|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Ledspæk (commonly written as Ledspaek in Anglic), pronounced [‘lɛdzpæk] from led (peoples, nation) and spæk (speech, language) is one of the many languages spoken on Masa Prima, the old world. It is the official language of Dutia and the native language of the Dutian people.
It is a Dutic Language, descended from Proto-Dutic, and ultimately Proto-Masa. Being a Dutic language, is quite related to the Anglic language.
Note on this article: this article is written in an in-universe style. Anglic is the same as modern English, and developed on Masa Tierra, the new world, from a late form of Proto-Dutic that incorporated many words from other Masan languages. Anglic is the lingua franca of Masa Tierra, and the native language of the inhabitants of the former Dutic colonies.
|Plosive||p / b||t / d||g|
|Fricative||f / v||θ / ð||s / z||ç||x||h|
|Close||i / y||u|
|Close-mid||e / ø||o|
Ledspaek can be written in its traditional runic alphabet as well as the Latin alphabet. The runic alphabet is not a pure alphabet as it has a few characters that represent multiple phonemes.
In the Ledspaek runes, there are three characters that represent consonant blends. However, there are more possible consonant clusters than this, making these runes similar to how the letter 'x' is used in Anglic. There are also two characters that can represent a consonant and vowel: "W" and "J". If these runes are followed by a consonant, the runes are pronounced as /wa/ and /ja/ respectively; however, if they are followed by a vowel, then the /a/ is dropped. Finally, there is a rune for the only diphthong in the language, /ai/.
In modern times, the Latin alphabet has taken over as the standard way to write Ledspæk in academic, governmental, and professional contexts. However, the runes are still manditorily taught to speakers of Ledspæk and are often used for stylistic purposes (e.g. a store name might be written in stylized runes on a sign outside). Personal letters and proper nouns of Dutian origin are also commonly written with runes.
The following table lists the phonemes as they are written in the Romanized alphabet, as well as any allophones that exist for that phoneme.
|A a||/ɑ/||[a] when preceding /i/ OR when preceded by /w/ or /j/|
|C c||/x/||[ç] when adjacent to /j/ OR a front vowel in the same syllable|
|Ð ð||/θ/||[ð] when intervocalic OR adjacent to a voiced stop|
|F f||/f/||[v] when intervocalic OR adjacent to a voiced stop|
|L l||/l/||[ɬ] when preceded by a voiceless stop|
|N n||/n/||[ŋ] when preceding a velar stop|
|R r||/ʁ/ or /ɹ/*|
|S s||/s/||[z] when intervocalic OR adjacent to a voiced stop|
- "R" can be pronounced as /ʁ/ or /ɹ/, depending on the dialect.
V, CV, CVC, and VC are all possible syllables in Ledspaek. For convenience and clarity, the rhotic consonant will be written as /r/. The vowel can be any of the vowels: /i/, /y/, /e/, /ø/, /ɛ/, /æ/, /u/, /o/, /ʌ/, /ɑ/, or /ai/.
Possible Syllable OnsetsEdit
|Any single consonant||/b/, /x/, /d/, /θ/, /f/, /g/, /h/, /j/, /k/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /p/, /r/, /s/, /t/, /w/|
|/s/ + stop OR /f/||/sp/, /zb/, /st/, /zd/, /sk/, /zg/, /sf/|
|/s/ + voiceless stop + approximant||/spɬ/, /spr/, /spj/, /spw/, /stɬ/, /str/, /stj/, /stw/, /skɬ/, /skr/, /skj/, /skw/|
|Any stop OR /f/ OR /s/ + approximant||/pɬ/, /pr/, /pj/, /pw/, /bl/, /br/, /bj/, /bw/, /tɬ/, /tr/, /tj/, /tw/, /dl/, /dr/, /dj/, /dw/, /kɬ/, /kr/, /kj/, /kw/, /gl/, /gr/, /gj/, /gw/, /fl/, /fr/, /fj/, /fw/, /sl/, /sr/, /sj/, /sw/,|
|/x/ OR /θ/ + non-lateral app.||/xr/, /çj/, /xw/, /θr/, /θj/, /θw/|
Possible Syllable CodasEdit
|Any single consonant except the non-lateral approximants||/b/, /x/, /d/, /θ/, /f/, /g/, /h/, /k/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /p/, /r/, /s/, /t/|
|Nasal + stop at the same place of articulation||/mp/, /mb/, /nt/, /nd/, /ŋk/, /ŋg/|
|Fricative + voiceless stop||/fp/, /ft/, /fk/, /sp/, /st/, /sk/, /xp/ or [çp], /xt/ or [çt], /xk/ or [çk]|
|/l/ + any stop or fricative excluding /x/||/lp/, /lb/, /lt/, /ld/, /lk/, /lg/, /lf/, /ls/, /lθ/|
|/r/ + any voiceless stop||/rp/, /rt/, /rk/|
|Any stop + /s/||/ps/, /ts/, /ks/, /bz/, /dz/, /gz/|
There are three different types of verbs in Ledspaek: strong verbs, weak verbs, and irregular verbs. Strong verbs undergo stem changes to differentiate the base forms from past and participle forms, while weak verbs use only affixes.
