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Liohne

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Name: Liohne

Type: Fusional

Alignment: Nominative - Accusative

Head Direction: Left

Number of genders: 3

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

PhonologyEdit

Liohne is a diacritic based orthography, in other words, the two or more letters represents a unique sound. Moreover, the alphabet has the following letters: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V X Y Z. Some graphic diacritics are used as the circumflex and accute accents (^,´). Apostrophe and hypen is also used as part of word structures (',-).

Consonants [IPA]
Plosives p [p] t/tt 1 [t] c/que 2 [q] b [b] d [d] g [ɢ] p' [pʰ] t' [tʰ] c' [qʰ]
Fricatives

f [f] z/ce 3 [θ] ss [s] ch [ʃ] r [χ] r' [ʀ] h [h]

v [ʋ] th [ð] s/ze 4 [z] j [ʒ]

Affricates

pz [ps] tz [ts] x [ks] pj [pʃ] tj [tʃ] cj [kʃ]

bz [bz] dz [dz] gz [gz] bj [bʒ] dj [dʒ] gj [gʒ]

pr [pχ] tr [tχ] cr [kχ] br [bʀ] dr [dʀ] gr [gʀ]

Nasals m/hm [m] n/hn [n]
Liquids rr [r] l [ɫ] l'/ll [l] et/tè/te 5 [ɾ] 
Glides ou [w] u [ʍ] i [j] ü [ɥ]
Plosive+Approximant

pet [pɾ] tet [tɾ] quet [qɾ] bet [bɾ] det [dɾ] get [gɾ]

pl [pl] tl [tl] cl [ql] bl [bl] dl [dl] gl [ɢl]

pl' [pɫ] tl' [tɫ] cl' [qɫ] bl' [bɫ] dl' [dɫ] gl' [ɢɫ]

Fricative+Aproximant

sr [sχ] xr [ʃχ] zr [zʀ] jr [ʒʀ] fr [fχ] thr [θχ]

set [sɾ] chet [ʃɾ] zet [zɾ] jet [ʒɾ] fet [fɾ] cet [θɾ]

sl [sl] xl [ʃl] zl [zl] jl [ʒl] fl [fl] thl [θl]

sl' [sɫ] xl' [ʃɫ] zl' [zɫ] jl' [ʒɫ] fl' [fɫ] thl' [θɫ]


  1. /t/ is when t is at the begining and tt between vowels.
  2. /q/ is c when is [ca cu co] and is qu when [que qui qy]
  3. /θ/ is c when [ce ci cy] and is z when [za zu zo]
  4. /z/ is z when [ze zi zy] and is s.
  5. /ɾ/ is et at the begining, tè at the last and te at the last with vowel gemination.


Vowels [IPA]
Unrounded Rounded Nasalized
High y [i] i [ɪ] ue [ɯ] ui [ʊ] u [y] ou [u] em/en [ɪ̑] um [œ̃]
Mid é [e] ai [ɛ] e/ê* [ə] un [ʌ] eu [ø] eau [o] o [ɔ] ain/aim [ɛ̑] am/an [ə̃] aum/aun [ɔ̃]
Low a [a] à [ɑ] oe [œ] im/in [ã]

Gemination: Vowels can be geminated. Add an -e at the end of every word, the -e doesn't sound but marks a vowel gemination. Add an apostrophe ['] when the word ends with vowel. The -e can be supressed if word ends with e, only the apostrophe is added to the word.

E.g: oure [u:χ], Dy'e [di:], dé [de], liohne [ljo:n], sl'eauce [sɫo:θ], me' [mə:], celle [θə:l]

Diphtongues
diphtongue i

ye [ɑɪ] uy [uɪ] ay [eɪ] oy [oɪ] yen/yem [ã]

uyn/uym [œ̃ɪ] ayn/aym [ɛ̑ɪ] oyn/oym [ɔ̃ɪ]

diphtongue u

ao [au] eo [eu] iu [iu] o [ou] aon/aom [ãu]

eon/eom [ɛ̑u] iun/ium [ɪ̑u] on/om [ɔ̃u]


MorphologyEdit

Words in Liohne are pretty much formed by one syllable or two (in most cases). The structure of a simple Liohne word.

(Pfix) - (CCini) - V - (C) - (Sfix) for one syllable; (Pfix) - (CCini) - V - (CCmid) - V - (C) - (Sfix)

CC - consonant cluster. C - Consonant. V- Vowel. Pfix - prefix. Sfix - suffix.

CCini:

plumfe (PL) dice (P) style (FP) tja (A) me'r (N) xnâ (FN) le (L) fleur (FL) stetais (FPL)

P - plosive. F - Fricative. A - affricate. N - nasal. L - Liquid.

