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Linkve

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Linkve
Ul linkve meli
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Linkve [ˈlinkve] is a language created by me and an old friend of mine in 2008, when we were students. At the beginning, our goal was to create a language which could express ideas briefly and meld Latin, German and English. I continued this project on my own, adding terms from Slavic languages (in particular from Serbo-Croatian) and from Ancient Greek. Linkve originally had definite articles, but then they turned into suffixes because it was more practical to use them in writing.

Poems are the most popular form of literature in Linkve.

Linkve currently sounds like an ancient common language spoken in the Balkans, from Greece to Austria-Hungary passing through the Republic of Venice.

Today it’s spoken, but more frequently written, by a small community of friends (Drugu o linkve) in the northwest of Italy to write messages and thoughts to each other. The community is always open to receive new members and active speakers, as well as people who wish to write in Linkve.

PhonologyEdit

Alphabeth and PhonemesEdit

Letter

IPA

Examples

A a /a/ avie, arkane
B b /b/ ban, uba
C c /t͡s/ cele, lice
Ć ć /t͡ʃ/ ćove, voće
D d /d/ dan, ladi
E e /ɛ/

/e/

ene, temne

eteri, felice

F f /f/ foire, kafe
G g /g/ gee, ige
I i /i/

/y/ - always after mn and mp

/ɛɪ/ - /ɔɪ/

ikte, vine

limne, zimne, zimpera, imper*

kroine, rei

J j /j/

/i/

juvice, nijuta

soj, kaj

K k /k/ kadre, komse, deke
L l /l/ luk, ile
M m /m/ mama, aime
N n /n/ nauce, ani
NJ nj /ɲ/ njerże, panje
O o /ɔ/

/ɔ̃/

/o/ - (rarery)

okule, gor

lonrżi, vonrżi

pome

P p /p/ pola, ipo
R r /r/ rane, garpe, kir
RŻ rż /ʒ/ eca, dui
S s /s/s/ sate, nosie
Ş ş /ʃ/ iş, maşin
T t /t/ tak, ite
U u /u/ ukse, drugu
V v /v/ vepre, brevi
Z z /z/ zar, zag

It’s also pronounced /y/ in the terms idre [‘ydre] and ipo [ʽypo].


Approximants

When the letter i [i] is followed by another vowel, it is pronounced [j].

biali /ˈbjali/

pedie /ˈpɛdje/

kioske /ˈkjɔske/

aviu /ˈavju/


Grammar Edit

PersonsEdit

Linkve PersonsEdit

Persons in Linkve are not always explicit. Sometimes they turn into a simple suffix at the end of the verb (see interrogative form and past participle) and other times they are implied. This will be explained better in the next chapters.

Person IPA Translation
i /i:/ I
ju /ju/ you
je /je/ he

ći

/t͡ʃi/ she
ja  /ja/ it
da /da/ we
ju  /ju/ you
o /ɔ/ they


Nominative

(Subject)

Accusative

(Object)

Dative

(Indirect Object)

Genitive

(Possessive)

i im ir iş 
ju um, jum jur juş
je em, jem jer jeş
ći sir ćići
ja am, jam jar jaş
da dam/sam* dar/sar* daş
ju um, jum jur juş
o om, jom jor joş

[after the letters ‘d’, ‘t’, ‘m’]

Examples:

I soj Mark. = I am Mark.

Ju paz im. = You love me.

Ju gibu pome za ir. = You give me the apple (litt. You give the apple to me)

Ige soj dom = This is my house.

Edit

Verbs Edit

One of the peculiarities of Linkve is that the most part of the verbs are monosyllabic.

Plus, some of them, derive from germanic languages (English and German especially); some examples are: liv/lif (eng. leave), kel (eng. kill), blib (ger. bleiben), jit (eng. hit).

Sometimes verbs are combined with particular prepositions that change their meaning. 

