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Linguēse

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Progress 48%
Linguēse
Linguēse
Type
Agglutinating
Alignment
Nominative - accusitative
Head direction
Mixed
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
Yes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal p b

t d

k g
Plosive m n
Fricative f v s z h
Affricate tʃ 

Approximant ɹ j
Trill
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i u
Near-close ɪ
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid ɛ ɜ ɔ
Near-open æ
Open ɑ ɒ

AlphabetEdit

The alphabet contains 27 characters plus 8 'macron' vowels which although are used in the language and will be put in the table below are not part of the alphabet because they only alter vowel length rather than vowel sound. Macron vowels will be in italics.

Full Alphabet without macron vowels:

A Á B B̂ D D̂ E É G Ĝ I J Ĵ L M N O Ó R S U V V̂ X X̆ Y Z

a á b b̂ d d̂ e é g ĝ i j ĵ l m n o ó r s u v v̂ x x̆ y z

Macron vowels:

Ā Ā́ Ē Ḗ Ī Ō Ṓ Ū

ā ā́ ē ī ō ṓ ū

Alphabet table:

Linguēse Character

IPA English Equivelant English Example
A, a æ a Cat
Á, á ɑ ar Car
Ā, ā æː a Cat
Ā́, ā́ ɑː ar Car
B, b b b Big
B̂, b̂ p p Pig
D, d d d Dog
D̂, d̂ t t Tea
E, e ɛ, ɪ e, i Bet, Big
É, é ɜ er Fur
Ē, ē ɛːɪː e, i Bet, Big
Ḗ, ḗ ɜː er Fur
G, g g g Go
Ĝ, ĝ k k Kill
I, i i ee Me
Ī, ī iː ee Me
J,j j Joke
Ĵ, ĵ ch Choke
L, l l l Look
M, m m m Me
N, n n n No
O, o ɒ o Pot
Ó, ó ɔ or For
Ō, ō ɒː o Pot
Ṓ, ṓ ɔː or For
R, r ɹ r Rest
S, s s s Son
U, u u oo You
Ū, ū u

ː

oo You
V, v v v Vendetta
V̂, v̂ f f For
X, x ks x

Hex

X̆, x̆ h h Hex
Y, y j y Yes
Z, z z z (soft z) Zen








































Y should always be at the beginning of a sylable rather than at the end and X should always be at the end of a sylable rather than at the beginning. Wether an e/ē makes an e sound or an i sound depends on the word. The i sound is more common but sometimes it will be an e sound or possibly a hybrid of the two.

PhonotacticsEdit

A hard z or ts sound (as in pizza) is spelt d̂z as opposed to d̂s. Most vowels and consonants remain unchanged wherever they are but a z becomes a zh (as in beige) if it is before an e, é, ē, ḗ, i or ī. An s becomes a sh (as in shut) if it is before an e, é, ē, ḗ, i or ī. In both of these cases, the e/i [variant] vowel becomes silent if proceeded by another vowel but is pronounced if it is proceeded by a consanant. For example sean would be pronounced shan whereas sen would be pronounced either shen or shin. If a u comes before another vowel, it becomes a w (although the u is still slightly pronounced and is fully pronounced as normal if it's a ū)

Basic GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes No No No
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article Yes No Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

VerbsEdit

In Languēse, the root of the verb always stays the same whereas a suffix will be added depending on person, tense and number. In the wordinfinitive, verbs end with -aro. (Note this is pronounced /æɹɒ/ NOT /ɑɹɒ/). In this example I will use the root word joĝ which in the infinitive form is joĝaro which means to play.

1st Person Sing. 2nd Person Sing. 3rd Person Sing. 1st Person Plur. 2nd Person Plur. 3rd Person Plur.
Past -ól -eso -án -éso -én -ino
Present  -o -e -a -es -en -i
Future -áro -are -ara -ares -aren -ari

With conjugation, pronouns are not necessary except for certain circumstances. However, it is not incorrect to use pronouns, especially if the verb is singular and in the third person in order to seperate genders

AdverbsEdit

In Languēse, there are no adverbs but rather, adjectives in the masculine form are used with the preposition 'with'. For example, he played happily or he happily played would be said as he played with happy. (Lo joĝa con ...)

AdjectivesEdit

Although many common adjectives have both a positive or negative word, such as happy and sad, less common adjectives will only have one word and you will make it negative by adding nas- at the beginning, much like how you would use un- or anti- in other languanges. However, you can still use nas- at the beginning of more common adjectives which have a negative counterpart to make it negative. Negative adjectives can also have nas- to make it positive. For example, nashappy would mean sad and nassad would mean happy (however, since there are no double letters in Languēse, any adjectives which begin with an s will only have the prefix na- so nassad would become nasad.) Also, double negatives make a positive so nasnashappy would mean the same thing as happy and nasnasnashappy would mean the same thing as nashappy or sad.

