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Lenyara

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Name: Lenyara

Type: Fusional

Alignment: Ergative-Absolutive

Head Direction: Medial

Number of genders: 0

Declensions: No

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General InformationEdit

SettingEdit

Lenyara is spoken in the Baraneto Unity in world of Eno. It is one of the main scholarly languages across the globe, and is known to be an international auxilary language, as the Baraneto Unity is the only nation that has stayed neutral and peaceful during the Great War. As the language is so far spread, there are many variations of word usage and pronunciation on the different continents, as it has blended with the other languages of the world, though mutual intelligibility is still maintained.

Word OrderEdit

Word order tends to be SVO, though this has changed some in the various dialects and there are times when it tends to VS. It is an ergatie language, though the ergative is the only explicit case marking. The absolutive is marked by word order.

Transitive vs. Intransitive Word OrderEdit

In transitive sentences, the subject is marked with the suffix -k, and the object/s come after the verb. If the verb is ditransitive, the indirect object precedes the direct object, and it is always accompanied by a preposition.

In intransitive sentences, the verb comes first, and the subject comes after the verb.

Noun PhraseEdit

Noun phrases follow a general pattern. The general pattern is: (possessive adjective or numeral), head noun, adjective, interrogative, relative clause.

Adverbial Phrase:Edit

To create an adverbial phrase, the clause comes after the verb, and the suffix -vande (vowel-final words) or -avande (consonant-final words) is added to the final word of the phrase.

AgreementEdit

In general, the agreement follows this table:

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Nouns No No Yes No Yes No No No
Adjectives No No Yes No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

QuestionsEdit

There are two types of questions in Lenyara: questions that require an extended response, and yes-no questions. In both forms of questioning, an interrogative word is fronted; however, in a yes-no question, the particle Vi is added before the verb or interrogative.

PhonologyEdit

Consonants:Edit

IPA Romanization
p p
b b
t t
d d
k k
g g
m m
n n
ɲ ny
r r
f f
v v
s z
ʃ s
j y
l l
ʒ j

Vowels:Edit

IPA Romanization
a a
e e
i i
o o
u u

Sound Changes:Edit

Intervocalic Alveolar FlapEdit

[r]>[ɾ]/V_V

Alveolar trill changes to alveolar flap between vowels.

Final Trill WeakeningEdit

The alveolar trill becomes weakened at the end of a word.

VerbsEdit

Verbs in Lenyara are interesting, as they are all conjugated periphrastically, except for the verb Ejare (to be/exist/do).

InfinitiveEdit

Infinitives end in -re and are almost never used in creating sentences.

ParticipleEdit

The participle is used to conjugate every verb except for Ejare. To create a participle, the stem (-re) is removed and the suffix -nyo is added.

ConjugationEdit

The only verb that actually gets conjugated inflectionally is Ejare. It is conjugated based on person, number, tense, aspect, and mood. To conjugate the other verbs, one must conjugate Ejare, and place the verb in its participle after.

Conjugation Table of EjareEdit

Subject Present Past Future Conditional Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect Conditional Perfect
I Ejano Ejó Ejapo Ejapío Add Varo before the present tense Add Varat before the past tense Add Varu before the future tense Add Varía before the conditional
Ti Ejas Ejast Ejapas Ejapías
Li/La Eja Ejat Ejapa Ejapía
Nosi Ejam Ejamat Ejapam Ejapíamo
Iti Ejan Ejana Ejapan Ejapían
Eli
Imperative Ti Li/La Nosi Iti
Ejar Ejaran Ejarama Ejaran

NegationEdit

To negate a verb add non before it,

Reflexive VerbsEdit

To create reflexive verbs, a reflexive prefix is added to Ejare.

Subject Prefix
I m-
Ti t-
Li/La l-
Nosi nor-
Iti b-
Eli

Polite AddressEdit

To politely address somone, the Li form of the verb is used.

Nominalizing VerbsEdit

To nominalize a verb, the e in the stem is removed and an a is added. Therefore, lenyare (to speak/talk) becomes lenyara (language/speech/talking/speaking).

Creating an Animate Noun from a VerbEdit

To create an animate noun assosciated with a verb, remove the stem. Therefore, lenyare (to speak/talk) becomes lenya (speaker).

AdverbsEdit

Adverbs come directly before the verb they modify. Adverbial phrases were discussed above.To create an adverb from an adjective, the suffix -vande (vowel-final words) or -avande (consonant final).Edit

Nouns, Pronouns, and AdjectivesEdit

NounsEdit

There is really nothing special about nouns in Lenyara. They don't have gender, and there is no articles. There is also no definitiveness.

Pluralizing a NounEdit

To create a plural noun, the suffix -m (or -um) is added.

Using Adjectives as NounsEdit

Adjectives can be used as nouns with changing form.

Creating a Person from a PlaceEdit

To create a person from a place, the suffix -t (or -at) is added. Therefore, ingala (England/English language) becomes ingalat (Englishman/English speaker).

Adjectivizing A NounEdit

To create an adjective from a noun, the suffix -fra (or -afra) is added.

