Likubenge loduha

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General informationEdit



Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal






















































/ ǂ/




Flap or tap




Front Central Back























Romanization listed below IPA in tables.


-All consonants may occur at the onset of a syllable except /ʔ/ and /ŋ/.  All possible onsets may be prenasalized (unless they are already nasal consonants), this is indicated by a preceding n. /nt/, /nj/, and /n!/ are all permitted.

-All consonants in an onset may be followed by a /j/ or /w/. /fj/, /ǂʰw/, and /!j/ are all permitted (though /jw/ and /wj/ are not.

-All stops and fricatives may be geminated except /ʔ/. Gemination is indicated by writing the letter of a consonant twice, /t:/ is written tt. Geminate consonants may occur in onsets.

-Onsets are not required for syllables.
-The rime of a syllable consists of a single vowel, long or short. All syllables must have rimes. There are no diphthongs.

-The coda of a syllable may be /s/, /ʃ/, /n/, /m/, /ŋ/, /f/, or /ʔ/. There may be only one consonant in the coda.

-The coda of a syllable triggers centralization of the vowel. /a/ becomes /ə/, /i/ becomes /ɪ/, e becomes /ɛ/, o becomes /ɔ/, and u becomes /ʊ/. Long vowels become centralized diphthongs, /i:/ becomes /iɪ/, /o:/ becomes /oɔ/, etc.

-A syllable final /ʔ/ will geminate any following stop, /kəʔpa/ would become /kəp:a/.

-When an /a/ or /a:/ is followed by an /i/, it combines into /e/ and when followed by an /u/ it combines into /o/. Before /e/ and /o/, it is elided. /a/ will sometimes elide before /i/ and /u/ as well. such situations will be clarified in the grammar.
Thus, /kapa: ini/ becomes /kapeni/ and /kapa unu/ becomes /kaponu/. /kapa ene/ would become kapene and kapa ono would become /kapono/.

-Two vowels always coalesce into one long vowel. /kapa ana/ and /kapa: ana/ would both become /kapa:na/

-/i/ becomes /j/ before another vowel and /i:/ becomes /ij/ before another vowel in most situations. However, they may also simply elided. Thus /kapi ana/ would become /kapyana/. /u/ and /u:/ become /w/ and /uw/ in the same fashion.

-/o/ and /o:/ becomes /ow/ and /o:w/ before other vowels, though they may sometimes be elided instead

-/e/ and /e:/ become /ej/ and /e:j/ before vowels, though they may sometimes be elided instead.

-A syllable final /n/ is written as n' whenever it is followed by a consonant, to make it clear that it is part of the preceding syllable and not a prenasalized part of the following syllable. Thus, kantu would be pronounced /ka-ntu/ but kan'tu would be pronounced /kən-tu/



There are 17 noun classes. Nearly every part of the sentence except the adverb agrees with the class of its associated noun.

Noun concords
Prefix Adjective Posessive adjective Relative pronoun Demonstrative Verb subject Verb object Verb instrument Verb cause
1 o (owo) a daye de zaya wa di dis dayas
2 nu (unu) ni mwe do nuun mwa wi nus mwas
3 ni (ini) i yane de niin ya i is yas
4 ku (uku) ki cane kku kugi ka ki kus kas
5 shi (ishi) she shane dishe shini sha shi shis shes
6 zhi (izhi) zhe zhane dizhe zhini zha zhi zhis zhes
7 0/n-/h mwi mwe dim nhunu ma mwi mus mwas
8 e (eye) yi yane de ene ya yi yis yas
9 fe (efe) fe fee dife fene faya fe fes fayas
10 u (uu) wi wane do uun wa wi us was
11 lo (olo) li laye llo loro lawa li lis lawas
12 pu (upu) pi paye ppu puru pa pi pis pas

Class 1:

Class 1 is used mostly for animate human nouns, such as oku: person. It is also used for all names

Class 2: Class 2 forms the plural of all class 1 nouns and class 8 nouns that refer to people of a certain profession. Examples: nuku: people nubilha: leaders