CCmid:

apé (P) choefettien (FP) kitjan (A) kobra (PL) kautèttue (LP) ani'e (N) Ihmné (NN) mil'ére (L) hatèlim (LL) kailzon (LF) noisle (FL) dhoeltjy (LA) tihnsau (NF) kachmir (FN) saur'na (LN) âhmr'e (NL)

Stems.Edit

Stems are the basic root a word. Liohne has umlauts like German, there are 4 degrees.
Umlaut Levels
Cases Lv1 Lv2 Lv3 Lv4 Cases Lv1 Lv2 Lv3 Lv4 Cases Lv1 Lv2 Lv3 Lv4
1 pj pi/pü pech pej 23 fl' fli/flü fel' fill 45 det dri/drü de't dit
2 tj ti/tü tech tej 24 thl' thl'i/thl'ü cel' cill 46 get gri/grü ge't git
3 cj qui/cü quech quej 25 pl' pl'i/pl'ü pel' pill 47 ch ssi/ssü chu/chou chi/chü
4 bj bi/bü bech bej 26 tl' tl'i/tl'ü tel' till 48 j i/ü ju/jou ji/jü
5 dj di/dü dech dej 27 cl' cl'i/cl'ü quel' quill 49 ss s ssu/ssou su/sou
6 gj gi/gü gech gej 28 bl' bl'i/bl'ü bel' bill 50 f u/ou fi/fü fu/fou
7 pz pe pes pez 29 dl' dl'i/dl'ü del' dill 51 z th ci/zü thi/thü
8 tz te tes tez 30 gl' gl'i/gl'ü gel' gill 52 v vr vi/vü vu/vou
9 x que ques quez 31 fr fru/frou fer fer' 53 l li/lü el ll
10 bz be bes bez 32 thr thu/thou cer cer' 54 l' l'i/l'ü el' ell
11 dz de des dez 33 pr pu/pou per per' 55 r r' ru/rou r'u/r'ou
12 gz ge ges gez 34 tr tu/tou ter ter' 56 et eti/etü e't it
13 an ahn ann anh 35 cr cu/cou quer quer' 57 nh ni/nü nech nej
14 am ahm amm anh 36 br bu/bou ver ver' 58 m mu/mou mef mev
15 fl fli/flü fel fell 37 dr du/dou der der' 59 n ne nez neth
16 thl thli/thlü cel cell 38 gr gu/gou ger ger' 60 p p' p'i/p'ü p'u/p'ou
17 pl pli/plü pel pell 39 fet fri/frü fe't fit 61 t t' t'i/t'ü t'u/t'ou
18 tl tli/tlü tel tell 40 cet thri/thrü ce't cit 62 c c' qu'i/c'ü c'u/c'ou
19 cl cli/clü quel quell 41 pet pri/prü pe't pit 63 b b' b'i/b'ü b'u/b'ou
20 bl bli/blü bel bell 42 tet tri/trü te't tit 64 d d' d'i/d'ü d'u/d'ou
21 dl dli/dlü del dell 43 quet cri/crü que't quit 65 g g' g'i/g'ü g'u/g'ou
22 gl gli/glü gel gell 44 bet bri/brü be't bit 66 a h hi/hü hu/hou


The u/ou and i/ü condition depends if the succeded vowel is rounded or unrounded.

E.g: féss -> fiéss /feuss -> füeuss. quetac -> criac; fat -> uat/fut -> fouut.

Parts of speechEdit

Liohne words has a remarkable difference between conventional part of speech (nouns, adverbs, etc). Instead, the words are classified by relation, core and argument.

RelationEdit

Relation is the part of the speech which explains the predicate. Most like verbs, but also the relation specifies the conectors between the cores (subject - object) of the utterance. The relation is the whole utterance template, nearly to only add the arguments in the specified cores.

Example: Mary helps Jones with the chores.

The relation equivalent should be ___ help(s) ___ with ____ where the arguments (Mary, Jones, the chores) fill up the final utterance. Oex is the relation word which roughly means ( (helper) is helping (helped) with (assignment)).

A relation word has valency depending on how many cores it has. They are classified into 4 categories.

Manifestative: This kind have to do with noun equivalents, identifies an entity and classifes it. This relation has from one to two possible cores. The first core is the subject you are comparing and the second is the oblique information you can add to the identifier (which classifies the entity). Example: tuiz = (this) is a (type) dog/canine.

Descriptive: This degree is the adjective/adverd equivalent; it describes, qualifies and evaluate the qualities of the entity. This relation has from one to three possible cores. The first is the subject, the second is the extra info of the description and the last is the reference in which you are comparing the quality. Example: roux = (this) 'is red compared to/more red 'in a degree (type)' to/'than (that) .

Functional: It is the complete equivalent of a verb, rather the cases of extra cores (objects). It describes the whole event. These kind of relation have irregular cores, but they have at least 3 cores or more. Example: dai = (giver) gives (object) to (receiver) in a/by means (way) manner/ly.

Relations, as verbs, need to be conjugated in tense, aspect, voice, person (core), and number. The form in which the relations conjugate will be explain further.

CoreEdit

Core is the direct parties or descriptions that specifies a unique utterance. The cores fullfill the relation so the utterance make sense to the context. Each core act as a transrelative (nominative, accusative, dative) case, defining the subject-object of the parties involved. All of the cores need an article if it's a argument or a new relation, except for the type core which goes after the relation. The cores varies between each relation, so the cases the relation handles may be irregular.


ArgumentEdit

Argument fulfill the cores of the relation. Arguments are the words and the are the sentences. Arguments derive from relations, never the opposite way. So the arguments are subordinate relations and can make more complex utterance like clauses or manner of speech. So which is the difference between cores and arguments? Cores are directly associated with the relation but arguments also provides oblique information (circumstancial or association).

Sentence StructureEdit

The word order is Subject Verb Object (SVO). In Liohne's term is:

Core1 Relation Core 2 ... Core n + Additional Core.

Relation uses STEM's 1st level of umlaut. On the other hand, Arguments uses STEM's 2nd level of umlaut.

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