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Lidu

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"Lidu" is literally "speech". Simplicity is key.

SettingEdit

None. People do not speak like this even in fantasy.

Basic GrammarEdit

AlphabetEdit

This wiki is largely in English, and reusing the letters is thus rather convenient. A few letter sounds differ from English, though, in order to achieve better consistency. Viewers are most likely to be familiar with the Spanish pronunciations of the vowels.

Letter Word or letter sound representation Letter Sound representation Letter Sound representation
Aaaa (Spanish A) B"boy" D"dog"
E"sell" F"final" G"gate"
H"help" Y"hymn" - "funny" at end of word J"yam"
K"kite" L"line" M"may"
N"never" O"oat" (Spanish O) P"post"
R"rail" S"silly" T"tail"
U"zoo" (Spanish U) V"very" W"walk"
Z"sh" -> z.

Integral GuidelinesEdit

Lidu attempts to follow a few key rules:

  1. No exceptions. Reduces the amount to memorize.
  2. Minimal conjugation. A single suffix can describe the tense of any verb. Suffix information is provided separately. Refer to the Using Verbs section.
  3. Words can be derived from verbs. Specific suffixes turn a verb into a noun or adjective. See the Using Verbs section for detailed information about meaning-changing suffixes.
  4. Gender is minimized. Gender equality should be inherent in the very words people speak. Thus, gender pronouns are very similar. San and sen (He and She) differ by just one letter, and are of equal length, convenience, etc. In plural form, when referring to a mixed group, the genderless fenet (They (neut)) is used. No word is meant to suggest gender, except where gender is inherent in its meaning.
  5. Subjects are simple and derived from 5 roots. All major forms are listed below. Refer to the next section.

Parts of speechEdit

  • Modifier: Includes adjectives, adverbs, and prepositions. Begins with vowel, ends with consonant.
  • Noun: Includes pronouns. Begins and ends with consonants.
  • Verb: Begins with consonant, ends with vowel.

Conversion between these three roles is achieved by adding and removing consonants as needed (U and V by default).

Start\End Modifier Noun Verb
Modifier - Add v- or remove u- Add v- or remove u-, add -[a-u]
Noun Add u- or remove v- - Add  -[a-u]
Verb Add u- or remove v-, remove -[a-u]

Remove -[a-u]

-

Adjectives

The vowel that begins an adjective contains information about its nature.

  • A: Number/quantity
  • E: Relation/operator/preposition
  • Y: Objective
  • O: Subjective
  • U: Imported noun or verb. 

PronounsEdit

Lin Singular Plural Tan Singular Plural Fen Singular Plural
Regular I: Lin We: Linet Regular You: Tan You: Tanet Regular It: Fen They: Fenet
Honorific I: Helin We: Helinet Honorific You: Hetan You: Hetanet Honorific It: Hefen They: Hefenet
San Singular Plural Sen Singular Plural
Regular He: San They (male): Sanet Regular She: Sen They (female): Senet
Honorific He: Hesan They (male): Hesanet Honorific She: Hesen They (female): Hesenet

Refer to Rule 4 in the guidelines above.

Using verbsEdit

All verbs have the same format. There's the root, and there's whatever suffix gets attached. For examples, the verb Golkorv (to laugh) will be used.

The -Ep suffix results in Golkorvep, to laugh (in the present). The -Av and -Yt suffixes put the verb in the future and past, respectively. Latch on a subject and you have an action!

The -U suffix converts any verb into the noun that is the product or basis of the verb. Speak becomes Speech, Think becomes Thought, etc. Of course, this does not work for all verbs. Understand that not all Lidu nouns are derived from verbs, and that this process generally does not work in reverse. The noun would have to end with -U before the verb was even invented. On Golkorv, the -U suffix will yield Golkorvu, laugh (noun).

And of course, verbs can be used to create not just nouns, but new verbs, when co mbined with other words. Golkorv is a combination of Gol, to sound, and Korv, to smile. "Smile-sound"!

The -I suffix forms adjectives. Golkorvi is closest to "laugh-like". If -I is attached to the verb Exceed (Kel), the result is the more practical Keli (Exceeding), generally used to mean "very".

The -O suffix forms verb modifiers, including adverbs. Kelo is "exceedingly".

General sentence structureEdit

Generally: verb + (optional) verb modifier + (optional) subject modifier + subject + (optional) subject modifier + (optional) object + (optional) object modifier.

Refer to the Example Text section. Order and adverbs are examples of verb modifiers.

DictionaryEdit

Use-wordsEdit

After: -Av- (as a prefix/suffix), Av (as a preposition)

All: Lala (double negative No cancellation)

And: Hut

Be (exist): Kal

Be (permanent condition): On

Be (temporary condition): Kit

Before: -Yt- (as a prefix/suffix), Yt (as a preposition)

Begin: Alkal ("first existence")

Beginning (noun): Alkalu (derived from Begin (verb))

Being: Kalu (derived from Be (exist))

Burn (noun): Goralasu ("burn injury")

Burn (verb): Gor

Color: Ak

Condition: Kitu (derived from Be (temporary condition))

End (verb): Avkal ("after exist")

Ending (noun): Avkalu (derived from End (verb))

Everything: Lalakalu (for technique, see All and Nothing)

Exceed: Kel

Few: Laetuet (literally, "not many"; derived from Many)

Fire: Goru (derived from Fire)

Forest: Karlet

Future: Avlyrk (literally, "time after")

Harm (verb): Alas

Have (possess): Gar

He: San

Help (noun): Lagu

Help (verb): Lag

Home: Wungump

(Honorific): He- (prefix, normally for pronouns)

Cultural Note: When placed in front of all other persons, he- designates respect. When an individual or group is referring to themselves, they are stating how seriously they view something. Used when making a promise, taking an oath, etc.