Class 3: Class 3 is the class used for animals, certain foreign loanwords,  and most complex machinery: Eamples: nihoigi: computer nizawa: deer

Class 4: Class 4 forms the plurals of class 3 nouns. It is one of the least common classes, some speakers preffering to use class 9 to form plurals of these nouns instead. Examples: kuhoigi: computers kuzawa: deer (plural)

Class 5 is an oddball class, used for some tools, body parts, inanimate objects, and several artefacts of nature. Examples: shigin: foot shicaas: pot

Class 6: Class 6 forms the plural of class 5 nouns, and also holds several exclusively plural nouns within it. Examples: zhigin: feet zhigono: hair (always plural)

Class 7: Class 7 is used for most plants and a variety of inanimate objects, in addition to most loanwords. The class prefix varies and often influences the consonant following it. tools. Examples: nram: tree kodo (fegodo): hammock(s)

Class 8 is used for certain professions, shops and markets, and various inanimate objects. When a class 8 noun refers to a person, it takes a class 2 plural, otherwise, the plural is class 9. Examples: ebilha: leader, chief egabi: blacksmith, blacksmithery etwa: bowl

Class 9 is used as the plural for class 8, class 7, and occasionally class 3, and typically the plural for foreign nouns. Examples: fegodo: hammocks fetwa: bowls fezawa: deer (rather than kuzawa)

Class 10 is used for most uncountable nouns. It is also used to form the names of substances derived from a countable noun. Examples: uri: water uram: wood

Class 11 is used for most abstract nouns. Many class 11 nouns are derived from nouns. Examples: lokaro: sight lonkyaro: sensation

Class 12 is used to form the infinitive of a verb and is used often in specific syntactical constructions.

Relative pronounsEdit

The relative pronouns consist of a prefix and a "d" suffix which agrees with the noun it describes

Who/which eede (eedo, eekku, etc.)
Whom yade (yado...)
To whom ubide
Where myede
With chide
With (comitative) avade
From where ibezde
Whither hode

nigain eede uri ngwano: the dog who drinks water

uri yado ngwano: water which is drunk

fegodo myedife kobitenno: The hammocks we sat in

egabi hode zaqiiyo: The blacksmithery I am going to

etwa chide hungwano: The bowl you drink with

nigain avade zasaado: the dog I ran with

loko ibezllo kobibelo: the place from which we came

waa, loko hode kobiqiiyomo: oh, the places we'll go


The demonstrative by itself means "that". It can come before or after the noun it modifies. It agrees in noun class with what it modfies.

ode zaya: that woman.

The demonstrative followed by gi means "this".

niingi nigain: this dog.

The demonstrative followed by ma means "that by you".

oku zayama: that person by you.

The demonstrative followed by "fe" stands by itself as a noun. Adjectives and other parts of speech agree with the demonstrative as they would with a regular noun of the same class.

enefe: that (class 8 noun)

enefe yigweze: that dry one (class 8 noun. Notice how gweze takes the class 8 adjective prefix to agree with "ene".


1st and 2nd person pronouns
Free standing Subject prefix Object prefix

Posessive adjective


Posessive suffix


I goo za gwi vwe za
we kubin kubi kubini kubenge kuba
you hwe hu hwe hwe hwa
y'all camo camo camawi camwe cama

The free standing pronoun is used just like any other noun (except that it cannot be modified by adjectives or clauses). When a free standing form of the pronoun is used it indicates that the pronoun is the topic of the sentence.

goo uri ngwano: I drink water (I is topic, rather than someone else) as opposed to uuri zangwano: I drink water (not oil or something else)

-The posessive adjective is like any other adjective and agrees with the noun it possesses.

loduha likubenge: our speech

nigain ivwe: my dog

uri wihwe: your water

-The posessive suffixes are used for inalienably posessed nouns, like family members or body parts.

oweza: my mother

nubucama: your (plural) fathers

zhiginkuba: our feet.