Verbs are referred to abstractly in their base or dictionary form, which is an noninflected form that is used in dictionaries. The dictionary form is the morpheme that represents the action described, but not a complete word and thus cannot stand alone. When verbs are discussed in this article, they will always be in this form unless in a conjugation chart.
In all conjugation charts, green text indicates suffixes and olive text indicates stem changes.
In Ledspaek, verbs conjugate according to two moods (indicative and subjunctive), two simple tenses (present and past), and the standard three persons. There also exist imperative (for informal commands), participle, gerund, and infinitive forms.
There being no specifically future form, the present tense is often viewed as a non-past. However, in the indicative mood and without any adverbs that signify the future, it is almost always understood as present. The subjunctuve mood is most often used in conjunction with an adverb or adpositional phrase to indicate the future. For example, "I will eat later" would be translated as "Ic mailat ötop" ("I later eat[subj]").
Often times, without an adverb that indicates the future tense, context is required to determine meaning. Take the sentence "Ic ërkino; unfura ötop" ("I work[subj], before (I) eat[subj]") According to context, this could mean "I would work before eating", in a hypothetical or conditional sense, or it could mean "I will work before I eat" in a future sense.
The progressive subjunctive is also often used as an immediate future tense, e.g. "Ic bjara ötin" ("I am[subj] eating") could be translated as "I am going to eat soon".
In addition to conveying future tense, the subjunctive mood is used for hypothetical/conditional sentences or for expressing doubt and uncertainty. In casual speech, the subjunctive is often neglected in this use, except to especially emphasize the speaker's doubt on a topic.
There are four classes of strong verbs in Ledspaek, which descend directly from Proto-Dutic. The vowel in the first syllable (the "stem") determines what class the verb is. Additionally, all strong verbs end in a consonant.
The following chart shows for each class what the stems are in the base, past, and participle forms.
|Class||Base stem||Past stem||Participle stem|
The following charts show the conjugation of an example verb for each class of strong verbs.
Example verb: "drink" meaning "drink"
Example verb: "frus" meaning "freeze"
Example verb: "kwëm" meaning "come"
Example verb: "deb" meanning "happen, occur" or "exist" (often used for location of nouns in space)
Weak verbs undergo no stem changes, instead having affixes mark the past tense and participle forms. However, there are two slightly different sets of endings: one for verbs that end in a vowel and one for verbs that end in a consonant.
Example verb with consonant ending: "wanat" meaning "want"
Example verb with vowel ending: "ërki" meaning "work"
There are only two irregular verbs in Ledspaek: "bjan" meaning "be" and "hæb" which is only used as an auxiliary verb for forming perfect tenses (like in Anglic "have"). The following charts show the conjugations for each irregular verb.
