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Lingueakh

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Name: Lingueakh

Type: Fusional

Alignment: Nominative-Accusative

Head Direction: First

Number of genders: 3

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


SettingEdit

Lingueakh is a personal language and an experiment, without an associated conculture, save myself, perhaps. It's vocabulary is a combination of both made-up words and words borrowed from Indo-European languages.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Letter IPA

b

/b/

d

/d/

f

/f/

g

/g/

h

/h/

j

/ʤ/

k /k/
l /l/
m /m/
n /n/
p /p/
r /r/
s /s/
t /t/
v /v/
ź /ʒ/
z /z/
ç /tʃ/
ş /ʃ/
ð /θ/
þ /ð/
ţ /ts/

VowelsEdit

Letter

IPA

a

/a/

e

/e/

i

/i/

o

/o/

u

/u/

ä

/æ/

ë

​/ɛ/

ï

/ɪ/

ø

/ʌ/

ü

/ʊ/
i (before a vowel) /j/
u (before a vowel) /w/
r (word-final, after consonant) /ɚ/

Basic GrammarEdit

GenderEdit

Lingueakh has no grammatical gender other than gender variants for human words. There are three genders for such words: masculine, feminine, and neuter. For words describing people which change according to gender, words ending in -i are masculine, in -a are feminine, and in -o are neuter. The third person pronouns can be inflected for gender except for the genitive and reflexive forms. Any other noun is neuter by default, although -i or -a can be attached to it for clarification of gender if necessary. Whenever using gender-inflected nouns to refer to a group of mixed gender, the neuter gender is always used. Likewise, the neuter gender is used when the gender is unknown.

Examples: omei (man), omea (woman), omeo (human/person)

Personal PronounsEdit

Personal pronouns are declined in Lingueakh. They are the only nouns in Lingueakh with irregular declension patterns (besides a slight irregularity in participles).

1st Singular 1st Plural 2nd Singular 2nd Plural 3rd Masc. Sing. 3rd Masc. Plur. 3rd Fem. Sing. 3rd Fem. Plur. 3rd Neut. Sing. 3rd. Neut. Plur.
Nominative ieg nos vreg vos ei eis ea eas eo eos
Vocative ieg nos vreg vos ei eis ea eas eo eos
Accusative ieo iean veo vean eri eris era eras ero eros
Genitive mei nostri vei vostri eoi eostri eoi eostri eoi eostri
Dative ieu ieun veu veun eriu eriun erau eraun erou eroun
Prepositional ieiź ieiźr veiź veiźr erîiź erîiźr eraiź eraiźr eroiź eroiźr
Instrumental ieiþ ieiþr veiþ veiþr erîiþ erîiþr eraiþ eraiþr eroiþ eroiþr
Comitative iekun iekunr vekun vekunr erikun erikunr erakun erakunr erokun erokunr
Temporal ieiş ieişr veiş veişr erîiş erîişr eraiş eraişr eroiş eroişr
Reflexive ieo iean veo vean eru erun eru erun eru erun

Noun DeclensionEdit

Nouns in Lingueakh are declined according to their role in the sentence.

Participles are declined like nouns, but are slightly irregular- the nominative and vocative forms end in -um in both the singular and plural. The -um ending is dropped from participles in declension.


In the nominative case, a noun can end in any vowel or in any consonant. If it ends in a vowel, the vowel is dropped before the ending is added, unless it specifies the gender. If the noun is gender-specific, ending in -i or -a, then the ending is added after that instead of dropping the vowel. If the noun ends in a consonant, the ending is simply added onto it. The vocative forms are always identical to the nominative forms.

Declension endings Singular Plural
Nominative

After consonants: -r After vowels: -n

Vocative After consonants: -r

After vowels: -n

Accusative -is -isr
Genitive -ïm ïmr
Dative -ant -antr
Prepositional -iź -iźr
Instrumental -iþ -iþr
Comitative -kun -kunr
Temporal -ij -ijr
Reflexive -ipse -ipsen

VerbsEdit

Lingueakh verbs are conjugated according to voice, mood, tense, aspect, person, and plurality. There are four moods: indicative, subjunctive, imperative, and conditional. For each verb, there are six infinitives: three active infinitives (perfect, present, and future), and three passive infinitives (perfect, present, and future). From each verb can also be derived an adverb, adjective, agent noun, patient noun, as well as other possible deverbal nouns.

