the e-conjugation.

imari --> imar-ib-o

Future perfect (Futúr II)Edit

The future perfect is used for actions that will have taken place before another action in the future (expressed by future). It is the future form of hiberi plus the participle of the verb.

hiberibo imat

CopulaEdit

The copula is the English verb to be. In Lavinese it is essi.

The following table shows the conjugation of essi:

1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Present Singular so es es
Plural sum est sun
Imperfect Singular ero eras era
Plural eram erat eran
Future Singular esso esses esse
Plural essem esset essen
Participle est

VoicesEdit

Lavinese has two voices: active and passive.

The passive voice is is formed with any form of essi + the participle of the verb.

NounsEdit

There are four cases in Lavinese: nominative, genitive, dative, and accusative

There are three declension classes, each belonging to one gender: a/feminine, short u/masculine, and long u/neuter.

An example for a-declension is lengua (language/ tongue).

nominative genitive dative accusative
Singular lengua lengui lengui lenguan
Plural lengui lenguar lenguis lenguas

An example for short-u-declension is sol (sun).

nominative genitive dative accusative
Singular sol soli solu solun
Plural soli solur solis solus

An example for long-u-declension is ovun (egg)

nominative genitive dative accusative
Singular ovun ovi ovu ovun
Plural ova ovur ovis ova

In short-u-declension the stem is sometimes changed in all cases but nominative (hom; homini (human; man)) or only if the ending begins with a u (fil; fili; filyu (son))

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives always agree with the noun they describe in number, case, and gender.

VocabularyEdit

Lavinese dictionary


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

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