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Leten sciionron

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Leten sciionron is the language of the people of Sicily (Sciio), descended from Classical latin, making a major divergence from other Latin dialects after 40 B.C., after the collapse of the roman empire in the war of Caesarean succession.

Sound ChangesEdit

Classical Latin to Southern Italic Latin (0-400 A.D.)Edit

Vowel Syncope

The antepenult of a word is stressed, unless the penult is long, in which case the penult is stressed instead. Stress shall be marked with an acute  ́ in phonetic transcription.

In (V)CVC(V) sequences  where the middle vowel is unstressed and short, the vowel is deleted.

Word final short vowels are deleted except in monosyllable

in (C)CVCVC sequences where both vowels are unstressed and short, the second vowel is deleted.

CCVCC sequences or CCVC sequences at the end of a word never have their vowel delected


Italic vowel shift

VnC> ṼC. (n stands for any nasal consonant). In situations where this can occur there is never vowel syncope

/a/>/ɛ/ and /a:/>/ai/ in word internal syllables or when followed by a  syllable containing /i/, /e/, or /j/, regardless of stress

/a/>/ɔ/ and /a:/>/au/ in word final syllables or when followed by a syllable containing /u/, /o/, or /w/, regardless of stress

/ai/>/ɛ/

/au/>/ɔ/

/i/>/ɛ/ and /i:/>/e/

/u/>/ɔ/ and /u:/>/o/

/í/ and /í:/> /í/

/ú/ and /ú:/> /ú/

/e/ and /e:/> /ɛ/

/o/ and /o:/>/ɔ/

/é:/>/é/ and /ó:/ > /ó/

/é/>/í/ and /ó/>/ú/

Consonant Shifts

Consonant clusters assimillate in voicing regressively. /s/ and /f/ always devoice the clusters they are in. Sonorants do not affect voicing.

Grammatical Shifts

Most neuter  nouns become masculine.

Neuter nouns usually used in the pural, like arma, become feminine singular first declension nouns.

Fourth declension nouns become second delcension

In analogy with the first and second delcensions, third declension nouns develop a genitive singular ending /ɛs/, so that all nouns have identical nominative plural and genitive singular endings

cum tends to be placed after the noun it modifies instead of before

Southern Italic to Sicilian Latin (400-000 A.D.)Edit

Sicilian Transposition

In CC sequences where the first consonant is a fricative, /l/, or /r/ and the second consonant is a plosive stop, the consonants are reversed. This occurs in all environments except at the end of a word when one of the consonants is /l/ or /r/

Palatalization

/kj/ and /tj/>/t͡ɕ/

/gj/, /j:/ and /dj/>/d͡ʑ/

/sj/>/ɕ/

Grammatical Shifts

The dative is subsumed by the ablative except for the pronouns ig, tu, and pis.

The pluperfect and future perfect are lost

Cum fuses with the preceding noun to form the comitative case.

Sicilian Latin to  Latin Panormi (900-1300 A.D.)Edit

/ts/>/ks/

final /t/ to /k/

/tl/> /kl/

/dl/>/l/

/tr/ and /kr/>/ʈ/

/dr/ and /gr/>/ɖ/

/kw/ and /tw/>/p/

/dw/ and /gw/>/b/

Intervocalic /t/>/ɾ/

Grammatical changes

DEBEIR, PVTER, VVL,  NOVL, TENEIR and HEBEIR fuse to the infinitive that precedes them.

The last distinctions between the first and second declensions are lost. Feminine and Masculine fuse and gender disappears. The only remaining distinction is that many formerly feminine nouns lack the nominative singular -/s/ suffix.

The second person plural suffix -x becomes -xes through interference with the second person plural of ixer ixes and with interference from speakers of other romance languages with preserve the ending -tes.

Latin Panormi to Middle Leten sciionron (1300-1600 A.D.)Edit

/pC/ where C is any plosive stop becomes /fC/

/kC/ where C is any plosive stop becomes /xc/

/tC/ where C is any plosive stop becomes /C:/

Grammatical shifts

The passive ending in verb conjugation is reduced by analogy to the agglutinative suffix -(ɔ)r. This replaces the second person plural passive suffix -men with -xer

Middle to Modern Leten sciionron (1600-2000 A.D.)Edit

/g/>/ŋ/, /d/>/n/ and /b/>/m/ at the end of a word.

/au/>/ɔ:/

/ai/>/ɛ:/

/ui/>/oi/

Grammatical Shifts

The last deponent verbs become active

SpellingEdit

Modern Leten Sciionron spelling is mostly unchaged from the spelling of Latin Panormi (LETEN PONORMEI), the language spoken at the peak of the Sicilian empire, a time of great prosperity for the Sicilian people.

Pronounciation
AU /ɔ:/
AE /ɛ:/
B

/b/ preceding vowels. /β/ intervocalically.

