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Lijaldanor

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Ligjaldanhor.script

General information

Lijaldanor is the official language of Jalsor and one of the dominant languages of Greater Fradan. It is spoken as a native language by the Jaldanori people and borrowed as a script by the Rhuson language. The xenonym is simply a misheard romanization of the autoglossonym, Ligjaldanhor. Along with Rhuson, Fradan, and various extinct languages, Lijadanor constitutes the family of Northern Fridish languages. Of which, only Lijaldanor and Rhuson are more or less mutually intelligible.

Lijaldanor
Ligjaldanhor
Type
Isolating
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



Lijaldanor is a rather simple language for a rather simple people, and its grammar certainly reflects that.

PhonologyEdit

As a simple language, the available sounds for Lijaldanor are rather limited; where most languages carry some sort of Plosive b or p sounds, Lijaldanor lacks them. Where most languages containing a t and a ʃ therefore allow for a "ch" sound, Lijaldanor does not. While strict as well as limited in consonants, Lijaldanor does offer leniency in the pronunciation of its vowels, allowing up to three different sounds to each represent a single letter. This, combined with its rudimentary grammar, permits the learner to attain a rather high level of proficiency in a fairly short period of time. The IPA tables for Consonants and Vowels are shown below.

Bilabial

Labio-dental

Alveolar/Postalveolar

Retroflex

Velar

Nasal

m n

Plosive

t, d k, g

Fricative

f, v s, z, ʃ, ʒ

Approximant

ɻ

Flap or tap

ɾ

Lateral app.

l

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid ə
Open ä

AlphabetEdit

Lijaldanor also refers to the script used to write it. The script is borrowed by the Rhuson language. For the sake of convenience, however, all lijaldanori words used in the remainder of this article will be spelled out using the roman latin alphabet.

Ligjaldanhor.script

"Ligjaldanhor"

PhonotacticsEdit

RULE: Suggi may not end with the letter "h".

RULE: The letter "h" is voiceless.

RULE: When "g" is the ending sound of a suggi, it is voiceless.

RULE: The letter "a" is often pronounced ə.

RULE: When "r" appears at the beginning of a suggi, it is ɾ. When it appears at the end of a suggi, it is ɻ.

RULE: If a suggi ending in "s" is followed by a suggi beginning with "j", the sound is ʃ.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No Yes No Yes
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

NounsEdit

Nouns are made up of 1 (to a limit of 4) "suggi", a word which comes from the lijaldanori "sug", meaning, "word". Suggi are each exactly one morpheme and represent one or multiple meanings or ideas. Suggi can be combined to form more complex words and can affect everything from nouns to verbs to adjectives.

VerbsEdit

In Lijaldanor, the lines between parts of speech are much more blurry than in other languages. For example, the suggi, "jes" by itself (always regarding context) is generally accepted to refer to the "eye", meaning, the optical organ located on the face of most living things. However, if used with another suggi such as "gar" or "run", "jes" is taken to mean "to see." Nouns ornoun-referring suggi can often be made into verbs with the addition of the verb suggi.

Verb Tense

Tense in Lijaldanor is indicated by specific suggi, namely "gar," "run," and "son," representing present, past, and future, respectively. The tense modifier is always placed before any other verb modifiers, which in turn come before the verb itself. For example:

Har run vev sim.

I (past) hear music.

I heard music.

Dag gar vev sim.

You (present) hear music.

You are listening to music.

For more generalized statements or statements concerning habitual actions, the suggi "gar" may be dropped. By adding "gar" to a verb, a rough equivalent of the present progressive aspect is used.

Dag vev sim.

You hear music.

You listen to music.

Sat son nag rad.

He (future) kill sheep.

He will kill the sheep.

Oftentimes, the future tense is conflated with the subjunctive mood, which is indicated by the suggi, "naz." The final important verb-related suggi is "hoz," whose placement in relation to the verb determines aspect. The perfective and imperfective aspects are differentiated by the placement of "hoz": if it precedes the verb, the meaning correlates to the perfective aspect. Following the verb means imperfective. For example:

Dir hoz mis.

She (asp.) laugh.

She has laughed. (started and finished laughing.)

Oftentimes "hoz" used perfectively may replace "run" as it connotatively refers to past tense.

Sathor mis hoz.

They laugh (asp.)

They are laughing. (Presently.)

The imperfective aspect has no connotative tense, so (with the exception of "gar") tense markers must be indicated.

Har run nag hoz sethor.

I (past) kill (asp.) them.

I was killing them.

Much in this same vein, if "naz" precedes the verb it modifies, the action either would be/would have been be started, however did not/will not complete. Following the verb means the action would be/would have been completed. For example:

Hor naz hag gotdanhor...

We (sub.) fight enemies...

We would fight the enemies... (start fighting)

Hor hag naz gotdanhor...