-Loduha does not have proper third person pronouns, instead, the demonstratives in -fe are used.

zayafe: her/him

nuunfe: them

niinfe: it (class 3 object, usually an animal)

Interrogative and indefinite pronounsEdit

The interrogative and indefinite pronouns are formed off of the same "de/do/dife" stem as the relative pronouns by adding the suffix -pwa. However, their usage differs. Like the demonstratives they are suffixed with "fe" when being used as a noun and without the suffix are used as modifiers.

depwa: someone/no one (class 1) dishepwa:something/nothing (class 5) etc...

-In a positive sentence, depwafe means someone and dimwafe means something. . (the class 1 usually used as the generic word for someone and the class 7 dim'wa as the generic word for something. The other class variations are typically only used as modifiers, rarely as standalone pronouns)

zakaddo depwafe: I saw someone

zapikadde dim'wafe: I didn't see anything

-These words are placed after the noun they describe when they are used as adjectives.

nigeen depwa mbaco: Some dog bit me.

-The pwa words are never used as adjectives in negative sentences, instead, the numeral gwana (none/zero) is used.

nigeen depwa bira pimbace*: No dog has ever bitten me (incorrect).

nigeen gwana  bira pimbace: No dog has ever bitten me (correct).

-The modifiers for "any" are formed by suffixing -myoi to the relative stem. They may be used as standalone pronouns by suffixing -fe

demyoi: any (class 1) dimmyoi: any (class 7) demyoife: anyone dimmyoife: anything

karo demyoife loro: Anyone can see that.

hukawo kugen kkumyoi?: Do you have any dogs?

-The interrogative modifiers are formed by suffixing -na to the relative stem. They are pronouns by themselves, instead, the sufix -nee is used for the adjective form.

dena: who? (class 1)  dimn'a: what? (class 10) etc...

dena vhanzo?: Who has eaten?

ppuna husudulho okasma? :What did you tell Kasma to do? (Ppuna is the interrogative pronoun for class 13 infinitive nouns, and is usually used for verbs which usually take infinitives for objects.)

shimez' dishenee hukawo?: Which room is yours?

oku deneeng okasma?: Which person is Kasma?

In addition to the regular pronouns and modifiers formed from the relative noun concord, there are these two sets of irregular pronouns.

dayapwa: somewhere dayamyoi: anywhere eena: where?

gopwa: sometime gomyoi: anytime gona: when?

Reflexive and reciprocal pronounsEdit

zii: self, selves (used for reflexive actions). E zii: his own, her own, my own, etc... (indicates posessions of the subject of sentence)

dari: eachother (used for reciprocal actions) e.g: myaguto ava dari: they talked with eachother/ they talked amongst themselves

Direct-Inverse vowel changeEdit

Animacy heirarchy
1st person
2nd person
Adult human
Abstract noun
Complex object, machine
Simple inanimate object

In a direct sentence, the subject is higher on the animacy heirarchy than the object

inigen ngwano uri: The dog drinks water.

However, if the subject is lower on the animacy heirarchy than the object, then the sentence is in inverse form, and both the subject and the object have their final vowel changed to the inverse form.

mbaco nigeen okwa: The dog bites the man.

Since the first person pronoun is the very highest on the animacy hierarchy, an inverse sentence with no stated object will often be interpreted to have  a first person object (depending on context).

nigeen mbaco: The dog bit (me).

In an isolated question, the object of an objectless inverse sentence will often be interpreted as second person

ona nigeen mbaco?: Did the dog bite (you)?

The ommited object can be other things depending on the context as well.

oku nigen nkunavati maboppu nigeen mbaco: Even though the man set the dog free the dog still bit (him).

When both subject and object are the same animacy level, typically the topic is interpreted as the subject in the direct and object in the inverse.

umono owocezh avwe ozang: My friend loves her husband.

owozyang ocayazh avwe umono: My friend's husband loves her.