Pronouns and AdjectivesEdit

Personal PronounsEdit

Personal pronouns are rarely used in Lenyara, as their meaning is included in the verb.

Lenyara English
I I
Ti You
Li/La (also you (formal)) He/She
Nosi We
Eli They
Iti You (plural)

Demonstrative Pronouns/AdjectivesEdit

These can be used as either adjectives or pronouns.

Lenyara English
Ezt This
Ezto That
Ezti These
Eztio Those

Interrogative PronounsEdit

Interrogatives are extremely important since they are not only used in forming questions, but also in forming noun phrases and adjective phrases. They are added as suffixes to nouns to create adjective phrases.

Lenyara English
Ki Who
Ke What
Dov Where
Kua When
Pra Why
Ko How

Quantifiers and IndefinitesEdit

Lenyara English
Nad None/no one/nothing
Alga Some/someone/something
Gan Any/anyone/anything
Many/much muro
Kad All/every/everyone
Kadov Everywhere
Algadov Somewhere
Kadkua Everytime
Algakua Sometime
Sug Enough

NumbersEdit

Lenyara numbers above ten are formed by placing the word for ten (or twenty, or thirty, etc.) in front of a number one through nine. Numerals, when used as adjectives, are placed before the noun.

Lenyara English
Ero 0
Ur 1
Dur 2
Tra 3
Kor 4
Sin 5
Se 6
Set 7
Ote 8
Nor 9
Dis 10
Durdis 20
Tradis 30
Kordis 40
Sindis 50
Sedis 60
Setis 70
Otedis 80
Nordis 90
Sien 100
Mis 1,000
Misor 1,000,000

Possessive AdjectivesEdit

Like numerals, possessives are placed before the noun.

Lenyara English
Umi My
Uti Your
His/Her/Your (formal) Uli
Our Unos
Their Ulan

Negating an AdjectiveEdit

To negate an adjective, the suffix -gu (or -agu) is added.

MiscellaneousEdit

ConjunctionsEdit

Lenyara English
Er And
Pro But
O Or
Erpra Because/so/so that/for that reason

Babel TextEdit

Here is a translation of the Babel Text into Lenyara. The first set is the modern English, the bold is the Lenyara, and the italic is the literal translation of the Lenyara. A gloss will be added eventually.

1. Once long ago, the world had only one language.


Muro andes, kadernyak ejat drendanyo solat ur lenyara.

Much before, world had only one language.

2. While they were journeying from the East, they found a plain in the land Shinar and made there their home.

Allam tempor vrismovande send endre ejana varanyavande, ejana diskubranyo ternya en Shinar er ejana ztanyo vivare.

At same time from East they go, they found land in Shinar and they started living.

3. And they said to each other: We should bake many bricks; and then they had bricks as stone and they had mud as mortar.


Er bejana lenyanyo: Ejam derenyo konstrare matinam muro; er ejan drendanyo matinam ko piet er ganga ko gindia.

And they said to each other: We should make bricks many; and they had bricks as stone and mud as binding.

4. And they said to each other: We should make a city with a tower that reaches to the heavens.


Er bejana lenyanyo: Ejam derenyo konstrare zuda kit turake eja varanya aja.

And they said to each other: We should build city with tower that goes high.

5. And they said to each other: We should make our name so that we do not become scattered throughout the world.


Er bejana lenyanyo: Ejam derenyo konstrare unos yamara erpra non ejam narajanyo pazkarafra en kadernya.

And they said to each other: We should make our name so we do not become scattered in world.

6. And then the LORD came to there to see the city with the tower that they had made.


Er Diok ejat antvaranyo allam Shinar erpra ejapía podenyo miravare zuda kit turake varat ejana konstranyo.

And God came to Shinar so he would be able to see city with tower that they had made.

7. Then He said: the people are united and they have only one language and of the deeds they can do, this is the beginning!


Ejat lenyanyo: ¡umbromak ejan ur er ejan drendanyo solat ur Lenyara er eztak eja ztara ke ejan podenyo ejare.

He said: people are one and they have only one language and this is start that they can do.

8. Then He said: they will do anything that they can propose!


Ejat lenyanyo: ¡ejapan ejanyo ke ejan kejenyo!

He said: they will do what they want!

9. Then He said: And I will go there and I will make confusion so that the understanding among them is finished.

Ejat lenyanyo: Er ejapo varanyo allam Shinar er ejapo konstranyo fundija erpra non bejapan komprendinyo.

He said: And I will go to Shinar and I will make confusion so they will not understand each other.

10. And the LORD did this and they became scattered throughout the world and the building of the city stopped.


Er Diok ejat ezt er ejana narajanyo pazkarafra en kadernya er konstrarak ejat teraztanyo.

And God did this and they became scattered in world and construction stopped.

11. Therefore their name is Confusion because there the LORD had made confusion of all languages.

Erpra ejan yamanyo Fundija erpra allam ulan zuda diok varat ejat konstranyo fundija du lenyaram kad.

For that reason they are named Confusion because in their city God had made confusion of languages all.

