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Logiano

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Ok so here's the deal- I'm going to change the alphabet to Latin characters with accents. I'm also reorganizing the information as of April 21st.

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The list of characters, if you're unable to type:


a ä e î ï o u j p b m v f s ś ć g ĥ h ẍ x z ź k l t n d w r



Name: Logiano

Type: Modular

Alignment: Nominative-Accusative

Head Direction: Mixed

Number of genders: 1

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: No

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


SettingEdit

Logiano is designed to be a simple language using a logical method of modulation. It is meant to be used as an auxiliary language and has not devloped "naturally."

StructureEdit

AlphabetEdit

The Symbol and English IPA

a [ɑː] ć [tʃ] f [f] ź [ʒ] n [n] z [z]
ä [eɪ] d [d] ẍ [x] j [j] o [oʊ] t [t]
b [b] e [ɛ] î [ɪ] k [k] p [p] w [w]
v [v]

ĥ [θ]

ï [iː] l [l] r [r] x [ks]
s [s] g [ɡ] h [h] m [m] ś [ʃ] u [uː]

PhonotacticsEdit

No more than two consonants in succession per root word. If roots are combined and there are more than two consonants in succession, the letter A is added to the end of the first root.

"Goodbye" is made from the roots br'- go, and twï'j- good. An a must be placed between the roots, forming bratwïjo

If roots are combined and there is a double letter, the second is omitted. Letters at the beginning of words are hardened. Stress is always placed on the penultimate syllable. Affixes separated by a dash are not considered part of the word and therefore do not follow this rule.

Basic GrammarEdit

Articles

Singular Plural
Definite zän
Indefinite mjokä

These articles are the only irregular words in Logiano. In the Table of Correlatives, means, approximately, "what", though not in an interrogative sense. The plural form, zän, is actually a shortened version of the word zätanï, meaning [what-factor(plural)].

Endings ChartEdit

Noun Adjective Verb Preposition* Conjunction* Adjective Derivation Adverb
Singular o u as n t î uk
Plural ï um

* = these endings are only attached to roots that end in a vowel


ćäd- box Noun Adjective Verb Preposition Conjuntion Adjective Derivation Adverb
Singular

ćädo box

ćädu box-like

ćädas box ćädî ćäduk- like a box
Plural ćädï boxes ćädum box-like

The adjective derivation of ćäd has no translation because it can't be used


Pronouns/PossessivesEdit

The plurals are not derivatives of the singulars due to plural adjective conflicts.

Singular Plural
1st Person Pronoun

źo

I, me

ägï

we

Possessive

źu

my, mine

ägu

our

2nd Person Pronoun

zo

you

vosï

you all

Possessive

zu

your

vosu

your

3rd Person Pronoun

ro

he, him

śï

they, them

mo

she, her

bo

it

Possessive

ru

his

śu

their, theirs

mu

her, hers

bu

its




ObjectsEdit

Indirect objects (Dative case) are formed by adding v to the end of a noun, not the root.

źo das zov zä uto ~ I give you the car.


Noun DerivationsEdit

These words are attached to the root via combination rules.

Inhabitant- ovo

ïndusovo ~ an Indian (an inhabitant of India)

Language- ano

ïndusano ~ Indian (an Indian language)

Doer- tïlo

ragentïlo ~ a writer (a doer of writing)


So loźïano is, literally, the language of logic.


-ness- voro (literally, fullness)

engorĥavoro ~ angry-ness

-ability- hîbo (literally, possibility)

engorĥahîbo ~ angry-ability

Proper NounsEdit

The ending lo is added to proper nouns that usually end in a vowel. Otherwise, an o is placed after the last letter.

źo tuxanîras marïalo ~ I (am aquianted with) Maria.
źo tuxanîras waśïntono ~ I (am aquianted with) Washington.

VerbsEdit

Verbs are formed by attaching as to the root.

vas ~ look
las ~ be
ragenas ~ write
brandas ~ drive
ĥïras ~ throw


NegativesEdit

Negative verbs are formed simply by adding the prefix

źo -las ~ I am not

The Verb GroupsEdit

There are two groups of verb endings, the ï group and the a group. These endings determine (among other things) tense and voice.

vas-pïĥa ~ had seen [see(past)(perfective)]

The ï group ending always precedes the a group ending. If more than one a group ending is needed, the endings are arranged alphabetically.

vas-haśa ~ to see oneself [see(infinitive)(reflexive)]

There are no transition verbs.

