FANDOM


This is a list of grammatical_cases as they are used by various inflectional languages that have declension.

Place and TimeEdit

Note: Most cases used for location and motion can be used for time as well.

LocationEdit

Case Usage Example Found in
Adessive_case adjacent location near/at/by the house Estonian_language | Finnish_language | Hungarian_language | Lithuanian_language | Livonian_language | Tlingit_language | Tsez_language | Quechua_language
Apudessive_case location next to something next to the house Tsez_language
Inessive_case inside something inside the house Erzya_language | Estonian_language | Finnish_language | Hungarian_language | Ossetic_language | Tsez_language
Intrative_case between something between the houses Limbu_language
Locative_case location at/on/in the house Armenian_language | Azeri_language | Bengali_language | Belarusian_language | Chuvash_language | Croatian_language | Czech_language | Hungarian_language (only for some traditional town names) | Inari_Sami | Latin (restricted) | Latvian_language | Lithuanian_language | Manchu_language | Northern_Sami | Polish_language | Quechua_language, | Russian_language | Sanskrit_language | Serbian_language | Skolt_Sami | Slovak_language | Slovene_language | Telugu_language | Tlingit_language | Turkish_language | Ukrainian_language | Uzbek_language
(Note: the case in Slavic_languages termed the "locative case" in English is actually a prepositional_case.)
Pertingent_case in contact with something touching the house Tlingit_language
Subessive_case under something under/below the house Tsez_language
Superessive_case on the surface on (top of) the house Hungarian_language | Ossetic_language | Tsez_language

Motion fromEdit

Case Usage Example Found in
Ablative_case movement away from something away from the house Azeri_language | Chuvash_language | Erzya_language | Estonian_language | Evenki_language | Finnish_language | Hungarian_language | Inuktitut_language | Latin | Manchu_language | Ossetic_language | Sanskrit_language | Tlingit_language | Tsez_language | Turkish_language | Uzbek_language | Yukaghir_language
Delative_case movement from the surface from (the top of) the house Hungarian_language
Egressive_case marking the beginning of a movement or time beginning from the house Udmurt_language
Elative_case out of something out of the house Erzya_language | Estonian_language | Evenki_language | Finnish_language | Hungarian_language
Initiative_case starting point of an action beginning from the house Manchu_language

Motion toEdit

Case Usage Example Found in
Allative_case in Hungarian_language and in Finnish_language:
movement to (the adjacency of) something
in Finnish_language:
movement onto something
to the house

onto the house
Erzya_language | Estonian_language | Finnish_language | Hungarian_language | Lithuanian_language | Manchu_language | Tlingit_language | Tsez_language | Turkish_language | Tuvan_language | Uzbek_language
Illative_case movement into something into the house Erzya | Estonian | Finnish | Hungarian | Inari_Sami | Lithuanian | Northern_Sami | Skolt_Sami | Tsez
Lative_case motion to location to/into the house Erzya_language | Finnish_language | Tsez_language | Turkish_language
Sublative_case movement onto the surface or below something on(to) the house / under the house Hungarian_language | Tsez_language
Terminative_case marking the end of a movement or time as far as the house Chuvash_language | Estonian_language | Hungarian_language | Manchu_language

Motion viaEdit

Case Usage Example Found in
Perlative_case movement through or along through/along the house Evenki | Tocharian | Warlpiri | Yankunytjatjara
Prolative_case movement using a surface or way by way of/through the house Erzya | Estonian (rare) | Finnish | Tlingit
Prosecutive_case across or along along the road Kalaallisut
Vialis_case through or by by way of the house, through the house Inuktitut

TimeEdit

Case Usage Example Found in
Antessive_case before something before the concert Dravidian_languages
Temporal_case (used only with time expressions)
specifying a time
at seven Finnish_language, Hungarian

Chart for review for the basic casesEdit

  interior surface adjacency state
from Elative_case Delative_case Ablative_case Exessive_case
at/in Inessive_case Superessive_case Adessive_case Essive_case
(in)to Illative_case Sublative_case Allative_case Translative_case
via Perlative_case Vialis_case Prosecutive_case Prolative_case

Morphosyntactic alignmentEdit

For meanings of the terms agent, patient, experiencer, and instrument, see thematic_relation.

