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"Lidu" is literally "speech". Simplicity is key.
None. People do not speak like this even in fantasy.
This wiki is largely in English, and reusing the letters is thus rather convenient. A few letter sounds differ from English, though, in order to achieve better consistency. Viewers are most likely to be familiar with the Spanish pronunciations of the vowels.
Letter Word or letter sound representation Letter Sound representation Letter Sound representation A aaa (Spanish A) B "boy" D "dog" E "sell" F "final" G "gate" H "help" Y "hymn" - "funny" at end of word J "yam" K "kite" L "line" M "may" N "never" O "oat" (Spanish O) P "post" R "rail" S "silly" T "tail" U "zoo" (Spanish U) V "very" W "walk" Z "sh" -> z.
Lidu attempts to follow a few key rules:
- No exceptions. Reduces the amount to memorize.
- Minimal conjugation. A single suffix can describe the tense of any verb. Suffix information is provided separately. Refer to the Using Verbs section.
- Words can be derived from verbs. Specific suffixes turn a verb into a noun or adjective. See the Using Verbs section for detailed information about meaning-changing suffixes.
- Gender is minimized. Gender equality should be inherent in the very words people speak. Thus, gender pronouns are very similar. San and sen (He and She) differ by just one letter, and are of equal length, convenience, etc. In plural form, when referring to a mixed group, the genderless fenet (They (neut)) is used. No word is meant to suggest gender, except where gender is inherent in its meaning.
- Subjects are simple and derived from 5 roots. All major forms are listed below. Refer to the next section.
Parts of speechEdit
- Modifier: Includes adjectives, adverbs, and prepositions. Begins with vowel, ends with consonant.
- Noun: Includes pronouns. Begins and ends with consonants.
- Verb: Begins with consonant, ends with vowel.
Conversion between these three roles is achieved by adding and removing consonants as needed (U and V by default).
|Modifier||-||Add v- or remove u-||Add v- or remove u-, add -[a-u]|
|Noun||Add u- or remove v-||-||Add -[a-u]|
|Verb||Add u- or remove v-, remove -[a-u]||
The vowel that begins an adjective contains information about its nature.
- A: Number/quantity
- E: Relation/operator/preposition
- Y: Objective
- O: Subjective
- U: Imported noun or verb.
Lin Singular Plural Tan Singular Plural Fen Singular Plural Regular I: Lin We: Linet Regular You: Tan You: Tanet Regular It: Fen They: Fenet Honorific I: Helin We: Helinet Honorific You: Hetan You: Hetanet Honorific It: Hefen They: Hefenet San Singular Plural Sen Singular Plural Regular He: San They (male): Sanet Regular She: Sen They (female): Senet Honorific He: Hesan They (male): Hesanet Honorific She: Hesen They (female): Hesenet
Refer to Rule 4 in the guidelines above.
All verbs have the same format. There's the root, and there's whatever suffix gets attached. For examples, the verb Golkorv (to laugh) will be used.
The -Ep suffix results in Golkorvep, to laugh (in the present). The -Av and -Yt suffixes put the verb in the future and past, respectively. Latch on a subject and you have an action!
The -U suffix converts any verb into the noun that is the product or basis of the verb. Speak becomes Speech, Think becomes Thought, etc. Of course, this does not work for all verbs. Understand that not all Lidu nouns are derived from verbs, and that this process generally does not work in reverse. The noun would have to end with -U before the verb was even invented. On Golkorv, the -U suffix will yield Golkorvu, laugh (noun).
And of course, verbs can be used to create not just nouns, but new verbs, when co mbined with other words. Golkorv is a combination of Gol, to sound, and Korv, to smile. "Smile-sound"!
The -I suffix forms adjectives. Golkorvi is closest to "laugh-like". If -I is attached to the verb Exceed (Kel), the result is the more practical Keli (Exceeding), generally used to mean "very".
The -O suffix forms verb modifiers, including adverbs. Kelo is "exceedingly".
General sentence structureEdit
Generally: verb + (optional) verb modifier + (optional) subject modifier + subject + (optional) subject modifier + (optional) object + (optional) object modifier.
Refer to the Example Text section. Order and adverbs are examples of verb modifiers.