The ï GroupEdit

Each of these is denoted by a suffix ending in ï

Ending Example English
Simple Past vas-pï saw
Future vas-nï will see
Past Imperfect vas-wï saw
Conditional vas-fï would see
Influential vas-tï should see
Imperative vas-kï see!
The a GroupEdit

Each ending is denoted by a suffix ending in a

Ending Example English
Active ća vas-ća am/is/are seeing
Perfective ĥa vas-ĥa have seen
Infinitive ha vas-ha to see
Gerund la vas-la seeing
Passive ma vas-ma am/is/are seen
Reflexive śa vas-śa see oneself
Examples and ExplanationsEdit
źo bras-ća vas-ha zä käno ~ I am going to see the dog

Literally, this statement means "I going to see the dog." A helping verb is not used.


źo vas-nïća zä käno ~ I wll be seeing the dog

Again, the helping verb is omitted.


źo vas-pïĥama ton zä käno ~ I had been seen by the dog

The ending denotes past tense, ĥa denotes perfective (have seen), and ma denotes passive (am/is/are seen).

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives are put before the object that they are describing and are created by adding u to the root.

beju uto~ beautiful car

Adjectives that describe plural nouns end in um.

bejum utï ~ beautiful cars

ComparativesEdit

Comparatives are formed by adding the suffix äĥ (more) or äĥka (most) to the end of an adjective. The word “than” when used to compare is wîn.

vïźu-äĥ wîn neso ~ whiter than snow

Adjective DerivationsEdit

Derivation Ending Example English
Opposite nolî engorĥu-nolî un-angry
Lack verî engorĥu-verî angry-less
Surfeit vorî engorĥu-vorî angry-ful
Possibility hîbî engorĥu-hîbî angry-able
Liking

kïî

engorĥu-kïî angry-philic
Disliking bäkïî engorĥu-bäkïî angry-phobic
Weakening of Meaning selî engorĥu-selî angry-ish
Strengthening of Meaning solî engorĥu-solî really really angry

These endings can be combined like the a group if necessary.

AdverbsEdit

Adverbs are formed by attaching k to the end of an adjective (not the root).

engorĥuk ~ angrily

Adverbs immediately precede the verb.

źo engorĥuk bras-pï ~ I went angrily.



Table of CorrelativesEdit

Loosely based on Zamenhof's table for Esperanto. There is no distinction for relative pronouns.

źo źïas mozä brandas ~ I know who drives.

The conjunction "that" is expressed simply as ćät.

ro źïas ćät źo brandas-ća ~ He knows that I am driving.
Table of Correlatives Interrogative

Indication-

Distal

Indication-

Proximal

Indefinite Universal Negative
-zä -ćä -vä -kä -dä -bä
Type fjo-

fjozä

what kind of

fjoćä

that kind of

fjovä

this kind of

fjokä

any kind of

fjodä

each kind of

fjobä

no kind of

Reason po-

pozä

why

poćä

thus

povä

thereby

pokä

for some reason

podä

for all reasons

pobä

for no reason

Time kro-

krozä

when

kroćä

then

krovä

now

krokä

sometime

krodä

always

krobä

never

Place ko-

kozä

where

koćä

there

kovä

here

kokä

somewhere

kodä

everywhere

kobä

nowhere

Manner ho-

hozä

how/as

hoćä

as

hovä

hereby

hokä

somehow

hodä

in every way

hobä

in no way

Association śo-

śozä

whose

śoćä

that one's

śovä

this one's

śokä

someone's

śodä

everyone's

śobä

no one's

Thing fo-

fozä

what

foćä

that

fovä

this

fokä

something

fodä

everything

fobä

nothing

Amount mjo-

mjozä

how much

mjoćä

that much

mjovä

this much

mjokä

some

mjodä

all

mjobä

none

Individual mo-

mozä

who, which [X]

moćä

that [X]

movä

this [X

mokä

someone, some [X]

modä

everyone, every [X]

mobä

no one, no [X]

PrepositionsEdit

All prepositions end in N, and each one has one fixed meaning. If it’s necessary to use a preposition and it’s not clear which one to use, the word VЭN (vihn) is used, which has no fixed meaning.


