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|Nominative - accusitative|
|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
|Fricative||f v||s z||h|
|Flap or tap|
The alphabet contains 27 characters plus 8 'macron' vowels which although are used in the language and will be put in the table below are not part of the alphabet because they only alter vowel length rather than vowel sound. Macron vowels will be in italics.
Full Alphabet without macron vowels:
A Á B B̂ D D̂ E É G Ĝ I J Ĵ L M N O Ó R S U V V̂ X X̆ Y Z
a á b b̂ d d̂ e é g ĝ i j ĵ l m n o ó r s u v v̂ x x̆ y z
Ā Ā́ Ē Ḗ Ī Ō Ṓ Ū
ā ā́ ē ī ō ṓ ū
|IPA||English Equivelant||English Example|
|E, e||ɛ, ɪ||e, i||Bet, Big|
|Ē, ē||ɛː, ɪː||e, i||Bet, Big|
|Z, z||z||z (soft z)||Zen|
Y should always be at the beginning of a sylable rather than at the end and X should always be at the end of a sylable rather than at the beginning. Wether an e/ē makes an e sound or an i sound depends on the word. The i sound is more common but sometimes it will be an e sound or possibly a hybrid of the two.
A hard z or ts sound (as in pizza) is spelt d̂z as opposed to d̂s. Most vowels and consonants remain unchanged wherever they are but a z becomes a zh (as in beige) if it is before an e, é, ē, ḗ, i or ī. An s becomes a sh (as in shut) if it is before an e, é, ē, ḗ, i or ī. In both of these cases, the e/i [variant] vowel becomes silent if proceeded by another vowel but is pronounced if it is proceeded by a consanant. For example sean would be pronounced shan whereas sen would be pronounced either shen or shin. If a u comes before another vowel, it becomes a w (although the u is still slightly pronounced and is fully pronounced as normal if it's a ū)
In Languēse, the root of the verb always stays the same whereas a suffix will be added depending on person, tense and number. In the wordinfinitive, verbs end with -aro. (Note this is pronounced /æɹɒ/ NOT /ɑɹɒ/). In this example I will use the root word joĝ which in the infinitive form is joĝaro which means to play.
|1st Person Sing.||2nd Person Sing.||3rd Person Sing.||1st Person Plur.||2nd Person Plur.||3rd Person Plur.|
With conjugation, pronouns are not necessary except for certain circumstances. However, it is not incorrect to use pronouns, especially if the verb is singular and in the third person in order to seperate genders
In Languēse, there are no adverbs but rather, adjectives in the masculine form are used with the preposition 'with'. For example, he played happily or he happily played would be said as he played with happy. (Lo joĝa con ...)
Although many common adjectives have both a positive or negative word, such as happy and sad, less common adjectives will only have one word and you will make it negative by adding nas- at the beginning, much like how you would use un- or anti- in other languanges. However, you can still use nas- at the beginning of more common adjectives which have a negative counterpart to make it negative. Negative adjectives can also have nas- to make it positive. For example, nashappy would mean sad and nassad would mean happy (however, since there are no double letters in Languēse, any adjectives which begin with an s will only have the prefix na- so nassad would become nasad.) Also, double negatives make a positive so nasnashappy would mean the same thing as happy and nasnasnashappy would mean the same thing as nashappy or sad.
All adjectives will end in o/a. If the noun is masculine, it will end in o whereas if the noun is feminime it will end in a. If the gender is unknow or if a noun is neither masculine nor feminime, for example describing someone who's gender is non-binary, the adjective will be masculine unless specified.
For comparitives, a prefix is added to the noun. If you are saying that something is more something than something else, you add il- to the beginning (just i- if the noun already begins in an l). Likewise, if something is less something than something else you add el- and you add ol- if it is as something as something as something else. For example, using English:
Hitler is ilevil Churchill = Hitler is more evil/eviler than Churchill.
The same applies for adverbs.
John eats with ilhappy Jane = John eats more happily than Jane.
The rule for superlatives is very similar except it's b̂il- instead of il- and b̂el- instead of el-. For example, using English:
Hitler is b̂ilevil = Hitler is the evilest.
Worse, worst, better, best and equalEdit
For worse, worst, better, best and equal, the use the above prefixes as root words and add -ad̂ to the end.
ilad̂ = better
elad̂ = worse
b̂elad̂ = worst
olad̂ = equal
These above words would then replace the adjective so for example, using English:
Hitler is olad̂ Stalin = Hitler is equal to Stalin.
To add more detail, you add the infinitive of a verb between the comparitive and the object or after the superlaitve. So for example, using English:
Abraham Lincoln is ilad̂ to run dogs = Abraham Lincoln is better at running than dogs.
In Languēse, nouns will always end in either -o, -a, ,-on or -an. If the noun is masculine then it will end in either -o or -on and if it is feminine it will always end in either -a or -an. For most nouns, the gender is flexible and can be interchangeable with very few exceptions. Because of this, in the vocab table below, they will end in o/a just like adjectives unless it has a fixed gender. Like for adjectives, if the gender is unkown or you are describing something with a non-binary gender, the noun will be masculine unless specified.
If a noun is singular it will end in either -a or -o and if it is plural it will end in either -an or -on. The only time the ending will change is if it is possessive. If it is a singular noun, -li will be added to the end and if it is plural then just -i will be added. The table below will show the different vowel endings with possessive affix in brackets.
The general word order in Languēse is SVO (subject, verb, object). Adjectives come before the noun. Prepositions come before the article which come before the adjective.
In Linguēse, numbers always regular so something like 47 would be pronounced as fourty with seven, 165 would be pronounced as one-hundred with fourty with seven and 167,284 would be pronounced as one-hundred with sixty with seven thousand and two-hundred with eighty with four. All numbers after a decimal place are pronounced as individual numbers with so 1.2748 would be pronounced as 1 point two seven four eight. All numbers start with a capital letter.
For example, 186,625,839,385,483 = Uno-Ĵenda con Od̂av̂a con Zieina D̂rilov̂a e Zieina-Ĵenda con D̂uav̂a con Ĵinĝa Bilov̂a e Od̂a-Ĵenda con D̂rav̂a con Nova Milov̂a e D̂ra-Ĵenda con Od̂av̂a con Ĵinĝa Mila e Ĝuad̂a-Ĵenda con Od̂av̂a con D̂ra (one-hundred with eighty with six trillion and six-hundred with twenty with five billion and eight-hundred with thirty with nine million and three-hundred with eighty with five thousand and four-hundred with eighty with three)