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Lijaldanor is the official language of Jalsor and one of the dominant languages of Greater Fradan. It is spoken as a native language by the Jaldanori people and borrowed as a script by the Rhuson language. The xenonym is simply a misheard romanization of the autoglossonym, Ligjaldanhor. Along with Rhuson, Fradan, and various extinct languages, Lijadanor constitutes the family of Northern Fridish languages. Of which, only Lijaldanor and Rhuson are more or less mutually intelligible.
|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Lijaldanor is a rather simple language for a rather simple people, and its grammar certainly reflects that.
As a simple language, the available sounds for Lijaldanor are rather limited; where most languages carry some sort of Plosive b or p sounds, Lijaldanor lacks them. Where most languages containing a t and a ʃ therefore allow for a "ch" sound, Lijaldanor does not. While strict as well as limited in consonants, Lijaldanor does offer leniency in the pronunciation of its vowels, allowing up to three different sounds to each represent a single letter. This, combined with its rudimentary grammar, permits the learner to attain a rather high level of proficiency in a fairly short period of time. The IPA tables for Consonants and Vowels are shown below.
|t, d||k, g|
|f, v||s, z, ʃ, ʒ|
Flap or tap
Lijaldanor also refers to the script used to write it. The script is borrowed by the Rhuson language. For the sake of convenience, however, all lijaldanori words used in the remainder of this article will be spelled out using the roman latin alphabet.
RULE: Suggi may not end with the letter "h".
RULE: The letter "h" is voiceless.
RULE: When "g" is the ending sound of a suggi, it is voiceless.
RULE: The letter "a" is often pronounced ə.
RULE: When "r" appears at the beginning of a suggi, it is ɾ. When it appears at the end of a suggi, it is ɻ.
RULE: If a suggi ending in "s" is followed by a suggi beginning with "j", the sound is ʃ.
Nouns are made up of 1 (to a limit of 4) "suggi", a word which comes from the lijaldanori "sug", meaning, "word". Suggi are each exactly one morpheme and represent one or multiple meanings or ideas. Suggi can be combined to form more complex words and can affect everything from nouns to verbs to adjectives.
In Lijaldanor, the lines between parts of speech are much more blurry than in other languages. For example, the suggi, "jes" by itself (always regarding context) is generally accepted to refer to the "eye", meaning, the optical organ located on the face of most living things. However, if used with another suggi such as "gar" or "run", "jes" is taken to mean "to see." Nouns ornoun-referring suggi can often be made into verbs with the addition of the verb suggi.
Tense in Lijaldanor is indicated by specific suggi, namely "gar," "run," and "son," representing present, past, and future, respectively. The tense modifier is always placed before any other verb modifiers, which in turn come before the verb itself. For example:
Har run vev sim.
I (past) hear music.
I heard music.
Dag gar vev sim.
You (present) hear music.
You are listening to music.
For more generalized statements or statements concerning habitual actions, the suggi "gar" may be dropped. By adding "gar" to a verb, a rough equivalent of the present progressive aspect is used.
Dag vev sim.
You hear music.
You listen to music.
Sat son nag rad.
He (future) kill sheep.
He will kill the sheep.
Oftentimes, the future tense is conflated with the subjunctive mood, which is indicated by the suggi, "naz." The final important verb-related suggi is "hoz," whose placement in relation to the verb determines aspect. The perfective and imperfective aspects are differentiated by the placement of "hoz": if it precedes the verb, the meaning correlates to the perfective aspect. Following the verb means imperfective. For example:
Dir hoz mis.
She (asp.) laugh.
She has laughed. (started and finished laughing.)
Oftentimes "hoz" used perfectively may replace "run" as it connotatively refers to past tense.
Sathor mis hoz.
They laugh (asp.)
They are laughing. (Presently.)
The imperfective aspect has no connotative tense, so (with the exception of "gar") tense markers must be indicated.
Har run nag hoz sethor.
I (past) kill (asp.) them.
I was killing them.
Much in this same vein, if "naz" precedes the verb it modifies, the action either would be/would have been be started, however did not/will not complete. Following the verb means the action would be/would have been completed. For example:
Hor naz hag gotdanhor...
We (sub.) fight enemies...
We would fight the enemies... (start fighting)
Hor hag naz gotdanhor...
We fight (sub.) enemies...
We would fight the enemies... (finish fighting)
When combined with "run" (which will always precede an aspect/mood marker), "naz" may be used to demonstrate what would have happened.
Hor run naz hag gotdanhor...
We (past) (sub.) fight enemies...
We would have fought the enemies... (started fighting)
Hor run hag naz gotdanhor...
We (past) fight (sub.) enemies...
We would have fought the enemies... (finished fighting)
Syntax is incredibly important in Lijaldanor. Much as in English, which also lacks a true accusative case, word order remains the chief means of determining which are the subjects and (in)direct objects. The strict word order in Lijaldanor is SVMOTP (or) Subject-verb-manner-object-time-place.
Example Text(s) Edit
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Article I. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Kadkeg I. Danhorvug tek rit hig hajzod hig darhon lod. Kaljomrul hig regfil filhor hig helkal danhorhaj gon jiggat lod.