ConjunctionsEdit

All conjunctions end in an semi-unreleased plosive t.

CoordinatingEdit

And ït
Or jot
Nor bäjot
But mut
Yet gut
So wït
For at

CorrelatingEdit

Both…and vot...ït
Either…or

rît...jot

Neither…nor

bärît...bäjot

Not only…but also

bäsot...mut

SubordinateEdit

After sodot
Although falat
As let
Because mät
Before klovot
Even if zuẍat
Even though zupet
If ẍat
Provided that jabet
Rather than śanat
Since hït
So that wît
Though plet
Whereas dablot
Whether kruvît
While

lut

Sentence StructureEdit

Basic sentences are SVO. Interogatives undergo SV inversion.

źo vas zä käno ~ I see the dog

vas źo zä käno? ~ Do I see the dog?

Simple PhrasesEdit

Hello- ϷELO- helo

Hi- ϷAJO- hayo

Goodbye- BRATϢϿO- bratwio

How Are You?- ϷOƵѦ LAÇ ƵO?- hozae las zo?

Good- TϢϿU- twiu

Bad- XANU- khanu

So-so- RANU- ranu

Excellent- TϢϿU-ÇOLЭ- twiu-solih


Welcome- TϢϿVEΓO- twivego

Yes- JA - ya

No- BѦ- bae

Please/You’re Welcome- ƸO ALAÇ- zho alas

Thank You- ƸO ϿVAÇ- zho ivas

NumbersEdit

This article or section requires fix up.
It will be done soon.

CardinalEdit

Ten KϿ- ki

Hundred

ÇEN- sen

Thousand

ΘUÇ- thus

Million

ΓAV- gav

Billion

JAV- yav


0

AΓU- agu

1

UΔU- udu

2

ПARU- paru

3

ROÇU- rosu

4

TEϨU- teshu

5

RAƵU- razu

6

KEÇU- kesu

7

VЭLU- vihlu

8

JABU- yabu

9

MϿU- miu

10

UΔKϿU- udkiu

22

ПARKϿ-ПARU- parki-paru

33

ROÇKϿ-ROÇU- roski-rosu

145

UΔÇEN-TEϨKϿ-RAƵU- udsen-teshki-razu

1167

UΔΘUÇ-UΔÇEN-KEÇKϿ-VЭLU- udthus-udsen-keski-vihlu

37,984

ROÇKϿ-VЭLΘUÇ-MϿÇEN-JABKϿ-TEϨU

500,560

RAƵÇENΘUÇ-RAƵÇEN-KEÇKϿU

1,490,675,325

UΔJAV-TEϨÇEN-MϿKϿΓAV-KEÇEN-VЭLKϿ-RAƵΘUÇ-ROÇEN-ПARKϿ-RAƵU

Fractions and DecimalsEdit

To make a fraction, the root VѦ is added after the numerator. For decimals, the root ПѦ takes the place of the decimal point. If there are no digits before the point, saying "AΓ" is not required. Numbers after the decimal are said (i.e.) "three three three" instead of "three-hundred and thirty-three thousanths."

1/2 UΔ-VѦ-ПARU
1/3 UΔ-VѦ-ROÇU
2/3 ПAR-VѦ-ROÇU
10/11 UΔKϿ-VѦ-UΔKϿUΔU
4/3 TEϨ-VѦ-ROÇU
.5 ПѦ-RAƵU
.333 ПѦ-ROÇROÇROÇU
.666 ПѦ-KEÇKEÇKEÇU
.909 ПѦ-MϿAΓMϿU
1.33 UΔ-ПѦ-ROÇROÇU

UsageEdit

MoodsEdit

Subjunctive MoodEdit

In Logiano, the subjunctive mood is expressed in terms of the influential ending :

If he worked, he could earn high wages
ẍat ro worbalas-tï, ro jägas-fï numlum donvï
"If he should work, he would earn high wages"


Realis/Irrealis MoodEdit

Both of these moods are expressed in the present tense.