Examples:

enda po ban = to come in; to get in

eza po ban = to get out transa po ban = to cross


Conjugation of the Verb “Soj” (to be) Edit

In Linkve the verb “to be” is somewhat atypical because it is never inflected in the present tense. So the conjugation is the same for each person.

i soj I am
ju soj you are
je/ći/ja soj he/she/it is
da soj we are
ju soj you are
o soj they are


Sometimes you can find just “soj”, without any subject. In that case, the implied subject is “i”. This happens when someone talks in the first person singular introducing himself/herself: Mire! Soj Mark. (Hello! I’m Mark).

Conjugation of Regular VerbsEdit

Example: ban [ba:n], (to go, to walk)

Base form Inflected form Translation
i ban i bani I go
ju ban ju banu you go
je ban je bane he goes
ći ban ći bani she goes
ja ban je bane it goes
da ban da bana we go
ju ban ju banu you go
o ban o bano they go

The regular conjugation of verbs in Linkve shows two forms: the first one never changes; the second one is conjugated and different for every person.

Generally we use the first form (base form) when a verb is at the end of the sentence (i ban!: I'll go! || Ige soj place uba i ban: this is the place where I go);  or in when verbs are followed by personal pronouns (i kon am: I know it); whereas the second form (inflected) in all the other cases, for example when a verb is followed by any kind of complement: i gobi pome (I eat the apple), ju banu za kine (You go to the cinema), etc...

An Irregular Verb: "Na" (to have) Edit

i na / i nai I have
ju na / ju naju you have
je na / je naje he has
ći na / ći nai she has
ja na / ja naja it has
da na / da naja we have
ju na / ju naju you have
o na / o najo they have

Other verbs in Linkve behave like “na”, for example “rei”(to flow). Also in that case a j is added (i rei, ju reju, ja reje, ći rei...).  This happens when we have a vowel instead of a consonant at the end of the verb. 

Edit

Verbs Coupling Edit

In Linkve there are no modal verbs. Therefore, a normal verb can’t be followed by an infinitive. For this reason, verbs are connected by a preposition, which is po (“that”).  Here some examples:

Zarì po lerż = I can read

Nie kratù po drum = you must not smoke

Najaşkì po ban = I should go


Nie volì jum po gor = I don't want you to die 

Cases Edit

Differently than English language, there are no articles in Linkve, either definite and undefinite:

Dom can mean: the house, a house, house

The context of the sentence will show you how to translate a noun.

Nouns are declined in order to the group they belong (first, second), the number (singular, plural) and the function they have in the sentence. This function is expressed by three cases:

  • nominative, the case of the subject
  • accusative, the case of the object
  • locative, the case of location

Numerals and demonstratives are declined as nouns.

Personal pronouns are also declined using two adding cases:

  • genitive, the case of possesion
  • dative, the case of the indirect object

Edit

Nouns Edit

Nouns are divided in two main groups:

  • nouns ending in consonant (1st group)
dom the house
kir the hand
maşin the car
  • nouns enging in -e (2nd group)
paze  the love
kardie the heart
talase

the sea


Accents (nouns) Edit

First group accents

Accent position
Monosyllabic - dòm, kìr, puèr
Disyllabic on the last syllab

ma-şìn

ci-gàr

ko-pìn

Second group accents

Accents position
Disyllabic on the 1st syllab

kiò-ske

kì-ne

pò-me

Polysyllabic on the 3rd last syllab

tà-la-se

ò-ku-le

aimè-ti-ke

First Declension (nouns ending in consonant)Edit

Example: dom (house, home);

Singular Plural

Nominative

dom  domu
Accusative  dome domu
Locative domu  domivu
  • Nominative case - This is the case of the subject, for example: Dom soj manji (The house is big).
  • Accusative case - This is the case of the object; it answers to the question kelse (who? / what?), for example: i keni dome (I see the house).
  • Locative - This is the case which indicates a location; it’s often preceded by the preposition ne (in, at): Stazì ne domu (I’m at home) or i vidi ne Romu (I live in Rome); but also by other prepositions of beeing in place.

