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Linguēse

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Linguēse
Linguēse
Type
Agglutinating
Alignment
Nominative - accusitative
Head direction
Mixed
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
Yes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal p b

t d

k g
Plosive m n
Fricative f v s z h
Affricate tʃ 

Approximant ɹ j
Trill
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i u
Near-close ɪ
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid ɛ ɜ ɔ
Near-open æ
Open ɑ ɒ

AlphabetEdit

The alphabet contains 27 characters plus 8 'macron' vowels which although are used in the language and will be put in the table below are not part of the alphabet because they only alter vowel length rather than vowel sound. Macron vowels will be in italics.

Full Alphabet without macron vowels:

A Á B B̂ D D̂ E É G Ĝ I J Ĵ L M N O Ó R S U V V̂ X X̆ Y Z

a á b b̂ d d̂ e é g ĝ i j ĵ l m n o ó r s u v v̂ x x̆ y z

Macron vowels:

Ā Ā́ Ē Ḗ Ī Ō Ṓ Ū

ā ā́ ē ī ō ṓ ū

Alphabet table:

Linguēse Character

IPA English Equivelant English Example
A, a æ a Cat
Á, á ɑ ar Car
Ā, ā æː a Cat
Ā́, ā́ ɑː ar Car
B, b b b Big
B̂, b̂ p p Pig
D, d d d Dog
D̂, d̂ t t Tea
E, e ɛ, ɪ e, i Bet, Big
É, é ɜ er Fur
Ē, ē ɛːɪː e, i Bet, Big
Ḗ, ḗ ɜː er Fur
G, g g g Go
Ĝ, ĝ k k Kill
I, i i ee Me
Ī, ī iː ee Me
J,j j Joke
Ĵ, ĵ ch Choke
L, l l l Look
M, m m m Me
N, n n n No
O, o ɒ o Pot
Ó, ó ɔ or For
Ō, ō ɒː o Pot
Ṓ, ṓ ɔː or For
R, r ɹ r Rest
S, s s s Son
U, u u oo You
Ū, ū u

ː

oo You
V, v v v Vendetta
V̂, v̂ f f For
X, x ks x

Hex

X̆, x̆ h h Hex
Y, y j y Yes
Z, z z z (soft z) Zen








































Y should always be at the beginning of a sylable rather than at the end and X should always be at the end of a sylable rather than at the beginning. Wether an e/ē makes an e sound or an i sound depends on the word. The i sound is more common but sometimes it will be an e sound or possibly a hybrid of the two.

PhonotacticsEdit

A hard z or ts sound (as in pizza) is spelt d̂z as opposed to d̂s. Most vowels and consonants remain unchanged wherever they are but a z becomes a zh (as in beige) if it is before an e, é, ē, ḗ, i or ī. An s becomes a sh (as in shut) if it is before an e, é, ē, ḗ, i or ī. In both of these cases, the e/i [variant] vowel becomes silent if proceeded by another vowel but is pronounced if it is proceeded by a consanant. For example sean would be pronounced shan whereas sen would be pronounced either shen or shin. If a u comes before another vowel, it becomes a w (although the u is still slightly pronounced and is fully pronounced as normal if it's a ū)

Basic GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes No No No
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article Yes No Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

VerbsEdit

In Languēse, the root of the verb always stays the same whereas a suffix will be added depending on person, tense and number. In the wordinfinitive, verbs end with -aro. (Note this is pronounced /æɹɒ/ NOT /ɑɹɒ/). In this example I will use the root word joĝ which in the infinitive form is joĝaro which means to play.

1st Person Sing. 2nd Person Sing. 3rd Person Sing. 1st Person Plur. 2nd Person Plur. 3rd Person Plur.
Past -ól -eso -án -éso -én -ino
Present  -o -e -a -es -en -i
Future -áro -are -ara -ares -aren -ari

With conjugation, pronouns are not necessary except for certain circumstances. However, it is not incorrect to use pronouns, especially if the verb is singular and in the third person in order to seperate genders

AdverbsEdit

In Languēse, there are no adverbs but rather, adjectives in the masculine form are used with the preposition 'with'. For example, he played happily or he happily played would be said as he played with happy. (Lo joĝa con ...)

AdjectivesEdit

Although many common adjectives have both a positive or negative word, such as happy and sad, less common adjectives will only have one word and you will make it negative by adding nas- at the beginning, much like how you would use un- or anti- in other languanges. However, you can still use nas- at the beginning of more common adjectives which have a negative counterpart to make it negative. Negative adjectives can also have nas- to make it positive. For example, nashappy would mean sad and nassad would mean happy (however, since there are no double letters in Languēse, any adjectives which begin with an s will only have the prefix na- so nassad would become nasad.) Also, double negatives make a positive so nasnashappy would mean the same thing as happy and nasnasnashappy would mean the same thing as nashappy or sad.