ModalityEdit

Deontic modality in the form of a command is expressed with . Otherwise, the ending is used.

Epistemic modality is expressed with the adverb hîbuk "possibly". Evidentiality is based on context.

Example textEdit

AppleEdit

Text

kä rodo las fjokä garuzo. zä garuzo kowas-ma vän zä epîgo den kä rodu źomo. kä brïẍu rodo ~ kä rodo ćä las habu ĥas-ha ~ guras voruk las-ha śaku, bradu, jot, ĥïnu. zä îvo den kä rodo las lotu. kä rodo las dïtavuk udkï-jabum sentïmïtïrï den sïrko.

Transliteration

kae rodo las fyokae garuzo. zae garuzo kowas-ma vaen zae epihgo den kae rodu zhomo. kae brikhu rodo~ kae rodo chaet las habu thas-ha~ guras voruk las-ha shaku, bradu, yot thinu. zae ihvo den kae rodo las lotu. kae rodo las ditavuk udki-yabu (18) sentimitiri den sirko.

Translation (Direct)

A apple is (indefinite)kind of fruit. The fruit find(passive) on the branch of a apple-like tree. A ripe-like apple- A apple that is ready-like eat(infinitive)- is able also be(infinitive) green-like, brown-like, or yellow-like. The shape of a apple is ball-like. A apple is approximately 18 centimeters of circle.

Translation (Approxmiate)

An apple is a kind of fruit. The fruit is found on the branch of an apple tree. A ripe apple- an apple that is ready to eat- can also be green, brown, or yellow. The shape of an apple is like a ball. An apple is approximately 18 centimeters around.


SunEdit

Text

zä solo las kä seĥo ït zä zohavu-äĥka mîjaro pen ägu solu fïbo. bo taźakronas 99.86% den zä opago pen zä solu fïbo. axuk zä zohavu planećto źupîtero las wivu krozä komprïćas-ma an zä solo. zän planećtï pen ägu solu fïbo bras vovan zä solo vîn orbatï. ägu solo guras vas-hama pen zä selzo duran zä mutarakro. bo las vas-ma hoćä kä zohavu ĥïnu loto.

Transliteration

zae solo las kae setho it zae zohavu-aethka mihyaro pen aegu solu fibo. bo tazhakronas 99.86% den zae opago pen zae solu fibo. aksuk zae zohavu planechto zhupihtero las wivu krozaet komprichas-ma zae solo. zaen planechti pen aegu solu fibo bras vovan zae solo vihn orbati. aegu solo guras vas-hama pen zae selzo duran zae kro den mutaro. bo las vas-ma hochae kae zohavu thinu loto.

Translation (Direct)

The sun is a star and the large-like(superlative) object in we-like sun-like system. It constitutes 99.86% of the matter in the sun-like system. Wholly the large-like planet Jupiter is tiny-like when(relative) compare to(passive) the sun. The(plural) planets in we-like sun-like system go around the sun (of/in/on) orbits. We-like sun is able see(infinitive)(passive) in the sky during the time of day. It is see(passive) as a large-like yellow-like ball.

Translation (Approximate)

The Sun is a star and the largeest object in our solar system. It makes up 99.86% of the matter in the solar system. Even the giant planet Jupiter is tiny when compared to the sun. The planets in our solar system move around the sun in orbits. Our sun can be seen in the sky in the day time. It is seen as a large yellow ball.


AnimalsEdit

Text

kïgï las metazoanum daẍnum mîjarï. śï bä-lovas-śa śu wäleno. kïgï mevoruk ĥas otarum daẍnum mîjarï (kïgï, rîvanï, fongï, prï) läćas-ha etejalo menas-ha. mjokä las parasïtï, ït mjokä śäjas fotosïnĥetïkum protïstï hoćä sïmbïontï. gavum den kïgum spïśï baxas. mjokä las zohavum ït mjokä las wïvum; mjokä las ĥekum ït mjokä las gruśum. mjokä menas pen agulo, otarï menas vän zä klomo ït mokä kïgï guras afras-ha. guras-la bras-ha don udu śato an kä otaro las kä hupagu wosoro den kä kïgo.