Case Usage Example Found in
Absolutive_case (1) patient, experiencer he pushed the door and it opened Basque_language
Absolutive_case (2) patient, involuntary experiencer he pushed the door and it opened; he slipped active_languages
Absolutive_case (3) patient; experiencer; instrument he pushed the door with his hand and it opened Inuktitut_language
Accusative_case (1) patient he pushed the door and it opened Akkadian_language | Arabic_language | Azeri_language | Croatian_language | Czech_language | Erzya_language | Esperanto | Faroese_language | Finnish_language | German_language | Greek_language | Hungarian_language | Icelandic_language | Inari_Sami | Latin | Lithuanian_language | Northern_Sami | Polish_language | Romanian_language | Russian_language | Sanskrit_language | Serbian_language | Skolt_Sami | Slovak_language | Slovene_language | Ukrainian_language
Accusative_case (2) object direct object of a verb transitive verb; made from; about; for a time I see her Inuktitut_language | Persian_language | Turkish_language
Ergative_case agent he pushed the door and it opened Basque_language | Chechen_language | Dyirbal_language | Georgian_language | Samoan_language | Tlingit_language | Tsez_language
Ergative-genitive_case agent, possession he pushed the door and it opened; her dog Classic_maya_language | Inuktitut_language
Instructive_case means, answers question how? by means of the house Estonian_language (rare) | Finnish_language
Instrumental_case instrument, answers question with which thing? with the house Belarusian_language | Croatian_language | Czech_language | Evenki_language | Georgian_language | Lithuanian_language | Manchu_language | Polish_language | Russian_language | Sanskrit_language | Serbian_language | Slovak_language | Slovene_language | Tsez_language | Ukrainian_language | Yukaghir_language
Instrumental-comitative_case instrument, in company of something with the house Chuvash_language | Hungarian_language | Tlingit_language
Nominative_case (1) agent, experiencer he pushed the door and it opened nominative-accusative_languages and nominative-absolutive_languages
Nominative_case (2) agent; voluntary experiencer he pushed the door and it opened; she paused active_languages
Objective_case (1) direct or indirect object of verb I saw her; I gave her the book. Bengali_language | Chuvash_language
Objective_case (2) direct or indirect object of verb or object of preposition; a catch-all case for any situation except nominative or genitive I saw her; I gave her the book; with her. English_language | Swedish_language | Danish_language | Norwegian_language | Bulgarian_language
Oblique_case all-round case; any situation except nominative concerning the house Hindi | Telugu_language | Old_French
Passive_case or patient_case the subject of an intransitive verb or the logical complement of a transitive verb The door opened languages_of_the_Caucasus
Pegative_case agent in a clause with a dative argument he gave the book to him Tlapanec_language