All adjectives will end in o/a. If the noun is masculine, it will end in o whereas if the noun is feminime it will end in a. If the gender is unknow or if a noun is neither masculine nor feminime, for example describing someone who's gender is non-binary, the adjective will be masculine unless specified.

ComparitivesEdit

For comparitives, a prefix is added to the noun. If you are saying that something is more something than something else, you add il- to the beginning (just i- if the noun already begins in an l). Likewise, if something is less something than something else you add el- and you add ol- if it is as something as something as something else. For example, using English:

Hitler is ilevil Churchill = Hitler is more evil/eviler than Churchill.

The same applies for adverbs.

John eats with ilhappy Jane = John eats more happily than Jane.

SuperlativesEdit

The rule for superlatives is very similar except it's b̂il- instead of il- and b̂el- instead of el-. For example, using English:

Hitler is b̂ilevil = Hitler is the evilest.

Worse, worst, better, best and equalEdit

For worse, worst, better, best and equal, the use the above prefixes as root words and add -ad̂ to the end.

ilad̂ = better

b̂ilad̂ =best

elad̂ = worse

b̂elad̂ = worst

olad̂ = equal

These above words would then replace the adjective so for example, using English:

Hitler is olad̂ Stalin = Hitler is equal to Stalin.

To add more detail, you add the infinitive of a verb between the comparitive and the object or after the superlaitve. So for example, using English:

Abraham Lincoln is ilad̂ to run dogs = Abraham Lincoln is better at running than dogs.

Nouns Edit

In Languēse, nouns will always end in either -o, -a, ,-on or -an. If the noun is masculine then it will end in either -o or -on and if it is feminine it will always end in either -a or -an. For most nouns, the gender is flexible and can be interchangeable with very few exceptions. Because of this, in the vocab table below, they will end in o/a just like adjectives unless it has a fixed gender. Like for adjectives, if the gender is unkown or you are describing something with a non-binary gender, the noun will be masculine unless specified.

If a noun is singular it will end in either -a or -o and if it is plural it will end in either -an or -on. The only time the ending will change is if it is possessive. If it is a singular noun, -li will be added to the end and if it is plural then just -i will be added. The table below will show the different vowel endings with possessive affix in brackets.

Masculine Feminime
Singular -o(li) -a(li)
Plural -on(i) -an(i)

Word OrderEdit

The general word order in Languēse is SVO (subject, verb, object). Adjectives come before the noun. Prepositions come before the article which come before the adjective.

  1. Article
  2. Adjective
  3. Subject
  4. Verb
  5. Adverb
  6. Prepostition
  7. Article
  8. Adjective
  9. Object

VocabularyEdit


No. English Linguēse
1IIo
2you (singular)D̂u
3heLo
4weNostes
5you (plural)D̂i
6theyLi
7thisĜīso/a
8thatĜāso/a
9hereĜua
10thereĜuo
11whoYe
12whatYo
13whereYu
14whenYi
15how
16notnas-
17allD̂ud̂o/a
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Numbers

In Linguēse, numbers always regular so something like 47 would be pronounced as fourty with seven, 165 would be pronounced as one-hundred with fourty with seven and 167,284 would be pronounced as one-hundred with sixty with seven thousand and two-hundred with eighty with four. All numbers after a decimal place are pronounced as individual numbers with so 1.2748 would be pronounced as 1 point two seven four eight. All numbers start with a capital letter.

Number Languēse number
0 D̂zero
1 Uno
2 D̂ua
3 D̂ra
4 Ĝuad̂a
5 Ĵinĝa
6 Zieina
7 Sed̂a
8 Od̂a
9 Nova
10 Unov̂a
20 D̂uav̂a
30 D̂rav̂a
40 Ĝuad̂av̂a
50 Jinĝav̂a
60 Zieinav̂a
70 Sed̂ava
80 Od̂av̂a
90 Novav̂a
100 Uno-Ĵenda
200 D̂ua-Ĵenda
300 D̂ra-Ĵenda
400 Ĝuad̂a-Ĵenda
500 Ĵinga-Ĵenda
600 Zieina-Ĵenda
700 Sed̂a-Ĵenda
800 Od̂a-Ĵenda
900 Nova-Ĵenda
1,000 Uno Mila
1,000,000 Uno Milov̂a
1,000,000,000 Uno Bilov̂a
1,000,000,000,000 Uno D̂rilov̂a

For example, 186,625,839,385,483 = Uno-Ĵenda con Od̂av̂a con Zieina D̂rilov̂a e Zieina-Ĵenda con D̂uav̂a con Ĵinĝa Bilov̂a e Od̂a-Ĵenda con D̂rav̂a con Nova Milov̂a e D̂ra-Ĵenda con Od̂av̂a con Ĵinĝa Mila e Ĝuad̂a-Ĵenda con Od̂av̂a con D̂ra (one-hundred with eighty with six trillion and six-hundred with twenty with five billion and eight-hundred with thirty with nine million and three-hundred with eighty with five thousand and four-hundred with eighty with three)

Example textEdit

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