Verbs are conjugated by:

  1. Dropping the infinitive ending [amare "to love" > am]
  2. Adding the appropriate tense/aspect marker to the stem [am > ameiv]
  3. Adding the appropriate personal ending [ameiv > ameivo "I have loved"]
Personal endings Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Indicative Mood -o -ast -it -emos -eis -unt
Subjunctive Mood -am -as -at -amon -ason -aton
Conditional Mood -eo -est -eð -eŏr -estr -eðr
Imperative Mood -reo -rea -ree -reos -reas -rees
Tense/Aspect Markers Active Voice Passive Voice
Present -[none]- -el-
Perfect -iv- -eliv-
Future -ar- -elar-
Present Perfect -eiv- -eleiv-
Pluperfect -iviv- -eliviv-
Futureperfect -ariv- -elariv-
Imperfect -ab- -elab-


Infinitive endings Active Passive
Present -are -ari
Perfect -visse -vissi
Future -vitre -vitri
Participle endings Active Passive
Present -iendum -iesîum
Perfect -idum -issîum
Future -itreum

-istrîum


Supine endings
Active -area
Passive -arîa

AdverbsEdit

Adverbs in Lingueakh are placed after the verb they modify.

AdjectivesEdit

Lingueakh adjectives are always placed after the noun they modify. They are not inflected for plurality, case, nor gender. Their only inflection is described below.

StandardEdit

Standard adjectives consist of a stem and a monosyllabic ending, or a monosyllabic stem only. The final syllable is dropped in the other forms of the adjective.

Example: bon (good), lente (slow)

Positive ComparativeEdit

Formed by attaching -ra to the stem.

English equivalent: -er

Example: bonra (better), lentra (slower)

Negative ComparativeEdit

Formed by attaching -na to the stem. Essentially the opposite of the positive comparative.

English equivalent: not as ...

Example: bonna (not as good), lentna (not as slow)

Note that the positive and negative comparatives can pretty much be used interchangeably, depending on which noun you choose to modify.

SuperlativeEdit

Formed by attaching -ŏr to the stem.

English equivalents: -est; most ...

Example: bonŏr (best), lentŏr (slowest)

DictionaryEdit


No. English Lingueakh
1Iieg
2you (singular)vreg
3heei
4wenos
5you (plural)vos
6theyeos
7thisik
8thatak
9hereik
10thereak
11whokuïs
12whatkuïd
13wherever
14whenkua
15howva
16notnon
17allomne
18manymŏlt
19somealku
20fewpaku
21othereţa
22oneunz
23twoþu
24threetra
25fourkva
26fivefa
27bigmagna
28longlonga
29widelata
30thickþikø
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallminŏr
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanomea
37man (adult male)omei
38man (human being)ome
39childfîil
40wifeamira
41husbandamiri
42mothermatre
43fatherpatre
44animalbest
45fishpeski
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogkanïl
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeserp
50wormuermø
51treearbola
52forestmŏltarba
53stickstïk
54fruitflŏrmavŏr
55seedsem
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerflŏr
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinpel
63meatcarna
64bloodsang
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggova
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeokul
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthoasta
77toothdenti
78tonguegøtung
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingaviźa
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsviskera
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartkŏr
91livernefe
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatvŏrare
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatherespirare
100laughsonsaşare
101seevidare
102hearaudare
103knowkogneare
104thinkpensare
105smellContionary_Wiki
106feargŏrare
107sleepdŏrmare
108livevivare
109diemŏrtare
110killneţare
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimakirare
120flyæirare
121walkambulare
122comevenare
123liedisverare
124sitlegare
125standlegare
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallkadare
128givedare
129holdtenare
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140saydiktare
141singkantare
142playşpilare
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezefrigare
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunsol
148moonlun
149starsteia
150waterakua
151rainkælak
152riverrîo
153lakelaga
154seamar
155saltsode
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthterra
160cloudnebul
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skykælum
163windventæ
164snowneva
165icefriga
166smokenebulpira
167firepira
168ashsengra
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainmontan
172redrûað
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whitealba
176blacknegra
177nightnakt
178daydag
179yearan
180warmkalŏra
181coldfriga
182fullule
183newneo
184oldantika
185goodbona
186badmala
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctvera
197nearContionary_Wiki
198fardisti
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atën
202inën
203withcomitative or intrumental case
204ande
205ifse
206becausedën
207namenoma


Example textEdit

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