Second Declension (nouns ending in -e)Edit

Example: kioske (cafe, coffee shop);

Singular Plural
Nominative kioske kiosku
Accusative kioske kiosku
Locative kioski kioskivi

Some esamples:

Kioske soj manji = The cafe is big

Kiosku soj ladi = The cafes are nice

I keni kioske = I see the cafe

Pazì kiosku = I love cafes

Stazì ne kioski = I’m in the cafe

Talà ne kioskivi zimpera = We always talk in the cafes

Attention! The declension of nouns ending in -ie is a bit different.

Example: bibie [ˈbibje], (book):

Singular Plural
Nominative bibie bibiu
Accusative bibie bibiu
Locative bibi bibivi


Adjectives


Adjectives in Linkve are never inflected. They maintain always the same desinence, which is -i: omali (good), ladi (nice), manji (big), parvusi (small, little), etc.


Accents (adjectives)Edit

Talking about adjectives, the position of the accent is always on the penultimate syllab (mànji, làdi, parvùsi), except for adjectives which begin with a vowel (òmali, éteri, etc...).


Comparative and Superlative

Adjective Comparative Superlative
ladi (nice)

mezma ladi od/o (as pretty as)

pluz ladi od/o (prettier than)

ladićni (the prettiest)

Sarae soj ladi. (Sarah is pretty)

Sarae soj mezma ladi od Anae / o Marije. (Sarah is as pretty as Anne/Mary).

Sarae soj pluz ladi od Anae / o Marije. (Sarah is prettier than Anne/Mary).

Sarae soj ladićni puele ne skoli. (Sarah is the prettiest girl in the school).


Negative FormEdit

Forming negative sentences is quite easy. It is needed just to put the adverb nie before the verb:

i soj Mark. (I am Mark) > i nie soj Mark (I am not Mark)

i nai druge (I have a friend) > i nie nai druge (I don't have a friend)

i pazi kiosku (I love cafes) > i nie pazi kiosku (I don't love cafes)

Interrogative FormEdit

Interrogative form is quite unusual in Linkve, because it's built removing the subject and inflecting the verb (saving the 1st person plural, where it needs a simple inversion). Plus, it's added the particle "ve".

GRAMMAR RULE! If the question begins with an adverb, this construction must not be used; e.g. Uba ju ban? (Where do you go?). 

Affermative  Interrogative 
i ban (I go) Bani ve? (Do I go?)
ju ban (you go) Banu ve? (Do you go?)
je ban (he goes) Bane ve? (Does he go?)
ći ban (she goes) Banić ve? (Does she go?)
ja ban (it goes) Bana ve? (Does it go?)
da ban (we go) Ban da ve? (Do we go?)

Lud sa* ve? (Do we play?)

ju ban (you go) Banu ve? (Do you go?)
o ban (they go) Bano ve? (Do they go?)

Edit

Main PrepositionsEdit

Preposition Translation Case Uses Translation
ne in, at LOC i stazi ne domu, i soj ne skoli I stay at home, I'm at school
za to ACC,
DAT (persons)
i bani za skoli, i bani za kioske, i komi za jur I go to school, I go to the café, I come to you
ada from ACC I komi ada Italie. I come from Italy.
od of ACC,
GEN (persons)

dom o Markae, dom od Anae, dom o juş, krome o derme

Mark's house, Anne's house, your house, the colour of the skin
de about, concerning ACC Igi bibie tala de punje. This book tells about war.
pro  for ACC Ige soj daranje pro Markae! This is a present for Mark!
pre for ACC Ja giba pome pre omni pedie. There is an apple for each child.
kum with (company) ACC,
DAT (persons)
I bani za kine kum ani druge.
Ju krat po komu kum sir.
I go to the cinema with a friend. 
You can come with her.
ipre on, over LOC/ACC Kopie soj ipre kubini.
Kopie bana ipre kubine.
The dog is on the bed.
The dog goes on the bed.
ipo under LOC/ACC Kopie soj ipo kubini.
Kopie bana ipo kubine.
The dog is under the bed.
The dog goes under the bed.

Edit

Adverbs Edit

Generally, adverbs are ending in -a and they are positioned at the beginning of a sentence or at the end of it.

Omala ju tun. = You do well/in the right way.

Odana i bani za skole. = Today I'll go to school.

