| Name: Lenyara
Head Direction: Medial
Number of genders: 0
Lenyara is spoken in the Baraneto Unity in world of Eno. It is one of the main scholarly languages across the globe, and is known to be an international auxilary language, as the Baraneto Unity is the only nation that has stayed neutral and peaceful during the Great War. As the language is so far spread, there are many variations of word usage and pronunciation on the different continents, as it has blended with the other languages of the world, though mutual intelligibility is still maintained.
Word order tends to be SVO, though this has changed some in the various dialects and there are times when it tends to VS. It is an ergatie language, though the ergative is the only explicit case marking. The absolutive is marked by word order.
Transitive vs. Intransitive Word OrderEdit
In transitive sentences, the subject is marked with the suffix -k, and the object/s come after the verb. If the verb is ditransitive, the indirect object precedes the direct object, and it is always accompanied by a preposition.
In intransitive sentences, the verb comes first, and the subject comes after the verb.
Noun phrases follow a general pattern. The general pattern is: (possessive adjective or numeral), head noun, adjective, interrogative, relative clause.
To create an adverbial phrase, the clause comes after the verb, and the suffix -vande (vowel-final words) or -avande (consonant-final words) is added to the final word of the phrase.
In general, the agreement follows this table:
There are two types of questions in Lenyara: questions that require an extended response, and yes-no questions. In both forms of questioning, an interrogative word is fronted; however, in a yes-no question, the particle Vi is added before the verb or interrogative.
Intervocalic Alveolar FlapEdit
Alveolar trill changes to alveolar flap between vowels.
Final Trill WeakeningEdit
The alveolar trill becomes weakened at the end of a word.
Verbs in Lenyara are interesting, as they are all conjugated periphrastically, except for the verb Ejare (to be/exist/do).
Infinitives end in -re and are almost never used in creating sentences.
The participle is used to conjugate every verb except for Ejare. To create a participle, the stem (-re) is removed and the suffix -nyo is added.
The only verb that actually gets conjugated inflectionally is Ejare. It is conjugated based on person, number, tense, aspect, and mood. To conjugate the other verbs, one must conjugate Ejare, and place the verb in its participle after.
Conjugation Table of EjareEdit
|Subject||Present||Past||Future||Conditional||Present Perfect||Past Perfect||Future Perfect||Conditional Perfect|
|I||Ejano||Ejó||Ejapo||Ejapío||Add Varo before the present tense||Add Varat before the past tense||Add Varu before the future tense||Add Varía before the conditional|
To negate a verb add non before it,
To create reflexive verbs, a reflexive prefix is added to Ejare.
To politely address somone, the Li form of the verb is used.
To nominalize a verb, the e in the stem is removed and an a is added. Therefore, lenyare (to speak/talk) becomes lenyara (language/speech/talking/speaking).
Creating an Animate Noun from a VerbEdit
To create an animate noun assosciated with a verb, remove the stem. Therefore, lenyare (to speak/talk) becomes lenya (speaker).
Adverbs come directly before the verb they modify. Adverbial phrases were discussed above.To create an adverb from an adjective, the suffix -vande (vowel-final words) or -avande (consonant final).Edit
Nouns, Pronouns, and AdjectivesEdit
There is really nothing special about nouns in Lenyara. They don't have gender, and there is no articles. There is also no definitiveness.
Pluralizing a NounEdit
To create a plural noun, the suffix -m (or -um) is added.
Using Adjectives as NounsEdit
Adjectives can be used as nouns with changing form.
Creating a Person from a PlaceEdit
To create a person from a place, the suffix -t (or -at) is added. Therefore, ingala (England/English language) becomes ingalat (Englishman/English speaker).
Adjectivizing A NounEdit
To create an adjective from a noun, the suffix -fra (or -afra) is added.
Pronouns and AdjectivesEdit
Personal pronouns are rarely used in Lenyara, as their meaning is included in the verb.
|Li/La (also you (formal))||He/She|
These can be used as either adjectives or pronouns.
Interrogatives are extremely important since they are not only used in forming questions, but also in forming noun phrases and adjective phrases. They are added as suffixes to nouns to create adjective phrases.