Suffixes - When there are two entries in the Suffix column, the first is to be used when the word ends in a consonant and the later when a word ends in a vowel.
|æri / ris||Forms agent nouns from verbs||drink (drink) -> drinkaeri (drinker); ërki (work) -> ërkiris (worker)|
|döm||Makes an adverb of a number describing number of iterations||pan (one) -> pandöm (once, one time)|
|dan||Makes an ordinal number||pan (one) -> pandan (first)|
|ja / aja||Makes an adjective of a noun||enald (end) -> enaldaja (final, last); hait (heat) -> haitaja (hot)|
|aðö / ðo||Abstracts a noun from a verb or adjective||kuna (be able) -> kunaðo (ability); weram (warm) -> weramaðö (warmth)|
|en / n||Makes a noun from an adjective||maðis (strong, powerful, mighty) -> maðisen (strength, power, might)|
|aik / laik||Makes an adverb of an adjective||hafsky (sudden, hasty) -> hafskylaik (suddenly, hastily); enaldaja (final, last) -> enaldajaik* (finally, lastly, at last)|
|os / s||Plural marker for nouns|
- Sometimes, when multiple affixes are being used, they are condensed, e.g. if a word has both "ja/aja" and "laik", the "al" is dropped and it becomes "jaik/ajaik" and not "jalaik/ajalaik", as in the case above.
|un||Negator (can be used with most lexical classes, excluding nouns/pronouns)||fura (after) -> unfura (before); mida (together with, in agreement with, in the same direction as) -> unmida (in a contrary direction to, in oppositon to)|
This section is under progress and does not reflect the complete syntactical rule set of Ledspaek
Ledspaek is loosely head-final.
For simple declarative sentences, Ledspaek follows a Subject-Object-Verb word order, e.g. "Ic (I) sa bok (the book) rodom (read)" meaning "I read the book." Auxiliary verbs, used in the perfect tenses and progressive aspects, always follow the subject, e.g. "Ic (I) bjam (am) sa bok (the book) rodin (reading)" means "I am reading the book."
For interrogative sentences, Object-Verb-Subject word order is used. For example, to ask "Do you read the book?" one would say "Sa bok (the book) rodat (read) ði (you)?" or to ask "Who is that man?" one would say "Jon man bja wes?"
Two independent clauses can joined by a semicolon and a conjunction.
In general, modifiers (adjectives, adverbs) precede what they modify. The following table lists the abbreviations of the various phrases and parts of speech used here:
Noun phrases: Noun phrases follow the following order: Det-Adj-N-AP
Verb phrases: Verb phrases follow the following order: NP-Adv-V-AP
If the verb is a copularverb (There are two: "sömji" meaning "seem", and "bjan" meaning "be"), the NP can be replaced by a modifier.
Adpositional phrases: Adpositional phrases (AP): Adpositional phrases always come after the word or phrases they describe. The object of the adposition can either be a noun phrase or a subordinate clause. If it is a noun phrase, the adposition follows the main noun; if it is a subordinate clause, it follows the subordinating conjunction. i.e. Det-Adj-N-Adp-AP or SuboConj-Adp-VP
Relative clauses: There are two types of relative pronouns in Ledspaek, each of which signal different functions for the relative clause. A free pronoun indicates a free relative clause, in which the clause completely replaces a noun phrase, e.g. "I ate what I saw." A bound pronoun indicates a bound clause, e.g. "I ate the bread that was on the counter" or "I ate the bread that I saw." Bound relative clauses follow the noun phrase that they modify
Subordinating conjunctions (SubCon): subordinating conjunction clauses replace a noun phrase. They have the following syntax: SubCon-Sentence
Useful phrases and expressionsEdit
Haldo - Hello, good day (general neutral greeting)
Wilkjem - Welcome
ha, hal - Hi, hey (very casual greeting)
Haldo Unwilkjem - Hello and welcome (Used to greet newcomers/strangers into an area, e.g. often used by store employees greeting customers as they enter)
Das motaðö hæb mai got bin - lit. "This encounter has been better", sometimes translated as "Pleased to meet you". It is a very respectful phrase used after being introduced to someone for the first time; e.g. it used before business negotiations or upon meeting a superior (teacher, boss, etc.)
Mai got - lit. "better", derived from expression above and is a less formal equivalent.
Led (name) gjantam. - My name is (name).
Ic panen Anglis spröke. - I only speak English
ninen - no (formal)
na, ni, m - no (informal)
kolinta - yes (formal)
ja, ga, a - yes (informal)
The following charts shows the pronouns in Ledspaek. For the third-person singular forms, the first entry is the male pronoun and the second is female.