After: -Av- (as a prefix/suffix), Av (as a preposition)
All: Lala (double negative No cancellation)
Be (exist): Kal
Be (permanent condition): On
Be (temporary condition): Kit
Before: -Yt- (as a prefix/suffix), Yt (as a preposition)
Begin: Alkal ("first existence")
Beginning (noun): Alkalu (derived from Begin (verb))
Being: Kalu (derived from Be (exist))
Burn (noun): Goralasu ("burn injury")
Burn (verb): Gor
Condition: Kitu (derived from Be (temporary condition))
End (verb): Avkal ("after exist")
Ending (noun): Avkalu (derived from End (verb))
Everything: Lalakalu (for technique, see All and Nothing)
Few: Laetuet (literally, "not many"; derived from Many)
Fire: Goru (derived from Fire)
Future: Avlyrk (literally, "time after")
Harm (verb): Alas
Have (possess): Gar
Help (noun): Lagu
Help (verb): Lag
(Honorific): He- (prefix, normally for pronouns)
- Cultural Note: When placed in front of all other persons, he- designates respect. When an individual or group is referring to themselves, they are stating how seriously they view something. Used when making a promise, taking an oath, etc.
How (question): Kwikor ("what way"; derived from Way (process))
Human (noun): Kig
Injury: Alasu (derived from Harm (verb)
- Note: Can represents a person, if their gender is not known. Also note They (neut.), the direct plural form of this.
Laugh (noun): Golkorvu (derived from Laugh (verb))
Laugh (verb): Golkorv (derived from Smile (verb))
Laughter: Golkorvuet (plural of Laugh (noun)
Life: Wunu (derived from Live (verb))
Light (noun): Guru (derived from Shine (verb))
Live (verb): Wun
Many: Etuet (derived from (Plurality))
No (not): La
Now: -Ep- (as a prefix/suffix), Ep
Nothing: Lakalu (literally "No being"; derived from Being (exist))
(Objectification): -U (suffix derives a noun from a verb)
Order (noun): Kongu (derived from Organize)
Past: Ytlyrk (literally, "time before")
- Note: Attached to the ends of nouns, pronouns to mean that there is more than one of something.
Possession: Garu (derived from Have (possess)
Present (time): Eplyrk (literally "time now")
(Question): Kwi- (prefix)
- Note: Attached to the beginnings of certain words, such as Number, Procedure, Condition, etc. Spares the creation of new roots for numerous "question words".
Shine (verb): Gur
Silence: Lagolu ("no sound"; derived from Sound (noun))
Smile (noun): Korvu (derived from Smile (verb))
Smile (verb) Korv
Sound (noun): Golu (derived from Sound (verb))
Sound (verb): Gol
Speech: Lidu (derived from Speak)
They (female): Senet (plural of She)
- Note: Must refer to an exclusively feminine group; is thus rarely used. See They (neut.)
They (male): Sanet (plural of He)
- Note: Must refer to an exclusively masculine group; is thus rarely used. See They (neut.)
They (neut.): Fenet
- Note: Despite being the last entry in order, this is actually the default form used when referring to a group of mixed gender.
Thought: Sindu (derived from Think)
Thoughtful (adjective): Sindo
Thoughtful (verb modifier): Sindio (as in "like thought")
Too: Avhut (literally "and after", as in "and me [as well]"), Keloet (plural of Very; exceedingly, as in "too much")
(Verb modifier): -Io
Very: Kelo (derived from Exceed)
Way (method): Kor
We: Linet (plural of I)
When: Kwilyrk ("?time")
Where: Kwigump ("?place")
You (singular): Tan
You (plural): Tanet (plural of You (singular))
Blue: Ransak ("water color")
Green: Karlak ("tree color")
Red: Goruak ("fire color")
Yellow: Turtak ("sun color")
To minimize the number of sequences to remember, number names are derived from the simplified alphabet. All start with "a" and have a consonant whose order in the alphabet determines the size of the number.
- Consonants b-m provide 0-9. Two-digit numbers are made by naming the corresponding digts.
|0||Ab||Before there is something, there is nothing|
|77||Al-al||Exceedingly short by Western standards|
- To prevent confusion in large numbersllables, the remaining consonants (p-z) are used to form powers of 100 (100, 10,000, etc.). As in most other languages, "hundred" is understood to mean "one hundred zero".
|100||Ap||"Hundred" shorther than ten"|
|101||Ap-ad||Unnamed places (10s) are ignored|
|111||Ap-ad-ad||The - is used to separate all named digit places.|
|12,345||Ar-af-ag-ap-ah-aj||"ten-thousand, two-three hundred, four-five"|
|1014||Az||In practice, "many"|
Capable of representing up to 1016-1 — 10 quadrillion. Beyond, scientific notation is necessary.
All ordinals result from adding "order" to the end of the corresponding number.
First: Adkongu ("1 order")
Tenth: Adabkongu ("2 order")
Kalyt alkongu karlet hut ranset hut guru. Kalyt satkongu kiget. Kalyt bankongu lidu. First were the trees and the waters and the light. Second were the people. Third was the speech.
Kalep kelet etuet goruet. Avkal kwikor linet fenet? There are too many fires. How will we end them?