Quantifiers and IndefinitesEdit
Lenyara numbers above ten are formed by placing the word for ten (or twenty, or thirty, etc.) in front of a number one through nine. Numerals, when used as adjectives, are placed before the noun.
Like numerals, possessives are placed before the noun.
Negating an AdjectiveEdit
To negate an adjective, the suffix -gu (or -agu) is added.
|Erpra||Because/so/so that/for that reason|
Here is a translation of the Babel Text into Lenyara. The first set is the modern English, the bold is the Lenyara, and the italic is the literal translation of the Lenyara. A gloss will be added eventually.
1. Once long ago, the world had only one language.
Muro andes, kadernyak ejat drendanyo solat ur lenyara.
Much before, world had only one language.
2. While they were journeying from the East, they found a plain in the land Shinar and made there their home.
Allam tempor vrismovande send endre ejana varanyavande, ejana diskubranyo ternya en Shinar er ejana ztanyo vivare.
At same time from East they go, they found land in Shinar and they started living.
3. And they said to each other: We should bake many bricks; and then they had bricks as stone and they had mud as mortar.
Er bejana lenyanyo: Ejam derenyo konstrare matinam muro; er ejan drendanyo matinam ko piet er ganga ko gindia.
And they said to each other: We should make bricks many; and they had bricks as stone and mud as binding.
4. And they said to each other: We should make a city with a tower that reaches to the heavens.
Er bejana lenyanyo: Ejam derenyo konstrare zuda kit turake eja varanya aja.
And they said to each other: We should build city with tower that goes high.
5. And they said to each other: We should make our name so that we do not become scattered throughout the world.
Er bejana lenyanyo: Ejam derenyo konstrare unos yamara erpra non ejam narajanyo pazkarafra en kadernya.
And they said to each other: We should make our name so we do not become scattered in world.
6. And then the LORD came to there to see the city with the tower that they had made.
Er Diok ejat antvaranyo allam Shinar erpra ejapía podenyo miravare zuda kit turake varat ejana konstranyo.
And God came to Shinar so he would be able to see city with tower that they had made.
7. Then He said: the people are united and they have only one language and of the deeds they can do, this is the beginning!
Ejat lenyanyo: ¡umbromak ejan ur er ejan drendanyo solat ur Lenyara er eztak eja ztara ke ejan podenyo ejare.
He said: people are one and they have only one language and this is start that they can do.
8. Then He said: they will do anything that they can propose!
Ejat lenyanyo: ¡ejapan ejanyo ke ejan kejenyo!
He said: they will do what they want!
9. Then He said: And I will go there and I will make confusion so that the understanding among them is finished.
Ejat lenyanyo: Er ejapo varanyo allam Shinar er ejapo konstranyo fundija erpra non bejapan komprendinyo.
He said: And I will go to Shinar and I will make confusion so they will not understand each other.
10. And the LORD did this and they became scattered throughout the world and the building of the city stopped.
Er Diok ejat ezt er ejana narajanyo pazkarafra en kadernya er konstrarak ejat teraztanyo.
And God did this and they became scattered in world and construction stopped.
11. Therefore their name is Confusion because there the LORD had made confusion of all languages.
Erpra ejan yamanyo Fundija erpra allam ulan zuda diok varat ejat konstranyo fundija du lenyaram kad.
For that reason they are named Confusion because in their city God had made confusion of languages all.