Like English "I", "we", "he"
|3rd person||He, Ca||Dos|
Like English "me", "us", "him"
|3rd person||Hem, Cam||Dus|
Like English "My/mine", "your/yours". Note that these words be used to replace a noun ("mine", "yours") or as a determiner ("my", "your")
|3rd person||Hes, Cas||Don|
Like English "myself", "yourself"
|3rd person||Hemse, Camse||Duse|
There are four interrogative pronouns in Ledspaek. They are eigher human or non-human, and subject or object. The human pronouns are like "who" and "whom" in english, while the non-human pronouns are like "what" and "ehich" in English. The subject pronouns are used when the pronoun is the subject of a sentence, while the object pronouns are used elsewhere (e.g. in an adpositional phrase), like "whom" in English is often used.
Example number: 234,567,891
Taðunteks ðisudafëðmiljo fimunteks sacudasefðund actunteks negudapan
The North Wind and the SunEdit
| The North Wind and the Sun
A fable of Aesop
The North Wind and the Sun disputed as to which was the most powerful, and agreed that he should be declared the victor who could first strip a wayfaring man of his clothes. The North Wind first tried his power and blew with all his might, but the keener his blasts, the closer the Traveler wrapped his cloak around him, until at last, resigning all hope of victory, the Wind called upon the Sun to see what he could do. The Sun suddenly shone out with all his warmth. The Traveler no sooner felt his genial rays than he took off one garment after another, and at last, fairly overcome with heat, undressed and bathed in a stream that lay in his path.
Persuasion is better than Force.
|Sa Nureð Wynt unte Sa Sön
Inas Talo Isap-ab
Sa Nureð Wynt unte Sa Sön steritet was-umi mai maðis bje; sawet dos ðat he was klaiðakære inas ferin man-ab gëranan kunamp sa segosa bjere samamp. Sa Nureð Wynt hes maðisen pandan rynamp; su he blate alese hes maðisen-mið; ëða sa feræri hes kato mai ðaint palenet; wana sa wynt mai skala bakeme; sawet sa Wynt sa Sön enaldajaik calsomp fu swöcan ðasa sa Sön donan kunamp. Sa Sön hafskylaik skæne alese hes weramaðö- mið. Sa feræri sa frijœnaja steralos sa Sön-ab folnamp; sawet he hes faðures farodan bægine; til he bisek haik-fram unte naklu bjanen bakeme; su he inas stresam-yn ðast hes pad-yn bje beðonet.
Swaicaðö maðisen-ubra mai got bja.
|Literal translation of Ledspaek|
|The North Wind and the Sun
A Tale of Aesop
The north wind and the sun disagreed who-of most mighty was, so they that he who clothes a travelling man-of to remove was able the winner were, agreed. The North Wind his power first tried, and he blew all his might-with, but the traveller his cloak more tight pulled, when the wind more piercing became, so the Wind the Sun finally called-upon in order to see what the Sun to do was able. The sun suddenly shone all his warmth-with. The traveller the gentle rays the sun-of felt, so he his garmets to remove began, until he consumed heat-from and naked to be became, and he a stream-in that his path-in was bathed.
Persuasion might-over more good is.
The Lord's PrayerEdit
| The Lord's Prayer
Our Father who art in heaven, hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread, and forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those who trespass against us, and lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil.
For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever and ever.
Us Fœðre-do wast cimin-yn debe: Jos gjantaðo haila bja. Jos kjangadaimas kwëmep. Jos wanataðös donide lant-œnt; alse bja cimin-yn dain. Us dagaja bradu göbanide um-do das dag-œnt; sawet us sundis frugöbanide; alse rom manos wast sunde um-unmida frugöbanom. Su, um ne laidjaðe fraistaðo-in; raðo um fistaleðe ufil-afe.
Furi, sa kjangadaimas unte sa maðisen unte sa dijað jos bja alese taim-lais.
|Literal translation of Ledspaek|
Our Father-to who heaven-in is: your name holy is. Your kingdom comes(subjunctive). Your wills do earth-on; as is heaven-in done. Our daily bread give us-to this day-on; and our sins forgive; as we people who sin us-against forgive. And, us not lead temptation-into; but rather us save evil-from.
For the kingdom and the power and the glory yours is all time-for.