/m/ preceding consonants or at the end of a word

C /k/. /x/ before another plosive.
D /d/ before vowels. /z/ intervocalically. /n/ before consonants or at the end of a word
E /ɛ/ standing alone. EI is pronounced /e/. Often reduced to /ɪ/ in suffixes or in betwen two consonant clusters
F /f/
G /g/ before vowels. /ɣ/ intervocalically. /ŋ/ before consonants or at the ends of words.
H /h/ HI̵ is pronounced /tɕ/.
I /i/. Before another vowel I is pronounced /j/. II is pronounced /ij/.
K /k/ Rarely used, except in some greek loanwords
L /l/.
M /m/.
N /n/ before vowels. Nasalizes the preceding vowel before a consonant or at the end of a word.
O /ɔ/. OV is pronounced /o/. Often reduced to /ɞ/ in suffixes or between two consonant clusters.
P /p/. /f/ before another plosive.
R /r/
S /s/ after a voiceless consonant or at the beginining of a word. Otherwize, /z/.
T /t/ before vowels. Geminates a following plosive. /ɾ/ intervocalically.
V /u/. VI is pronounced /oi/.
X /ks/.
/dʑ/. This letter originated as a ligature of II used by Panormian scribes to signify this new sound.
/ɖ/. This letter originated in Panormian latin to distinguish retroflex d from dental d
/ʈ/. This letter originated in Panormian latin to distinguish retroflex t from dental t
HI /ɕ/ when preceded by a voicless consonant and followed by a vowel. /ʑ/ when intervocalic or preceded by a voiced consonant and followed by a vowel. Otherwise, /hi/

GrammarEdit

Noun declensionEdit

Second declension of CELS (sky)
Singular Plural
Nominative CELS CELEI
Genitive CELEI CELRON
Ablative CELO CELES
Accusative CELON CELOS
Comitative CELCON CELEXON

This first group of second declension nouns includes nouns that ended in -us in the nominative singular in Southern Italic latin. This includes many neuter nouns that were confused with masculine nouns, like cels, from classical CAELVM (CAELVS)

Second declension of FIIOS (son)
Nominative FIIOS FILEI
Genitive FILEI FIIORON
Ablative FIIO FILEIS
Accusative FIION FIIOS
Comitative FIIOCON FILEXON


Second declension of PVIL (girl)
Singular Plural
Nominative PVIL PVILEI
Genitive PVILEI PVILRON
Ablative PVILO PVILEIS
Accusative PVILON PVILOS
Comitative PVILOCON PVILEIXON

Third declension of REIX (king)
Nominative REIX REIGES
Genitive REIGES REIGON
Ablative REIG REIGEPS
Accusative REIGEN REIGES
Comitative REIGCON REIGBOXON
Third declension of NVMEN (name)
Singular Plural
Nominative NVMEN NVNNES
Genitive NVNNES NVNNON
Ablative NVMEN NVNNEPS
Accusative NVNNEN NVNNES
Comitative NVMENCON NVMENBOXON

Personal PronounsEdit

First person Second Third
S P S P S P
Nominative ig nous tu vous
Genitive

mi

mios

nuster pos vister
Dative mic noups tib voups
Ablative mei noups tei voups
Accusative mei nous tei vous

Verb conjugationEdit

Tense Person

onblaer, to walk

(First conjugation)

ieceir, to lay down

(Second conjugation)

copere, to cook

(Third conjugation)

emaer

(First conjugation, Vowel change e-o)

der, to give

(irregular)

Ixer,to be

(irregular)

Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Present 1

ONBLO

ONBLOR

ONBLAVNS

ONBLAVMOR

iehɨo iecens copo copens omo emauns dou dauns sun suns
2

ONBLAVS

ONBLAVR

ONBLAVXES

ONBLAVXER

ieces iecexes copes copexes emaus emauxes daus dauxes is ixes
3

ONBLOC

ONBLOTOR

ONBLONC

ONBLONTOR

iecec iecenc copec copenc emoc emonc doc donc ix sunc
Perfect 1 ONBLVI

ONBLVIR

ONBLVINS

ONBLVIMOR

iecui iecuins coxe coxens omui omuins dede dedens fui fuins
2

ONBLVIXE

ONBLVIXER

ONBLVIXES

ONBLVIXER

iecuixe iecuixes coxexe coxexes omuixe omuixes dedexe dedexes fuixe fuixes
3 ONBLVIC

ONBLVITOR

ONBLVIRONC

ONBVIRONTOR

iecuic iecuironc coxec coxeronc omuic omuironc dedec dederonc fuic fuinc
Imperfect 1

ONBLAEBON

ONBLAEBONR

ONBLAEBAVNS

ONBLAEBAVMOR

iecibon iecibauns copibon copibauns emaebon emaebauns dobon dobauns
2 ONBLAEBAVS

ONBLAEBAVR

ONBLAEBAVXES

ONBLAEBAVXER

iecibaus iecibauxes copibaus copibauxes emaebaus emaebauxes dobaus dobauxes
3 ONBLAEBOC

ONBLAEBOTOR

ONBLAEBONC

ONBLAEBONTOR

ieciboc iecibonc copiboc copibonc emaeboc emaebonc doboc dobonc
Potential 1 ONBLAERPSON ONBLAERPSONS ieceirpson ieceirpsons coperpson coperpsons emaerpsons emaerpsons derpson derpsons
2 ONBLAERPTES ONBLAERPTEXES ieceirptes ieceirptexes coperptes coperptexes emaerptes emaerptexes derptes derptexes
3 ONBLAERPTEX ONBLAERPSONC ieceirptex ieceirpsonc coperptex coperpsonc emaerptex emaerpsonc derptex derpsonc
Obligatory 1 ONBLAED̵BIO ONBLAED̵BENS
2 ONBLAED̶BES ONBLAED̵BEXES
3 ONBLAED̵IPC ONBLAED̵BENC

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