All adjectives will end in o/a. If the noun is masculine, it will end in o whereas if the noun is feminime it will end in a. If the gender is unknow or if a noun is neither masculine nor feminime, for example describing someone who's gender is non-binary, the adjective will be masculine unless specified.

ComparitivesEdit

For comparitives, a prefix is added to the noun. If you are saying that something is more something than something else, you add il- to the beginning (just i- if the noun already begins in an l). Likewise, if something is less something than something else you add el- and you add ol- if it is as something as something as something else. For example, using English:

Hitler is ilevil Churchill = Hitler is more evil/eviler than Churchill.

The same applies for adverbs.

John eats with ilhappy Jane = John eats more happily than Jane.

SuperlativesEdit

The rule for superlatives is very similar except it's b̂il- instead of il- and b̂el- instead of el-. For example, using English:

Hitler is b̂ilevil = Hitler is the evilest.

Worse, worst, better, best and equalEdit

For worse, worst, better, best and equal, the use the above prefixes as root words and add -ad̂ to the end.

ilad̂ = better

b̂ilad̂ =best

elad̂ = worse

b̂elad̂ = worst

olad̂ = equal

These above words would then replace the adjective so for example, using English:

Hitler is olad̂ Stalin = Hitler is equal to Stalin.

To add more detail, you add the infinitive of a verb between the comparitive and the object or after the superlaitve. So for example, using English:

Abraham Lincoln is ilad̂ to run dogs = Abraham Lincoln is better at running than dogs.

Nouns Edit

In Languēse, nouns will always end in either -o, -a, ,-on or -an. If the noun is masculine then it will end in either -o or -on and if it is feminine it will always end in either -a or -an. For most nouns, the gender is flexible and can be interchangeable with very few exceptions. Because of this, in the vocab table below, they will end in o/a just like adjectives unless it has a fixed gender. Like for adjectives, if the gender is unkown or you are describing something with a non-binary gender, the noun will be masculine unless specified.

If a noun is singular it will end in either -a or -o and if it is plural it will end in either -an or -on. The only time the ending will change is if it is possessive. If it is a singular noun, -li will be added to the end and if it is plural then just -i will be added. The table below will show the different vowel endings with possessive affix in brackets.

Masculine Feminime
Singular -o(li) -a(li)
Plural -on(i) -an(i)

Word OrderEdit

The general word order in Languēse is SVO (subject, verb, object). Adjectives come before the noun. Prepositions come before the article which come before the adjective.

  1. Article
  2. Adjective
  3. Subject
  4. Verb
  5. Adverb
  6. Prepostition
  7. Article
  8. Adjective
  9. Object

VocabularyEdit


No. English Linguēse
1IIo
2you (singular)D̂u
3heLo
4weNostes
5you (plural)D̂i
6theyLi
7thisĜīso/a
8thatĜāso/a
9hereĜua
10thereĜuo
11whoYe
12whatYo
13whereYu
14whenYi
15how
16notnas-
17allD̂ud̂o/a
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


Numbers

In Linguēse, numbers always regular so something like 47 would be pronounced as fourty with seven, 165 would be pronounced as one-hundred with fourty with seven and 167,284 would be pronounced as one-hundred with sixty with seven thousand and two-hundred with eighty with four. All numbers after a decimal place are pronounced as individual numbers with so 1.2748 would be pronounced as 1 point two seven four eight. All numbers start with a capital letter.

Number Languēse number
0 D̂zero
1 Uno
2 D̂ua
3 D̂ra
4 Ĝuad̂a
5 Ĵinĝa
6 Zieina
7 Sed̂a
8 Od̂a
9 Nova
10 Unov̂a
20 D̂uav̂a
30 D̂rav̂a
40 Ĝuad̂av̂a
50 Jinĝav̂a
60 Zieinav̂a
70 Sed̂ava
80 Od̂av̂a
90 Novav̂a
100 Uno-Ĵenda
200 D̂ua-Ĵenda
300 D̂ra-Ĵenda
400 Ĝuad̂a-Ĵenda
500 Ĵinga-Ĵenda
600 Zieina-Ĵenda
700 Sed̂a-Ĵenda
800 Od̂a-Ĵenda
900 Nova-Ĵenda
1,000 Uno Mila
1,000,000 Uno Milov̂a
1,000,000,000 Uno Bilov̂a
1,000,000,000,000 Uno D̂rilov̂a

For example, 186,625,839,385,483 = Uno-Ĵenda con Od̂av̂a con Zieina D̂rilov̂a e Zieina-Ĵenda con D̂uav̂a con Ĵinĝa Bilov̂a e Od̂a-Ĵenda con D̂rav̂a con Nova Milov̂a e D̂ra-Ĵenda con Od̂av̂a con Ĵinĝa Mila e Ĝuad̂a-Ĵenda con Od̂av̂a con D̂ra (one-hundred with eighty with six trillion and six-hundred with twenty with five billion and eight-hundred with thirty with nine million and three-hundred with eighty with five thousand and four-hundred with eighty with three)

Example textEdit

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