Table of vowel changes
Direct Inverse
a aa
ac yac
i ee
ic yac
u wa
uc wac
o awa
oc awac
e aya
ec eec
aa/aac ee/eec
ii/iic yaa/yaac
ee/eec yee/yeec
ya/yac ye/yec
oo/ooc yoo/yooc
uu waa
uuc ooc
yu(u)/yu(u)c yo(o)/yo(o)c
wi(i)/wi(i)c we(e)/we(e)c
wa(a)/wa(a)c wo(o)/wo(o)c

*c stands for syllables with a coda.


Verb conjugation

1 syllable vowel stems

miyo: to push

2 syllable y stem

sad(i)yo: to kill

2 syllable w stem

vel(o)wo: to hear

oo verb

binoo: to hold

-wo participle

hinewo: to have been rocked

cv stem

Fricative stem

la-sso: to trap


re-no: to discuss

aro verb

maka-ro: to float

koo: to have/ to be


cino: to do oo: to be born
Attributive minu sadinu velonu binoru hineyunu tuku lasnu renu maka ka canu ooru
Predicative miyo sadyo velwo binoo hinewo tuko lasso reno makaro koo cino oo
Irrealis miye sadye velwe binore hinewe tuke lasse rene makare kwe cine oore
Root mi sadi velo bino hineyu tuka las ree makan kaya caya oon
Conditional miyaz sadyaz velwaz binoraz hinevaz tukaz lassaz reraz makaraz kwaz caz ooraz
Gerund mire sadee veloo binora hineve tuka lassa rere makara kore cee oora
Sequential miri sadi velwi binori hinevi tuki lasti reni makari kawi ciri oori
Adjectival minye sadinye velonye binonye hinevye tuke lasse renye makee kanye caye oonye
Potential (adjectival form) miremue sadimue velomue biniomue hineyumue tukemue lasmue remue makammue kamue bweno oomue
Volitional/ Hortative mishwa sadiwa velowa binoshwa hineyuwa tukawa lasswa reshwa makawa koshwa cishwa ooshwa
Passive (verbal form) miwavo sadiwavo veloovo binoovo hinewovo tukovo lassovo reevo makarovo - ayavo -
Causative (verbal form) miwavyo sadiwavyo veloovyo binoovyo hinewovyo tukovyo lassovyo reevyo


kwavyo ayavyo wayavyo

Uses of the stemsEdit


The predicative form forms the argument of the main clause

ngwano uri so nigain : The dog drinks water

The volitional and irrealis forms of the verb are also predicative


The volitional form of the verb is used to indicate the intents of the speaker.

ho inari qiishwa: I'm going to go to Inari

-In questions, it is used to suggest possible courses of action. In this usage it is often followed by the word "gai".

ho inari ciishwa?: Perhaps we could go to Inari?

ho inari ciishwa gai?: How about going to Inari?

-In subordinate clauses with kwa, it is used to mark the ponderings of the speaker's future actions.

zapuzo kwa ciishwa ho inari: I'm thinking about going to Inari.

-The volitional is also used to indicate the purpouse of an action.

ho inari ciishwa oku bbigilo: The man is getting ready to go to Inari.

nigain moyawa ho inari oku belo: The man went to Inari to buy a dog.


The Irrealis is used with the negative prefix pi- to indicate that something didn't happen

piqiiye oku ho inari: The man is not going to Inari.

nigain zapimocce: I did not buy the dog.

-It is used to form the negative attributive of the verb suffixed by -bwa

ho inari qiiyebwa oku: The man who did not go to Inari.

-And it is used to form the negative adverb of a verb (meaning without) with the suffix -boo

ho inari qiiyeboo zamocco nigain: Without going to Inari I bought a dog.

-A fourth usage of the Irrealis is to form the subjunctive in conditional clauses, accompanied by lowaz, a word meaning "if". Both the condition and result clauses will be put in the irrealis.

ho inari bele lowaz nigain zamocce: Had I gone to Inari I would have bought a dog.

-The Irrealis is also used to ponder events that never happened.

zapuzo ho inari kwa bele: I'm thinking about what if I'd gone to Inari.

ho inari kwa qiiye oku ngokko: The person once talked about going to Inari.