DictionaryEdit

-afra, suffix, adjectivizes a noun that ends in a consonant-agu, suffix, negates an adjective ending in a consonant-ak, suffix, denotes subject if it ends in a consonant-at, suffix, turns a place into a term for a person if it ends in a consonant-avande, suffix, creates an adverb from an adjective ending in a consonant-fra, suffix, adjectivizes a noun that ends in a vowel-gu, suffix, negates an adjective ending in a vowel-k, suffix, denotes subject if it ends in a vowel-m, suffix, pluralizes nouns ending in a vowel-t, suffix, turns a place into a term describing a person if it ends in a vowel-um, suffix, pluralizes nouns ending in a consonant-vande, suffix, creates an adverb from an adjective ending in a vowelAbba, adv/prep, aboutAja, adj, highAlga, adj/n, some/someone/somethingAlgadov, adv/interrog, somewhereAlgakua, adv/interrog, sometimeAllam, prep, at/toAmij, n, friendAmijafra, adj, friendlyAmijafragu, adj, unfriendlyAndes, adv/prep, afterAntvarare, v, to comeb-, prefix, creates a reflexive verb for iti/eliBoana die, phrase, good morning/day/afternoonBoana nose, phrase, goodnightBoana, adj, goodDerere, v, should/ought/mustDes, adv/prep, beforeDie, n, morning/day/afternoonDio, n, godDis, n/adj, tenDiskubrare, v, to findDov, interrog, whereDrendare, v, to haveDu, prep, ofDur, n/adj, twoDurdis, n/adj, twentyEdre, n, right/eastEjara, n, being/entity/thingEjare, v, to be/to doEli, n, theyEn, prep, iner, conj, andEro, n/adj, zeroerpra, conj, so/for that reason/so that/becauseEzt, adj, thisEzti, adj, theseEztio, adj, thoseEzto, adj, thatFajore, pleaseFeli, adj, happyFelivande, adv, happilyFundija, n, confusionGan, adj/n, any/anyone/anythingGanga, n, mudGindia, n, binding/mortarGindire, v, to combine/to bindGrase, Thank youI, n, IIngala, n, England/English languageIngalat, n, English person/English speakerIti, n, you (plural)Kad, adj/n, all/every/everyoneKadernya, n, world/EarthKadkua, adv/interrog, every timeKadov, adv/interrog, everywhereKe, interrog, whatKejere, v, to wantKi, interrog, whoKit, prep, withKo, interrog, howKomprendire, v, to understandKonstrara, n, construction/buildingKonstrare, v, to make/to buildKor, n/adj, fourKordis, n/adj, fortyKua, interrog, whenl-, prefix, creates a reflexive verb for li/laLa, n, SheLenya, n, speakerLenyara, n, language/speech/speaking/talking/talkLenyaram, n, languages/speeches/talksLenyarat, n, Lenyarat speakerLenyare, v, to speak/to talkLi, n, He/you (formal)m-, prefix, creates a reflexive verb for iMale, adj, badMatina, n, brickMiravara, n, looker/watcher/sight/lookoutMiravare, v, to see/to look/ to watchMis, n/adj, one thousandMisor, n/adj, one millionMuro, adj, manyNad, adj/n, none/no one/nothingNada, You’re welcomeNarajare, v, to becomeNenya, n, girlNenyam, n, girlsNenyo, n, boyNenyom, n, boysnor-, prefix, creates a reflexive verb for nosiNor, n/adj, nineNora, n, north/upNordis, n/adj, ninetyNose, n, nightNosi, n, weo, conj, orOedre, n, left/westOte, n/adj, eightOtedis, n/adj, eightyPazkara, n, a random assortmentPazkarafra, adj, scatteredPazkare, v, to pull apart/to scatterPiet, n, stonePodere, v, to be able toPra, interrog, whypro, conj, butSao, n, hello/goodbyeSe, n/adj, sixSedis, n/adj, sixtySend, prep, fromSet, n/adj, sevenSetis, n/adj, seventySien, n/adj, one hundredSikit, prep, withoutSin, n/adj, fiveSindis, n/adj, fiftySolat, adj/adv, onlySuf, adv/adj, enough/sufficientSura, n, south/downt-, prefix, creates a reflexive verb for tiTempor, n, time/clockTeraztare, v, to stopTernya, n, land/earth/plainTi, n, you (informal)Tra, n/adj, threeTradis, n/adj, thirtyTrist, adj, sadTristavande, adv, sadlyTura, n, towerUlan, adj/n, their/theirsUli, adj/n, his/her/hers/your/yours (formal)Umbra, n, womanUmbram, n, womenUmbro, n, manUmbrom, n, men/peopleUmi, adj/n, my/mineUnos, adj/n, our/oursUr, n/adj, 1/unitedUti, adj/n, your/yours (informal)Varare, v, to goVi, particle, denotes a yes or no questionVivara, n, houseVivare, v, to liveVrismo, adj, sameYamara, n, name/titleYamare, v, to be called/to be namedZtare, v, to start/to beginZuda, n, city

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