Transliteration

kigi las metazoanum dakhnum mihyari. shi bae-lovas-sha shu waeleno. kigi mevoruk thas otarum dakhnum mihyari (kigi, rihvani, fongi, pri) laechas-ha eteyalo menas-ha. myokae las parasiti, it myokae shaeas fotosinthetikum protisti hochaet simbionti. gavum den kigum spishi baeksas. myokae las zohavum it myokae las wivum; myokae las thekum it myokae las grushum. myokae menas pen agulo, otari menas vaen zae klomo it mokae kigi guras afras-ha. guras-la bras-ha don udu shato an kae otaro las kae hupagu wosoro den kae kigo.

Translation (Direct)

Animals is metazoa-like(plural) life-like(plural) objects. They produce(negative)(reflexive) their food. Animals usually eat other-like(plural) life-like(plural) objects [animals, plants, fungi, the rest] get(infinitive) energy live(infinitive). Some is parasites, and some have photosynnthesis-like(plural) protists as(relative) symbionts. Million-like(plural) of species exist. Some is large-like(plural) and some is tiny-like(plural); some is fat-like(plural) and some is tall-like(plural). Some live in water, others live on the ground and some animals is able fly(infinitive). Is able(gerund) move(infinitive) from one place to a other is a distinct-like trait of a animal.


Translation (Approximate)

Animals are metazoan living things. They do not make their own food by themselves. Animals usually eat other living things (animals, plants, fungi, etc.) to get energy to live. Some are parasites, and some have photosynthetic protists as symbionts. There are millions of animal species. Some are big and some are small; some are fat and some are tall. Some live in water, others live on the ground and some animals can fly. Being able to move from one place to another is a distinctive trait of an animal.

More ExamplesEdit

Noun-Adjective AgreementEdit

zä ovo las vevu

zän ovï las vevum


zä rovo ït zä movo las gruśum

śï las grushum


źo źïas zän fïlïv las-ha vevum


Dative CaseEdit

The dative case denotes the indirect object. It does not receive the action. źo das zov zä galo

zo dïlas rov bras-ha

ro mowatas ägïv zä mobeno



The ï GroupEdit

The endings are separated by dashes, so stress is still placed on the penultimate syllable of the root. One can not combine multiple ï group endings.


źo pïras zä loto – I stop the ball

zo lonas ovï kron zä telefono – You call people with a telephone


ro bras-pï an zä teẍo – He went to the store

mo kosas-pï zä wäleno – She cooked the food


bo lïpïkïas-nï ĥojako – It will bake cake

ägï bras-nï an zä mobeno – We will go to the house


vosï las-wï vevu – You all were happy

śï śäjas-wï zä loto – They had the ball


źo moćas-fï wäleno – I would like food

zo ĥas-fï, mut… - You would eat, but…


ro vas-tï kä haćtïlo – He should see a doctor

mo guras-tï bras-ha – She should be able to go


dîlanas-kï zän ovï – Look at the people

bä-bras-kï kron zä uto – Don’t go with the car

The a GroupEdit

Active


źo dîlanas-ća zo – I am watching you

źo dîlanas-nïća zo – I will be watching you


Perfective

zo bras-ĥa an zä plaźo – You have gone to the beach

zo bras-pïĥa an zä plaźo – You had gone to the beach

zo bras-pïćaĥa an zä plaźo – You had been going to the beach


Infinitive

ro kïas vas-ha kä gaẍavo – He wants to see the map

ro kïas-pï vas-ha kä gaẍavo – He wanted to see the map

ro kïas-pïĥa vas-ha kä gaẍavo – He had wanted to see the map


Gerund

brandas-la las fexu – Driving is useful


Passive

śï lonas-ma kompjutï – They are called computers

śï lonas-nïma kompjutï – They will be called computers


Reflexive

vosï guras tas-haśa bo – You all can make it yourselves

vosï guras-tï tas-haśa bo – You all should make it yourselves

vosï tas-pïĥaśa bo – You all had made it yourselves

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