RelationEdit

Case Usage Example Found in
Ablative_case all-round indirect case concerning the house Sanskrit | Inuktitut_language | Latin | Lithuanian_language | Quenya
Aversive_case avoiding or fear avoiding the house Warlpiri_language | Yidiny_language
Benefactive_case for, for the benefit of, intended for for the house Basque_language | Quechua_language | Telugu_language
Causal_case because, because of because of the house Quechua_language | Telugu_language
Causal-final_case efficient or final cause for a house Chuvash_language | Hungarian_language
Comitative_case in company of something with the house Dumi_language | Ingush_language | Estonian_language | Finnish_language (rare) | Inari_Sami | Northern_Sami | Skolt_Sami | Ossetic (only in Iron)
Dative_case shows direction or recipient for/to the house Azeri_language | Belarusian_language | Croatian_language | Czech_language | Erzya_language | Faroese_language | Georgian_language | German_language | Greek_language | Hindi | Hungarian_language | Icelandic_language | Inuktitut_language | Latin | Lithuanian_language | Manchu_language | Ossetic_language | Polish_language | Romanian_language | Russian_language | Sanskrit_language | Serbian_language | Slovak_language | Slovene_language | Tsez_language | Turkish_language | Ukrainian_language
Distributive_case distribution by piece per house Chuvash_language | Hungarian_language | Manchu_language
Distributive-temporal_case how often something happens daily; on Sundays Hungarian_language
Genitive_case shows relationship, possession of the house Akkadian_language | Arabic_language | Azeri_language | Bengali_language | Belarusian_language | Chuvash_language | Croatian_language | Czech_language | Danish_language | Dutch_language | English_language | Erzya_language | Estonian_language | Finnish_language | Georgian_language | German_language | Greek_language | Icelandic_language | Inari_Sami | Irish_language | Latin | Lithuanian_language | Manchu_language | Northern_Sami | Norwegian_language | Polish_language | Romanian_language | Russian_language | Sanskrit_language | Serbian_language | Skolt_Sami | Slovak_language | Slovene_language | Swedish_language | Tsez_language | Turkish_language | Ukrainian_language
Ornative_case endowment with something equipped with a house Dumi_language
Possessed_case possession by something the house is owned by someone Tlingit_language
Possessive_case direct possession of something owned by the house English_language | Quenya
Privative_case lacking something homeless, without a house Chuvash_language | Wagiman_language
Semblative_case Similarity to something that tree is like a house Wagiman_language
Sociative_case along with something, together with something with the house Hungarian_language | Ossetic_language

SemanticsEdit

Case Usage Example Found in
Partitive_case used for amounts three (of the) houses Estonian_language | Finnish_language | Inari_Sami | Russian_language | Skolt_Sami
Prepositional_case when certain prepositions precede the noun in/on/about the house Belarusian_language | Czech_language | Polish_language | Russian_language | Slovak_language | Ukrainian_language (note: this case is called lokál in Czech and in Slovak, miejscownik in Polish, місцевий (miscevý) in Ukrainian and месны (miesny) in Belarusian; these names imply that this case also covers Locative_case)
Vocative_case used for addressing someone, with or without a preposition Hey, father!
O father!
Father!
Belarusian_language (rare) | Bulgarian_language | Croatian_language | Czech_language | Georgian_language | Greek_language | Hindi | Irish_language | Itelmen_language | Ket_language | Latin | Lithuanian_language | Macedonian_language | Nivkh_language | Polish_language | Romanian_language | Russian_language (rare) | Sanskrit_language | Serbian_language | Telugu_language | Ukrainian_language

StateEdit

Case Usage Example Found in
Abessive_case the lack of something without the house Erzya_language | Estonian_language | Finnish_language | Inari_Sami | Skolt_Sami
Comparative_case similarity with something similar to the house Dumi_language | Mari_language | Nivkh_language
Equative_case comparison with something like the house Ossetic_language | Sumerian_language | Tlingit_language | Tsez_language
Essive_case temporary state of being as the house Estonian_language | Finnish_language | Inari_Sami | Inuktitut_language | Middle_Egyptian | Northern_Sami | Skolt_Sami | Tsez_language
Essive-formal_case marking a condition as a quality as a house Hungarian_language | Manchu_language
Essive-modal_case marking a condition as a quality as a house Hungarian_language
Exessive_case marking a transition from a condition from as being a house Estonian_language (rare) | Finnish_language (dialectal)
Formal_case marking a condition as a quality as a house Hungarian_language
Identical_case showing that something is identical being the house Manchu_language
Orientative_case oriented towards something turned towards the house Chukchi_language | Manchu_language
Revertive_case backwards to something against the house Manchu_language
Translative_case change of a condition into another (turning) into a house Erzya_language | Estonian_language | Finnish_language | Hungarian_language | Khanty_language | Manchu_language
Smallwikipedialogo.png This page uses content from Wikipedia. The original article was at List of grammatical cases. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with Conlang, the text of Wikipedia is available under the GNU Free Documentation License.


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