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Lencva gi Soc

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Soc
Lencva gi Soc
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Nominative–accusative
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
Masculine, Feminine
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Lencva gi Soc [ˈɫe̞ŋkᶹa ʒi so̞k], or Soc, is a Romance language spoken mostly along the Danube River in Romania, Serbia, Hungary, and Austria. It decended from Latin in its own branch, but it shows small influence from Hungarian.

La Lencva gi Soc, àt Soc, istá ua lencva Romanora lòcvatu prèlunc pre le frumî Danuve èm Romynia, Srevia, Màlhària, è Œstria. Dècendiô èx Latîm èm síu ramu propriu, tè mònstra èmfruenza pàrva èx Màlhàrie.

PhonologyEdit

The Soc sound inventory features many of the same features of the rest of the living Romance languages, like palatilization. Consonant inventory is medium sized and the vowel system is almost completely symmetrical. 

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal m (ɱ) n ɲ (ŋ) (ɴ)
Plosive p t d k kᶹ g
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ χ ʁ
Affricate ɟ͡ʝ
Lateral app. ɫ

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close i iə̯ ɨ u uə̯
Mid-close eɪ̯ oʊ̯
Mid e̞ ø̞
Open a ɑ


AlphabetEdit

Letter Name Sound
A a a a
À à àv ɑ
B b ve v
C c ce k, ʃ
D d de d
E e e
È è èj eɪ̯
F f èfe f
G g ge g, ʒ
H h ace ʃ
I i i i
Ì ì ìm iə̯
J j jot ʒ
K k ca k
L l èle ɫ
M m ème m (ɱ)
N n ène n (ɲ, ŋ, ɴ)
O o o
Ò ò òv oʊ̯
Œ œ œj ø̞
P p pe p
Q q kᶹ
R r ère χ, ʁ
S s èse s
T t te t
U u u u
Ù ù ùm uə̯
V v ùve v
W w dúvlùve v
X x èx ʃ
Y y y ɨ
Z z zat ʃ

DigraphsEdit

Sound Example
Ch k ichî [iˈkiə̯]
Cv kᶹ secvire [se̞ˈkᶹiʁe̞]
Gh g joghere [ʒo̞ˈge̞ʁe̞]
Gs ɡ͡z nògsa [ˈnoʊ̯ɡ͡za]
Lh ɟ͡ʝ pùlhu [ˈpuə̯ɟ͡ʝu]
Nh ɲ rènhare [χeɪ̯ˈɲaʁe̞]
Rr χ rarru [ˈχaχu]

PhonotacticsEdit

Sound Changes from LatinEdit

  • loss of b /b/, merged with v /v/.
  • c /k/ palatalized to /ʃ/ before e, è, i, ì, and y.
  • er and final -r became re
  • g /g/ palatalized to /ʒ/ before e, è, i, ì, and y.
  • gn /ŋn/ became nh /ɲ/.
  • gu /gʷ/ became gh.
  • loss of /h/ as a phoneme.
  • j /j/ became /ʒ/.
  • ll /l/ became lh /ɟ͡ʝ/.
  • qu /kʷ/ became ch /k/ or cv /kᶹ/.
  • alveolar /r/ became uvular /χ/ word-initially and as rr, and became /ʁ/ elsewhere.
  • l following a consonant usually became r.
  • x /ks/ became gs /ɡ͡z/.
  • vowel length lost, often becoming diphthongs.
    • ā became à /ɑ/.
    • ē became è /eɪ̯/.
    • ī became ì /iə̯/.
    • ō became ò /oʊ̯/.
    • ū became ù /uə̯/.
  • final -o often became -u.
  • diphthongs often changed or reduced.
    • ae and ei merge with ē to become è /eɪ̯/.
    • au and eu merge with ā to become à /ɑ/.
    • ou merged with ō to become ò /oʊ̯/.
    • oe became œ /ø̞/.
    • ui became y /ɨ/.
  • ul combination often reduced to y

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

While the neuter gender died out during the evolution from Latin to Soc, masculine and feminine gender stayed with nouns and their adjectives. For the most part, neuter nouns merged with masculine nouns, but some of them did become feminine. Along with gender, Soc nouns and adjectives lost every declension except for number.