I lerżi bibiu zimpera.= I always read books.

Pola i na gegobi = I ate so much.

Edit

Adverbs Construction Edit

  • First construction: omal-e (noun) > omal-i (adj.) > omal-a (adv.) || the good (noun) > good (adj) > well (adv.)
  • Second construction (adverbs of manner): felic-e > feli > felic-ita || the happinness > happy > happily
  • Third construction (kum + adj.); actually Linkve doesn't use many adverbs, so they are often translated with the following form: Ći zmakari jem kum paze = She kissed him lovingly (litt. She kissed him with love).

TensesEdit

Imperfect Perfect Present Future
i skribari nai geskribi i skrib, -i i skribereći*
ju skribaru naju geskribi ju skrib, -u ju skribereću
je skribare naje geskribi je skrib, -e je skribereće
ći skribari naći geskribi ći skrib, -i ći skribereći
ja skribara naja geskribi ja skrib, -a ja skribereća
da skribara da na geskribi da skrib, -a da skribereća
ju skribaru naju geskribi ju skrib, -u ju skribereću
o skribaro najo geskribi o skrib, -o o skriberećo

=== 

  • Sometimes future tense can be contracted: i skribereć am! (I will write it).
===


No. English Linkve
1Ii
2you (singular)ju
3heje
4weda
5you (plural)ju
6theyo
7thisige/igi
8thatile/ili
9hereda
10there
11whokelse
12whatkelse
13whereuba
14whenuta
15howkomse
16notnie
17allpanje
18manypole (n.), poli (adj.), pola (adv.)
19some
20fewolige (n.) / oligi (adj.) / oliga (adv.)
21otheralie (n.), ali (adj.)
22onemone
23twobïe
24threetrïe
25fourćetra
26fivepenta
27bigmanji
28longlonrżi
29wide
30thick
31heavygrevi
32smallparvusi, parvi
33shortbrevi
34narrow
35thin
36womangine / uske
37man (adult male)meske
38man (human being)ćove
39childpedie
40wifeuske
41husbandmeske
42mothermame
43fathertade
44animal
45fishikte
46birdavie
47dogkopie
48louse
49snake
50worm
51treetrever
52forest
53stick
54fruitgarpe
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skinderme
63meat
64bloodaime
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tailtale
70feather
71hairkavelu (pl.)
72headkefale
73earotie
74eyeokule
75nosenauce
76mouthorise
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80footpodie
81legpodie
82knee
83handkir
84wing
85bellybulige
86guts
87neckkopin
88back
89breast
90heartkardie
91liver
92drinkluk
93eatgob
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomitşbrate
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101seeken
102hear
103knowkon / gnos
104thinksat
105smell
106fearfobie
107sleeprem
108livevid
109diegor
110killkel
111fight
112hunt
113hitjit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walkban
122comekom
123lie
124sitsied
125stand
126turn
127fall
128givegib
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throwjekt
137tiekravate
138sew
139count
140saytal
141singmel
142playlud
143float
144flowrei
145freeze
146swell
147sunzimne
148moon
149starastire
150wateridre
151rain
152riverpotame
153lake
154seatalase
155salttuzle
156stonelice
157sand
158dust
159earthgee
160cloudnefele
161fog
162skycele
163windvetare
164snow
165iceglaće
166smokedrumanje
167firefoire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountainorie
172redrurżi
173green
174yellow
175whitebiali
176black
177nightnosie
178daydan
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183newnovi
184oldprezbi
185goodomali
186bad
187rottenputri
188dirtyvonrżi
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197nearşto
198farteli (adj.) tela (adv.)
199right
200left
201atza
202inne
203withkum
204andkaj
205if
206becauserżeca
207namenaume

Vocabulary

Example textEdit

Pojetike ne lingi: "Atmu ipso vetare"  Da soj atmu gemot ipso vetare                   We are souls moved by the windAni kaire tunò mezma Ikare                        Just one flight we do, like IcarusAmsa oraì ipre decivi bore                          And while I see the snow on the rooftopsmish optu kaptò duzh mirita gore                so peacefully my eyes understand the death

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