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Line or known as Hosuwa is the Standard language spoken in Linear Islands which is based on The Hosu Dialect spoken in Hosu Mountain. All contents written here is based on "Official Guide of Standard Line" by Standard Line Regulation Centre. The page may always have minor edits due to revisions done by SLRC. (P/S: Linear Islands, Line, Official Guide and SLRC is created and is not real) Anyway please write in "Talk" for any errors I done in this article. Thank you!
|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Line(pronounced as l'i.n'ə) is a conlang that was created in a purpose of enhancing second language learning skills and as an hobby of it's creator, and later as a conlang for a conworld. It was also known as Hosuwa, Hosu Dialect, Standard Line or Linear Line. Line was commonly speaken and origins from a fictional universe known as Linear Islands. Line was derived from The Hosu Dialect speaken in Hosu Mountain. Line should be a easy to learn language except for it's complicated grammatical rules that uses about hundreds of grammatical components. The phonology of Line is mostly adopted from Asian Languages and can be easily stimulated using European Languages. Line uses Latin alphabet or English alphabet which includes all 26 except q,v,x. The Language of Line focus on the stress on the vowel and vowel plays a greater role compared to a consonant. The phonotactic is also based on Asian Languages. The vocabulary or Line origins from a system called "Jeyi". The 4 main branches of Jeyi is Igo, Jowi, Yemu and Neti. After a system of "Geyum", the vocabulary of Line is created.
Written here is the IPA of sounds used without proper spelling. For spelling please refer "Alphabet"
Consonants (For Secondary Syllable uses)Edit
|Plosive||b p||d t||g k|
|Fricative||f||s z||tʃ dʒ||h|
|Flap or tap|
And also w(voiced labial-velar approximant)
To express IPA/sound of a syllableEdit
i)Primary: Type the vowel and add a primary stress mark in front. eg:- a('ɶ)
ii)Secondary: Type the consonant, then vowel and add a primary stress mark in front the vowel. eg:- ja(dʒ'ɶ)
iii)Tertiary: Type the consonant, then vowel, add a primary stress mark in front of the vowel and then consonant. eg:-jar(dʒ'ɶr)
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p r s t u w y z
ɶ b tʃ d ə f g h i dʒ k l m n ɔ p r s t Y w j z
where C is a consonant while V is a vowel.
To avoid confusion, some Confuson Rules is created, which is:-
A Tertiary Syllable can't be followed by a Primary Syllable, but a Primary Syllable can be followed by a Tertiary Syllable. .
Note: x means a phrase, x- means a prefix, -x means a suffix, [x] means any specific word in x group.
I(me) You(yu) He(be) She(ge) We(we) They(wu) It(ne)
Variation of PronounsEdit
These acts as a suffix to the pronouns and slightly changes it's meaning. a) Possessive form([Pronoun]'s) (-wi)
b) Again form([Pronoun] also, [Pronoun]...too) (-do)
c) Contrast form([Pronoun] is/are/am) (-na)
Three Elements of SentenceEdit
a) Contrast:- To represent is/are/am (na)
i) Type 1: Subject's Object
[Subject] gawi [Object]
ii) Type 2: Subject owns an(has/have an) Object [Subject] zuwi [Object]
c) Degree of Comparison/Emphasis
i) Level 1: Adjective/to stress that the statement is truth. (-lo or no suffix is attached)
ii) Level 2: Comparative/to describe the deed's of one. (-bi)
iii) Level 3: Superlative/to debate the statement is truth or when the statement is about a life or death matter. (-fo)
iv) When compare, we use the SAW rule. Let's say:- Mark is stronger than William (Mark strong-bi William). Contrast is not used while doing a comparison.
Tenses and It's Relationship with Sentence OrderEdit
a) Present Tense- SVO
b) Past Tense- O-ce VS
c) Future Tense- SO-ci V
d) Present Continuous- S-done V-ga O
e) Past Continuous- O-done V-ga S
f) Future Continuous- S-done O-ga V
Aspects and Frequency TermsEdit
a) Performed at least twice per day. (cari)
b) Performed once per day. (dari)
c) Performed once per two days. (duri)
d) Performed once per week. (juni)
e) Performed once per two weeks. (duni)
f) Performed once per month. (yo)
g) Performed once per six months. (bano)
h) Performed once per year. (toyo)
i) Performed oce per two years. (duno)
To express other aspects which is done in a routine, use pa- to the interval of time. (eg: once per 6 hours, pa-6 hours)
To express a frequency which is not fixed:- j) Performed once or mostly once per finite number of minutes, hours, or days. (fika)
k) Performed once or mostly once per finite number of months. (sedo)
l) Performed once or mostly once per finite number of years. (rare)
m) Performed once per finite of time. (budi)
One(yi) Two(ru) Three(si) Four(gu) Five(mu) Six(za) Seven(yu) Eight(zi) Nine(ju) Ten(su) Zero(ko) Hundred(he) Thousand(co) Million(hu) Billion(ye) Trillion(ti) Infinity(fi) Finite(zo)
To express ordinal numbers, 'da-' is added as a prefix to the number. (eg:6th daza)
Line Numerals RulesEdit
a) Numerals is written from the biggest place to smallest place.
b) When the digit value of a place is 1, with the exception of the place value one itself, add an "a" in front the place value instead of "yi"
c) When expressing a value bigger than a specific place value, for an example 83 billion, you say 83 billion instead of 80 billion 3 billion.
d) Numerals can be written using Line alphabet provided or by the Modern Finger Count or Arabic numerals. Threee methods is accepted but in typing, Modern Finger Count is not used. Instead of Modern Finger Count, other methods is more easy and widely accepted.