How (question): Kwikor ("what way"; derived from Way (process))

Human (noun): Kig

I: Lin

Injury: Alasu (derived from Harm (verb)

It: Fen

Note: Can represents a person, if their gender is not known. Also note They (neut.), the direct plural form of this.

Laugh (noun): Golkorvu (derived from Laugh (verb))

Laugh (verb): Golkorv (derived from Smile (verb))

Laughter: Golkorvuet (plural of Laugh (noun)

Life: Wunu (derived from Live (verb))

Light (noun): Guru (derived from Shine (verb))

Live (verb): Wun

Many: Etuet (derived from (Plurality))

No (not): La

Now: -Ep- (as a prefix/suffix), Ep

Nothing: Lakalu (literally "No being"; derived from Being (exist))

(Objectification): -U (suffix derives a noun from a verb)

Order (noun): Kongu (derived from Organize)

Organize: Kong

Past: Ytlyrk (literally, "time before")

Place: Gump

(Pluality): -Et

Note: Attached to the ends of nouns, pronouns to mean that there is more than one of something.

Possession: Garu (derived from Have (possess)

Present (time): Eplyrk (literally "time now")

(Question): Kwi- (prefix)

Note: Attached to the beginnings of certain words, such as Number, Procedure, Condition, etc. Spares the creation of new roots for numerous "question words".

Shine (verb): Gur

Silence: Lagolu ("no sound"; derived from Sound (noun))

Smile (noun): Korvu (derived from Smile (verb))

Smile (verb) Korv

Sound (noun): Golu (derived from Sound (verb))

Sound (verb): Gol

Speak: Lid

She: Sen

Speech: Lidu (derived from Speak)

Sun: Turt

They (female): Senet (plural of She)

Note: Must refer to an exclusively feminine group; is thus rarely used. See They (neut.)

They (male): Sanet (plural of He)

Note: Must refer to an exclusively masculine group; is thus rarely used. See They (neut.)

They (neut.): Fenet

Note: Despite being the last entry in order, this is actually the default form used when referring to a group of mixed gender.

Think: Sind

Thought: Sindu (derived from Think)

Thoughtful (adjective): Sindo

Thoughtful (verb modifier): Sindio (as in "like thought")

Time: Lyrk

Too: Avhut (literally "and after", as in "and me [as well]"), Keloet (plural of Very; exceedingly, as in "too much")

Tree: Karl

(Verb modifier): -Io

Very: Kelo (derived from Exceed)

Water: Rans

Way (method): Kor

We: Linet (plural of I)

When: Kwilyrk ("?time")

Where: Kwigump ("?place")

You (singular): Tan

You (plural): Tanet (plural of You (singular))

ColorsEdit

As nounsEdit

Blue: Ransak ("water color")

Green: Karlak ("tree color")

Red: Goruak ("fire color")

Yellow: Turtak ("sun color")

Cardinal NumbersEdit

To minimize the number of sequences to remember, number names are derived from the simplified alphabet. All start with "a" and have a consonant whose order in the alphabet determines the size of the number.

0-99Edit

Consonants b-m provide 0-9. Two-digit numbers are made by naming the corresponding digts.
Value Name Notes
0 Ab Before there is something, there is nothing
1 Ad Second consonant
2 Af
3 Ag
4 Ah
5 Aj
6 Ak
7 Al
8 Am
9 Am
10 Ad-ab "One-zero"
11 Ad-ad "One-one"
12 Ad-af
20 Af-ab "Two zero"
21 Af-ad
30 Ag-ab
77 Al-al Exceedingly short by Western standards
99 An-an

100-9,999Edit

To prevent confusion in large numbersllables, the remaining consonants (p-z) are used to form powers of 100 (100, 10,000, etc.). As in most other languages, "hundred" is understood to mean "one hundred zero".
Value Name Notes
100 Ap "Hundred" shorther than ten"
101 Ap-ad Unnamed places (10s) are ignored
110 Ap-ad-ab First three-syllable
111 Ap-ad-ad The - is used to separate all named digit places.
120 Ap-af-ab
200 Af-ap
300 Ag-ap
400 Ah-ap
999 An-ap-an-an
1000 Ad-ab-ap "Ten hundred"
2000 Af-ab-ap
5,500 Aj-aj-ap
9,999 An-an-ap-an-an
10,000 Ar
12,345 Ar-af-ag-ap-ah-aj "ten-thousand, two-three hundred, four-five"
1,000,000 As
108 At
1010 Av
1012 Aw
1014 Az In practice, "many"

Capable of representing up to 1016-1 — 10 quadrillion. Beyond, scientific notation is necessary.

Ordinal NumbersEdit

All ordinals result from adding "order" to the end of the corresponding number.

First: Adkongu ("1 order")

Tenth: Adabkongu ("2 order")

Hundredth: Apkongu

Millionth: Askongu

Last: Azkongu

Example textEdit

Kalyt alkongu karlet hut ranset hut guru. Kalyt satkongu kiget. Kalyt bankongu lidu. First were the trees and the waters and the light. Second were the people. Third was the speech.

Kalep kelet etuet goruet. Avkal kwikor linet fenet? There are too many fires. How will we end them?

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