NumberEdit

No matter the gender, all nouns get a -s or -es ending to make them plural. Nouns ending in a vowel get an added -s (sémele→sémeles). In nouns ending in -m, the -m is changed to -n and an -s is added (aczóm→aczóns). For nouns that end in any other consonant, an -es is added (príncep→príncepes).

PronounsEdit

PersonalEdit

Unlike nouns, personal pronouns can appear in genitive, accusative, and dative forms.

Nominative Genitive Accusative Dative
1st person singular Ì Míu(s), Mía(s) Mim
1st person plural Nòs Nu(s), Núa(s) Nòs Nos
2nd person singular Tuv Tíu(s), Tía(s) Tim
2nd person plural Vòs Vu(s), Vúa(s) Vòs Vos
3rd person singular Ele, Ela Síu(s), Sía(s) Sim
3rd person plural Eles, Elas Su(s), Súa(s) Sins Les

DemonstrativeEdit

Singular Plural
Proximal ichî ichîs
Medial esti estis
Distal elhi elhis

InterrogativeEdit

Singular Plural
Which cvot cvotes
What cvi cvis
Who, whom cvix cvices
Whose cvíu cvíus
Where uv uves
Whence unc unches
Whither uvu uvus
When cvandu cvandus
How much/many cvantu cvantus
Why, wherefore cvare
Whether num

VerbsEdit

Infinitives can take three endings that determine how they will conjugate: -are, -ere, and -ire endings. From its ancestor Latin, many verb forms were lost and Soc only retained present, past, future, participle, and gerund conjugations. It is important to not that other aspects and voices can be expressed using different combinations of those five forms.

PresentEdit

natare iscrivere àdire
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person natù nátamas iscrivu iscrívemes àdy âdimes
Second person natas nátax iscrives iscrívex àdis âdix
Third Person nata nátanc iscrive iscrívenc àdi âdinc

PastEdit

natare iscrivere àdire
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person naté natamus iscrivê iscrivemus àdí àdímus
Second person natasti natastis iscrivesti iscrivestis àdisti àdistis
Third Person natet natáronc iscrivèt iscrivéronc àdit àdíronc

FutureEdit

natare iscrivere àdire
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person natavé natavames iscrivevé iscrivevemes àdivé àdivimes
Second person natavés natavex iscrivevés iscrivevex àdivés àdivex
Third Person natavê natavárenc iscrivevê iscrivevérenc àdivê àdivírenc

ParticipleEdit

natare iscrivere àdire
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Participle natatu natatus iscrivetu iscrivetus àditu àditus

GerundEdit

natare iscrivere àdire
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Gerund natàndu natàndus iscrivèndu iscrivèndus àdìndu àdìndus


SyntaxEdit

Soc sentences generally follow an SVO structure. Sentences that lack an object are often VS, and questions are VSO. 

VocabularyEdit

Most of the vocabulary comes from Classical and Vulgar Latin but some influence in vocabulary came early in its development from Hungarian. These words only make up about 1% of the actual lexicon.

Comparison with Related LanguagesEdit

Underlined words share the same root.