Note: digit value is always in front of place value. if "0" occurs, just write a ko and the place value is not needed to be written.
Year(yera) Month(matu) Day(rija) Hour(zoto) Minute(sibu) Second(sico) Minuteseconds(buco) Monday(yerija) Tuesday(horija) Wednesday(surija) Thursday(murija) Friday(jirija) Saturday(turija) Sunday(ririja)
[YYYY]-yera [MM]-matu [DD]-rija [HH]-zoto [MM]-sibu [SS]-sico [MS]-buco [Weekday(refer chart above)]
Tonal Expression is added in front the sentence to show the speaker's mood. a) To tell a happy truth. (ha)
b) To tell a sad truth. (gi)
c) To ask a question. (ze)
d) To exclaim. (ya)
For other tones not included above, no Tonal Expression is used.
Voices and It's Relationship with Sentence OrderEdit
a) Active Voice (neutral order)
-Subject is doing Verb to Object
b) Passive Voice (-bedo suffix was added behind Verb)
-Object is being done Verb by Subject
c) Reflexive Voice (replace Object with busi)
-Subject is doing Verb to Subject itself.
Postposition greatly differs with English's preposition. Preposition come before the word but postposition come after the word. Preposition acts as a word but postposition acts as a suffix. A list of postposition is:-
in front of (-pe) behind (-ho) by (-fu) beside (-pabe) in, at, to (-to) left (-zobe) right (-yobe) on (-sabe) North (fabe) South (fibe) East (fobe) West (fube) NE (fope) SE (foho) SW (fuho) NW (fupe)
Note: For 8 wind directions, they still come behind words but as an individual words.
Who/Whom (nuga) Whose (nugawi) Which (onu) Where (odi) What (moya) How (odo)
Positive, Negative and Ending VerbsEdit
Note: All verbs in this section is grouped under "Ending Verbs"
a) To show the existence of a statement/truth of a statement
b) To agree a statement
c) To allow a request
d) To ask that if one has the ability to do something. (can)
Positive:hasu iso Negative:hasu oso
e) To ask that if one will be willing to do something. (will)
Positive:goya iso Negative:goya oso
f) To ask that if one had done something. (you did it, right?)
Positive:deyu iso Negative:deyu oso
g) To ask that if one can help you to do something. (may)
Positive:mebi iso Negative:mebi oso
h) To ask the need of doing something. (should)
Positive:bake iso Negative: bake oso
Note: "fe-" prefix can be attached to words to show an opposite meaning.
This, That, ThoseEdit
alike with (roke) this (di) that (da) those (bu) alike with this (iroke) alike with that (guroke)
Order of AdjectivesEdit
As the order above, we say "five beautiful square read cloth old blankets."
for(were) and(gori) but(haji) or(hoja) so(kuli) although(amu) because(nika)
Tonal Expresion-Subject-Verb-Object-Aspect-Ending Verbs
This is for present tense, for other tenses, swap only SVO.
Jeyi is the system which contains 4 type of derivation, namely Igo, Jowi, Yemu and Neti. Igo is where the words are derived from English. Jowi is where the words are derived from Chinese. Yemu is where the words are derived from Korean. Neti is where the words are native words in Line which is created, not derived from any single language in the word. Although sometime words is derived from other languages instead of English, Chinese or Korean, which is a very minor case. These are also grouped as Neti. In most case, Jowi is prefered instead of Igo, Yemu or Neti. About 70% of Line's vocabulary uses Jowi, 15% uses Igo while the rest 10% and 5% uses respectively Neti and Yemu. After using Jeyi to derive words, Geyum is used to modify it's pronounciation to make it more like a language.
Geyum is used to modify it's pronounciation to make it easy to talk and available to be expressed using phonotactics of Line. It's whole system is hard to explain, but by overall it's a system that will try to pronounce/nearly pronounce a word derived using Jeyi by only Secondary Syllables.
Common Greetings and Politeness formsEdit
In Line, the suffix "-jana" is used to show politeness or the standard form of all greetings. The suffix "-kajana" can also be used to show a higher level of politeness and is commonly used to a stranger. These politeness forms is used for greetings or behind a sentence. To emphasize the politeness for a specific word, it is called Honorific form of a word. The "-keya" acts like "-jana" in honorific form while "-segi" acts like "-kajana" in honorific form. At the common greetings section here, the standard politeness form "-jana" is used.
Some common greetings is:-
Goodbye! (leaving party) (selijana)
Goodbye! (staying party) (holijana)
Good morning! (josejana)
Good afternoon! (riyojana)
Good evening! (bawajana)
Good night! (spoken by the one who went to bed) (jakujana)
Good night! (spoken by the one who didn't went to bed) (jasejana)
Good night! (spoken by when both went to bed) (bosejana)
Excuse me. (jekojana)
I beg your pardon. (duwojana)
Happy birthday! (takojana)
It's OK. (okejana)
Thank you! (gadajana)