We fight (sub.) enemies...

We would fight the enemies... (finish fighting)

When combined with "run" (which will always precede an aspect/mood marker), "naz" may be used to demonstrate what would have happened.

Hor run naz hag gotdanhor...

We (past) (sub.) fight enemies...

We would have fought the enemies... (started fighting)

Hor run hag naz gotdanhor...

We (past) fight (sub.) enemies...

We would have fought the enemies... (finished fighting)

SyntaxEdit

Syntax is incredibly important in Lijaldanor. Much as in English, which also lacks a true accusative case, word order remains the chief means of determining which are the subjects and (in)direct objects. The strict word order in Lijaldanor is SVMOTP (or) Subject-verb-manner-object-time-place.

Example Text(s) Edit

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Article I. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Lijaldanhor2

Damruljalvarvug darhondanhor

Lijaldanor1

Kadkeg I. Danhorvug tek rit hig hajzod hig darhon lod. Kaljomrul hig regfil filhor hig helkal danhorhaj gon jiggat lod.

VocabularyEdit


No. English lig
1Ihar
2you (singular)dag
3hesat
4wehor
5you (plural)daghor
6theysathor
7thismog
8thatnog
9herenig
10therezag
11whorod
12whatrel
13wheremor
14whenfeg
15howsun
16notzod
17allvug
18manyvan
19somejot
20fewvanzod
21otherhaj
22onesal
23twovud
24threemok
25fourdaj
26fivejef
27bigvar
28longrin
29widejirhon
30thickjir
31heavyvarjir
32smalldur
33shortdur
34narrowdurrin
35thinrindur
36womanhes
37man (adult male)hur
38man (human being)dan
39childdandur
40wifehesmat
41husbandhurmat
42motherhester
43fatherhurter
44animalmar
45fishvut
46birdlon
47dogtuk
48lousediz
49snakerin
50wormmarrindur
51treemem
52forestmemvan
53stickket
54fruitzokmerdur
55seedmemdur
56leafmemmerdur
57rootgal
58barkfigmem
59flowermerdur
60grassmerdur
61ropevus
62skinfig
63meatnok
64bloodhum
65bonetag
66fatvar
67eggruj
68hornhotsum
69tailnit
70featherjoz
71hairdem
72headsum
73eartat
74eyejes
75nosevim
76mouthsut
77toothhot
78tonguesuttad
79fingernailkomhogvel
80footjin
81leggen
82kneegentad
83handhog
84wingjadlon
85bellyferhav
86gutsferhav
87neckfaz
88backmes
89breastjaj
90hearttadhum
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkgar del
93eatjek
94bitegar hot
95suckgar melmuk
96spitgar rugsiz
97vomitgar ferhavvel
98blowgar mel rul
99breathegar mel
100laughgar mis
101seegar jes
102heargar vev
103knowgar reg
104thinkgar jom
105smellgar him
106fearhek
107sleepgar nagzaz
108livegar mar
109diegar nag
110killgar nag fil
111fightgar hag
112huntgar jag
113hitgar dal
114cutgar tar
115splitgar salvud
116stabgar tardal
117scratchgar tarjinhot
118diggar jalvan hav
119swimgar vok
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkgar nar (jin lod)
122comegar narten
123liegar damteg
124sitgar
125standgar velrul
126turngar kod
127fallmir
128givekal
129holdgar hog
130squeezegar dalhav
131rubgar kev
132washgar falvel fil
133wipegar vetlod
134pullgar muk
135pushgar dal
136throwgar rug
137tiegar raf
138sewgar hej
139countgar tof
140saygar dam
141singgar simsut
142playgar nil
143floatgar vil
144flowrij
145freezegar faljir
146swellgar var
147sungafvar
148moonleg
149starkelsor
150waterfal
151rainfalkel
152riverfalvarrindur
153lakefal
154seafalvar
155saltjurzok
156stonejud
157sandjurdur
158dustlaj
159earthjalvan
160cloudnim
161fogvor
162skykel
163windmelnar
164snowval
165icefaljir
166smokehanmes
167firehan
168ashlajhan
169burngar jek han lon
170roadged
171mountainjal
172redhum
173greenmerdur
174yellowlonvaj
175whitevalvaj
176blackvig
177nightjed
178dayhod
179yearlegdoghigvud
180warmmigzod
181coldmig
182fullnenzod
183newtir
184oldluk
185goodzar
186badgot
187rottennagluk
188dirtylajjalvan
189straightlir
190roundfuf
191sharpviz
192dullgej
193smoothfef
194wetgur
195drygurzod
196correcthig
197nearvel
198farhon
199rightkij
200leftjik
201atvel
202inhav
203withlod
204andhig
205iffeg
206becausesaj
207namedarhon


Example textEdit

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