Attributive Edit

-The attributive is used to describe nouns which are the subject of the verb. Unlike true adjectives, the attributive does not take noun class agreement with the noun it describes and must come before the noun it describes.

uri so ngwanu nigain ledion belomo: The dog which drinks water will come here.


Adjectives are similar to verbs in that they conjugate and can function both as predicates and adnominals. However, unlike verbs, they must agree with what they modify in noun class.

Adjective conjugation
-e adjectives -ye adjectives -we adjectives -ee adjectives
attributive bane tapye bikkwe senelee
predicative banung tapyung bikkung seneleeng
stem ban tapi bikku senele
adverb bana tapee bikoo senelaya
irrealis banaye tapiye bikowe seneleye
conditional banaz tapyaz bikowaz seneleez
sequential baniyi tapii bikkuwi senelei
past (adjectival) banalwe tapiwe bikuwe senelewe
negative (adjectival) banpye tapeepye bikoopye senelepye
excessive (verbal) banzudo (banzoddo) tapizudo bikkuzudo senelezudo
"seems" (suffix to stem) banbeko tapibeko bikkubeko senelebeko



to/at ubi
in mye
from ibez
towards ho
away cika
only ris
*not only mabo
of e
by/because loki e
for san e
  • mabo is the opposite of cika, and is used when something is better or greater than expected, e.g.

owozang zaya mabo yimi edawan belo: he's been to three countries. (more than expected)

as opposed to owozang zaya ris mi edawan belo: he's only been to three countries

Particle eEdit

The particle e is used to mean "of". It is used for genitive relationships but is not usually used to show ownership (though it can be). loduha e nuku: the speech of men kove e tos: lotus flower (flower of lotus plant)

Sequentive formEdit

The sequentive is used to talk about actions in chronological order.

ho inari beli, ava oyurwi renti, ulaa nigain moywa: He went to Inari, talked to Yurwi, and now he's gonna buy  a dog.

It is used to express the cause of something

konei pimaywa: It's  cold so I won't buy it. (being cold, I won't buy it.)

oku ubi inari pilowe nigain ivwe ganammuve: Since the man wasn't in Inari I couldn't sell my dog to him. (The man not being in Inari I couldn't sell my dog.)

It is also used to form strings of adjectives.

uram bikkuwi gweze: The wood is hot and dry.

First article of the declaration human rightsEdit

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.
They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Haas e unukumai  linvunee lopazo ba loshuukawi bansaara oo. Lopuza ba  lonyagakawi ava dari kida e nuvya paznu ugwanyung.