-afra, suffix, adjectivizes a noun that ends in a consonant-agu, suffix, negates an adjective ending in a consonant-ak, suffix, denotes subject if it ends in a consonant-at, suffix, turns a place into a term for a person if it ends in a consonant-avande, suffix, creates an adverb from an adjective ending in a consonant-fra, suffix, adjectivizes a noun that ends in a vowel-gu, suffix, negates an adjective ending in a vowel-k, suffix, denotes subject if it ends in a vowel-m, suffix, pluralizes nouns ending in a vowel-t, suffix, turns a place into a term describing a person if it ends in a vowel-um, suffix, pluralizes nouns ending in a consonant-vande, suffix, creates an adverb from an adjective ending in a vowelAbba, adv/prep, aboutAja, adj, highAlga, adj/n, some/someone/somethingAlgadov, adv/interrog, somewhereAlgakua, adv/interrog, sometimeAllam, prep, at/toAmij, n, friendAmijafra, adj, friendlyAmijafragu, adj, unfriendlyAndes, adv/prep, afterAntvarare, v, to comeb-, prefix, creates a reflexive verb for iti/eliBoana die, phrase, good morning/day/afternoonBoana nose, phrase, goodnightBoana, adj, goodDerere, v, should/ought/mustDes, adv/prep, beforeDie, n, morning/day/afternoonDio, n, godDis, n/adj, tenDiskubrare, v, to findDov, interrog, whereDrendare, v, to haveDu, prep, ofDur, n/adj, twoDurdis, n/adj, twentyEdre, n, right/eastEjara, n, being/entity/thingEjare, v, to be/to doEli, n, theyEn, prep, iner, conj, andEro, n/adj, zeroerpra, conj, so/for that reason/so that/becauseEzt, adj, thisEzti, adj, theseEztio, adj, thoseEzto, adj, thatFajore, pleaseFeli, adj, happyFelivande, adv, happilyFundija, n, confusionGan, adj/n, any/anyone/anythingGanga, n, mudGindia, n, binding/mortarGindire, v, to combine/to bindGrase, Thank youI, n, IIngala, n, England/English languageIngalat, n, English person/English speakerIti, n, you (plural)Kad, adj/n, all/every/everyoneKadernya, n, world/EarthKadkua, adv/interrog, every timeKadov, adv/interrog, everywhereKe, interrog, whatKejere, v, to wantKi, interrog, whoKit, prep, withKo, interrog, howKomprendire, v, to understandKonstrara, n, construction/buildingKonstrare, v, to make/to buildKor, n/adj, fourKordis, n/adj, fortyKua, interrog, whenl-, prefix, creates a reflexive verb for li/laLa, n, SheLenya, n, speakerLenyara, n, language/speech/speaking/talking/talkLenyaram, n, languages/speeches/talksLenyarat, n, Lenyarat speakerLenyare, v, to speak/to talkLi, n, He/you (formal)m-, prefix, creates a reflexive verb for iMale, adj, badMatina, n, brickMiravara, n, looker/watcher/sight/lookoutMiravare, v, to see/to look/ to watchMis, n/adj, one thousandMisor, n/adj, one millionMuro, adj, manyNad, adj/n, none/no one/nothingNada, You’re welcomeNarajare, v, to becomeNenya, n, girlNenyam, n, girlsNenyo, n, boyNenyom, n, boysnor-, prefix, creates a reflexive verb for nosiNor, n/adj, nineNora, n, north/upNordis, n/adj, ninetyNose, n, nightNosi, n, weo, conj, orOedre, n, left/westOte, n/adj, eightOtedis, n/adj, eightyPazkara, n, a random assortmentPazkarafra, adj, scatteredPazkare, v, to pull apart/to scatterPiet, n, stonePodere, v, to be able toPra, interrog, whypro, conj, butSao, n, hello/goodbyeSe, n/adj, sixSedis, n/adj, sixtySend, prep, fromSet, n/adj, sevenSetis, n/adj, seventySien, n/adj, one hundredSikit, prep, withoutSin, n/adj, fiveSindis, n/adj, fiftySolat, adj/adv, onlySuf, adv/adj, enough/sufficientSura, n, south/downt-, prefix, creates a reflexive verb for tiTempor, n, time/clockTeraztare, v, to stopTernya, n, land/earth/plainTi, n, you (informal)Tra, n/adj, threeTradis, n/adj, thirtyTrist, adj, sadTristavande, adv, sadlyTura, n, towerUlan, adj/n, their/theirsUli, adj/n, his/her/hers/your/yours (formal)Umbra, n, womanUmbram, n, womenUmbro, n, manUmbrom, n, men/peopleUmi, adj/n, my/mineUnos, adj/n, our/oursUr, n/adj, 1/unitedUti, adj/n, your/yours (informal)Varare, v, to goVi, particle, denotes a yes or no questionVivara, n, houseVivare, v, to liveVrismo, adj, sameYamara, n, name/titleYamare, v, to be called/to be namedZtare, v, to start/to beginZuda, n, city