Soc English Latin Romanian Hungarian French Italian Spanish Portuguese
 dì day die zi nap jour giorno día dia
nògsa night nocte noapte éjszaka nuit notte noche noite
sole sun sol soare nap soleil sole sol sol
lòa moon luna lună hold lune luna luna lua
cœre heart cor inimă szív cœur cuore corazón coração
frefe man homo om férfi homme uomo hombre cara
woman mulier femeie femme donna mujer mulher
sémele person persona persoană személy personne persona persona pessoa
lhrémec child puer copil gyermek enfant bambino niño criança
árvore tree ligno copac fa arbre albero árbol árvore
head caput cap fej tête testa cabeza cabeça
manu hand manu mână kéz main mano mano mão
Dàs God deus dumnezeu Isten Dieu Dio Dios Deus
vìj water aqua apă víz levegő eau acqua água
ère air aeris aer levegő air aria aire ar
tyj fire ignis foc tűz feu fuoco fuego fogo
fœlt earth terra pământ föld terre terra tierra terra

Example textEdit

The Little PrinceEdit

"In those days, I didn't understand anything. I should have judged her according to her actions, not her words. She perfumed my planet and lit up my life. I should never have run away! I ought to have realized the tenderness underlying her silly pretensions. Flowers are so contradictory! But I was too young to know how to love her." ― Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, The Little Prince

"Èm elhis dìs, nu èntelhigê nichi. Devichê avere jùdicatu sim sicúm gi sías aczóns, nu gi síus verves. Ela òdoret mía pranèta è ilhuminet mía vìta. Nuncvam devichê avere cùrretu! Devichê avere èntelhigetu la tenhèrum sùf sías prètenzóns rèdículas. Tà contradictorias las fròs! Tè ytru jùvem isté pra èntelhigere cvomu amare sim."

― Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, Le Príncep Pœrem

Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's StoneEdit

"Mr. and Mrs. Dursley, of number four, Privet Drive, were proud to say that they were perfectly normal, thank you very much. They were the last people you'd expect to be involved in anything strange or mysterious, because they just didn't hold with such nonsense."

― J. K. Rowling, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone

"Ecve è Ecva Dursley, gi númeru cvatore, Ligustru Pracia, istáronc orgulhosus pra dicere cvi eles istáronc prèfectamém normales, gracias mytus. Istáronc les sémeles ýtimes alcvîs èxpecta cvi ista èmpricatu cvùm alcvit rarru àt mýsticu, pracví mòdu nu èxchipiáronc cvùm tala èneptia."

― J. K. Rowling, Harry Potter è le Làpe gil Magu

The BibleEdit

"In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters."

― Genesis 1:1-2

"Èm le ènitiu Dàs favricet les cœles è le fœlt. Gelemlec le fœlt istet ènefijatu è vacvu, la tenevra istet supre le suprefice gi la profunditat, è le Ispíritu gi Dàs istet frytàndu supre les vìjes."

― Gênesis 1:1-2

The OdysseyEdit

"Sing to me of the man, Muse, the man of twists and turns… driven time and again off course, once he had plundered the hallowed heights of Troy. Many cities of men he saw and learned their minds, many pains he suffered, heartsick on the open sea, fighting to save his life and bring his comrades home. But he could not save them from disaster, hard as he strove—the recklessness of their own ways destroyed them all, the blind fools, they devoured the cattle of the Sun and the Sungod blotted out the day of their return. Launch out on his story, Muse, daughter of Zeus, start from where you will—sing for our time too."

― Homer, The Odyssey

"Èneche mì gil frefe, Musa, le frefe gi les torcvences è les fregsus… pròvejatu àv l'ìtre mytu sèpe, sèmí ele avèt ràtatu les àltitudus santificates gi Trœ. Ele vidit mytas urvas gi sémeles è dicèt sus animus, ele patiet mytus fèdaluns, ègritudu gil cœre èm el mare apretu, punhàndu pra salvare sía vìta è aportare síus sòzus tà dòmu. Tè ele nu pòsèt salvare sins èx calâmita, cvà duru cvà afectet—la temeritat gi sus ìtres sujus pròfrighet l'omne gi sins, les fósores chègus, eles dèvoret la màrra gil sole è le Dàs gi sole maculet le dì gi su règresu. Èmite èm síu narratiu, Musa, filha gi Zàs, ènitia èx ò ènitiavés–èneche itiàm pra nus tempus."

― Homer, L'Ôdyse

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