Realis Participle


saro saddo i run
kak(u)wo kakowo i walk
qiiyo belo i go
vha-no vhanzo t eat
duho dulho t say
suduho sudulho t to order someone to
re-no rento t kwa discuss
ngwako ngokko t kwa talk about, explain
tenso tenno i sit
tensh(i)yo tenshewo t place, set
mig(u)wo migowo i to lean
migwi-yo migwewo t to  lean against
kar-o kaddo i see
kara-ro karato t watch
velwo velowo i hear
velo-ro veloto t listen
hasso hasto i notice (an odor), smell
hassaro hassato t sniff
nkiyo nkewo i feel
nkyaro nkyato t touch
n'guno n'gunno i go around, spin
n'gunyio n'gunyewo t set spinning, make go around
heo haalo t hit, strike, bump into
nzugo nzukko i count
oo* awo i to be born
eyo aawo t to produce, give birth to
ngeo ngaawo i to fly, sail, float
ngeweso ngewesto t to throw
vi-wo viowo i to be trapped, stuck
viyio viyewo t to  capture
vis-o visilo t to hold, contain, have
pano divo t give
-kao* -lo* i to be in, posess
piyo* pelo i to make, produce
zino zinno t to think, reason
nqawao nqawaawo t to think, hope, believe
kada-ro kadati t to feel for, be compassionate
lhaso lhatto i to sense
lhasho lhasewo t to seek, look for, search
lhasaro lhasato t to notice
tuwo towo i behave, act
maretuo maratowo i to pretend, feign
maro maddo i to decieve
mareduho maradulho t to say a lie
nowo nolo i to get angry
noyo noewo t to anger
padano padanno i to be happy, enjoy
padan(i)yo padaniwo t to bring pleasure to, make someone happy
ngwano ngwanno t to drink
tsiyo tsewo i to sink
calo callo i to burn, become on fire
calaso calasto t to set fire to
bikko bikko i to get hot
bikka-ro bikkatto t to make hot, cook
senel(e)yo senelewo i to warm up
senele-ro seneletto t to make warm, embrace (poetic)
vico viqo i to flow
vish(i)yo vishiwo t to make flow, pump
vicaro vicatto t to break through, leak
kaboo kefaro t to lose
kafaro kafato t to throw away, discard
 kab(i)yo kabiwo i to be lost
kon(e)yo konewo i to get cold
nsusso nsusto i to cool off (from a hot temperature)
kone-ro koneto t to cool, place somewhere cold
sussa-ro sussato t to leave out to cool
zieito zieico i to freeze
zieita-ro zieitato t to leave out to freeze, make freeze
kudo konlo i to stop, rest
kuco koco t to block, stop
awanbo awanppo t to begin, initiate
miyo miewo i to leap, jump
paho palho i to rise, go up, stand up
paha-ro pahato t to lift, bring up
kumi-ro kumito i to go down, sink
kumeno kumento t to lower, bring down
gavo gavvo i to fall (off of something)
gavino gavinto t to drop
puc(e)yo pucewo i to fall over
puceno pucento t to knock over
gaazo gaalo i to flip, turn, show a new side
gaazaro gaazato t to turn around, flip over
migo meggo i to bend
migaro migato t to bend
tten(u)wo ttenuwo i to straighten up, stand straight
ttenu-ro ttenuto t to straighten, untie
kukuuno kukuunno t to fix, heal
kukuunipo kukuunivho i to heal, get better, improve
ddasepo ddasevho i to get skinny, waste away
pyalipo pyalivho i to get fat, thick
pyalano pyalanto t to raise (of animals)
nkacepo nkacevho i to grow (tall)
nkacaano nkacaanto t to raise (children, crops)
deipo deivho i to dry up, run thin
de-ro deto t to use up
gwezo gwelo i to be dry, get dry
gwezha-ro gwezhato t to leave out to dry
gwezh(i)yo gwezhiwo t to dry (over a fire)
bweyo bwelo t to remember
nkavazo nkavazto t to forget
bbuyo  bbulo t to pluck, pick, harvest
nzikissho nzikishto t to rub, massage
papago papaggo t to tab, pat, play (drums)
nuho nolho t to tear, divide
nvuno nvunno i to be free
nvunakaro nvunakato t

to set free, release


shuulo t to respect, treat properly
buko-ro bukoto t to disrespect, abuse
tibbido tibbeddo t to serve, obey
subbido subbeddo t to control, command
kunzhiguro kunzhigoddo t to oppose, rebel
pazo palo i to behave, act, have manners
marapazo marapalo i to feign
-afo -uwo i to make (suffix)
refo ryuwo i to rain
warikoo warikalo i to storm
tye-ro tyayato t to throw
swe-ro swayato t to catch
ito yatto t to hunt
banakaro banakato t to level, make even
puzo pulo t (kwa) to think (ponder deeply, reason)
vvashiko vvashico t (kwa) to think, believe, hold an opinion on
hayo haco t (kwa) to trust, rely upon
umuno umonno t to love, care about
mini-ro minito t to avoid (doing something)
atto attalo t to avoid, evade (an object)
nreyo nrewo t to cease (doing something)
mbayo mbaco t to bite
mbambayo mbambaco t to chew on
kano kanto i to sleep
kankaro kankato t to put to sleep
ibano ibelo i to wake up
ibenyo ibeiwo t to wake up
-da-ro -dato stem suffix to begin (a verb)
-pwo -powo stem suffix to cease (a verb)
-bunabo -bunoppo stem suffix to keep doing (a verb)
nyago nyakko t to empathize for, feel guilty
bbigilo bbigello t (kwa) to make arrangements to, get ready for
moy-o mocco t to buy
gana-ro ganato t to sell
sad(i)yo saalo t to kill
pinoo eho i to die
binoo binaro t to hold
binapo binappo t to pick up
binayulo binayollo t to set down
osu-ro osoto t to wear (clothing)
cezhihoo cezhiyaro i to become friends with
paa-no paanzo t to drive, pilot
ilako ilakko i to roll, go
ilak(i)yo ilakewo t to roll
hino hyenno i to rock, shake
hin(i)yo hinewo t to rock, shake
hinu-ro hinuto i to be rickety, unsteady
hihino hihyenno i to quiver
hihin(i)yo hihinewo t to shake
kubo kobbo i to flip, roll over
kub(i)yo kubewo t to overturn
niinso niinsalo t to turn inside out
karwamawo karwamavo t to wipe off, polish
siiko siikalo t to clean
siiku-ro siikuto i to rinse off, be soluble
n'goo* ngaalo t to open, spread out
n'gan'garo n'gan'gato t to stretch
hikino hikinto t to close
hi'ikino hi'ikinto t to squeeze, force together
nriy-o nrico t to wring, juice
tsheko tshakko t to pull
abatsheko abatshakko t to drag
tswooro tsawaddo t to push
abo avo t to succeed, be next
nino nero t to be before, precede

Class 1 Class 3 Class 5 Class 6 Class 7 Class 8 Class 10 Class 11
oku: person nigain: dog shigin: foot nram: tree edawan: country uri: water lobela: travel
ode: woman, wife nikomo: cat shicaas: pot kodo (fegodo): hammock ehuri: village unana: milk lokara: sight
ozang: man, husband nilhwo: cow shiruu: hallway zhiin: city esaar: store, shopman uhe: stone lonzuga: number
ogobo: baby niee: bird shimez: room payan: dress epini: market lomiga: a bend, turn
ocan: child nicuku: chicken shitwa: bed togi: motorbike ezono: theif, criminal lotibbida: service
okumai: human nibaam: cow shipung: box n-he: rock losubida: command
ovyazang: brother nihuku: wolf shidee: belt n-iin: inside, lining loshuu: respecd, proper care
ovyade: sister nipes: duck shilanu: shirt (g)karo: face, slope, surface lobuka: derision, abuse
owe: mother ningu: pig shyosu: dress, outfit lonvuna: freedom
obu: father nihoo: fish shigunu: pants
ocezh:  friend nirwinda: bear shitanas: waist
nigguli: camel shimagu: clerk
nizawa: deer
nihoigi: computer
nipaan: bike, cart
nyilakaan: car

free flat equal, identical cool cold dry warm hot -like like brothers want to (verb suffix) needed


(also verb suffix)


(also verb suffix)

soft hard proper, correct, -should black white red
nvune bane bansaare nsusse konee gweze senelee bikkwe kide a(noun follows) kide e nuvya -gwe abace kune cacee mowe iaase ugwanye tshane eelye conose

0 gwana
1 iz 11 hoowiz 40: panrenga
2 reng 12 hooreng 60:panme
3 mi 13 hoomi 80:pandwoo
4 dwaa 14 hoodwaa 100: pannguro
5 nnguru 15 innguri 120: panngurupana
6 arayang 16 innguriiz 140:panngururenga
7 nngum 17 inngurireng 160:panngurume
8 amya 18 inngurimi 180:panngurudwoo
9 imini 19 innguridwaa 200: udamaya
10 hoo 20 panaco

220: udamayapanaco

240: udamayapanrenga

400: maya

aba: after


abyaa: tomorrow

abarin: next year

nirin: last year

nire: yesterday

nku'e: lately

tsho: already

con: soon, at once

cawaan: eventually

yesen: in the morning

yegwas: in the day

yenuri: in the evening

gumbui: slowly, sluggishly

kahaka: with a snap, suddenly

bushwabu: crushingly, inflicting great damage

ipikipi: tapping, dripping

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