|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Lojan language (natively Lūghjami dirdh [ luːɟɦämi dirdɦ ] ) is a language spoken in the Lojan land 9000 years ago. It is a predominantly suffixing agglutinative language which has obvious analytic tendencies.
|Fricative||f v||s z||ʂ ʐ|
|Flap or tap||ɾ|
|Close||i iː||u uː|
Possible syllables are:
- (C)(C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)(C) for primary words
- VC(C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)(C) for secondary words
- No limit for compound words
Impossible clusters are:
- /t/, /th/, /d/, /dɦ/, /s/, /z/, /t͡s/ or /n/ + /ɾ/. (In these occasions, /ɾ/ will be substituted by /r/
When an affricate or a plosive precedes a fricative of the same place, they merge into one affricate.
- /gk/ > /kk/, /tht/ > /tt/, /tdh/ > /ddh/, etc.
- /tʈ/ > /ʈʈ/, /tʈh/ > /ʈʈh/, /tɖɦ/ > /ɖɖɦ/, /tʂ/ > /ʈʂ/ > /ʈ͡ʂ/ etc.
In Lojan, vowels have 3 grades:
|Full Grade||Short Grade||Long Grade|
Primary, secondary and compound wordsEdit
Primary words only have one syllable. Secondary words have two syllables but the first is always without onset. Compound words can be formed from primary, secondary, o even other compound words.
Almost every word has three main forms: Absolute Form(AF), Dependent Form(DF) and Predicate Form(PF).
- AF works as a noun or a pronoun. Also, AF can form the non-head parts of a compound word.
- DF, just as its name, cannot appear independently. It can accept particles or enclitics. When a noun is suffixed by a particle/enclitic, it must change from AF to DF. Also, DF can act as the head of a compound word.
- PF is simply a verb, from which the adjective form can be formed.
Primary and secondary words can transform by vowel grade shift:
|Secondary||full, long*||long, short||short, short|
- "full, long": "Full" for the first vowel of the secondary word, "long" for the second.
|alī (the all)||alī||āle||åle|
Compound words don't have PF, and their forms(AF and DF) are related with the head place. The AF has the initial head place, while the DF has the final head place.
|dūrpṙik(Gate of the Sun)||dūrpṙik||pṙikdūr|
|Pānspṙik(God of Sun)||Pānspṙik||Pṙikpāns|
Sentences, like compound words, also have AF, and DF. And the AF has the initial head place, while the DF has the final head place.[ If a sentence has a topic(omitted or no), the topic is its head, or the head will be the verb.]
Noun cases are expressed by particles (like in japanese).
- khu, "flower". khūikj, "towards the flower". (remember that particles must be attached to DF).
- dang, "sky". dāngtaṅ, "in the sky".
Lojan nouns don't decline according to number, but there are other ways to express the plurarity:
Compounding a noun with a collective word:
|Original words||Collective words||Results|
|dhrim, "person, man"||sam, "a few"||sāmdhrim, "some persons"|
|gas, "I'||tins, like "-dachi" in japanese||nīsgas, "we"|
Numerals can be directly put before a noun:
- guq dhrim. "a person".
- sim sir. "six lions".
- gak, "star". gaggak, "(some) stars"
- dhrim, "person". dhrimdhrim, "some persons, people"
For compound words, only duplicates the head:
- khūkhir, "flower of snow". khūkhūkhir, "flowers of snow".
If a word needs change its form, all the duplicated parts should change at the same time.
- gāggākikj, "towards the stars".
|1st person||2nd person||3rd person|
|formal||trabin, gas||njundh||sos, anābī|
- Some forms of some pronouns are irregular. (erābī, sos)
- Plurarity is expressed in the same way of nouns.
Most words have adjectival form, whose meaning is related to its AF's meaning.( But there are no rules for this relation, so its necessary to remember the meaning of the adjectival form).
- khu, "flower" > khosr, "beautiful"
- lug, "a far place" > logsr, "far"
- gas, "I" > gåssr, "egoist"
- vis, "wind" > vessr, "free"
An adjectival particle can make a word/phrase/sentence adjectival. The particle is zre, but it has 3 allomorphs according to the preceding phoneme.
|after vowel or unaspirated plosive||zre|
|after aspirated plosive, voiceless fricative or liquid||e|
|after nasal, affricate, or voiced fricative||i|
- sūfe slim, "a tree of fruit". (suf, "fruit"; slim, "tree")
- ākåzre gum, "a sound of midnight". (akā, "midnight"; gum, "sound")
- ksrāmi khrib, "soul blade". (ksram, "soul"; khrib, "blade")
- ångzre dhrim, "a crying man". (ang, "wave“ > ång, "cry" )
- mnjegtuzre dhrim, "a man asleep". (mnjeg, "to sleep"; tu, "particle of perfective")
- dāngtiṅ elthe dibsdibs, "clouds that floats in the sky".
Compouding is also an important method of modification. In a compound word, the non-head parts modify the head.
A special type of adjectives, that are prefixed to a noun. Most are indefinite adjectives and desmonstratives:
- kus-, "which": kusikū, "which boy"
- kas-, "every": kasanās, "every day"
- als-, "whole, entire": alsumī, "the entire world, all the world"
A verb is a word in PF.
Almost all verbs can be either transitive or no, and may have differente meanings in each case.
Vis "wind", its PF is ves, which can mean "touch", or "fly". When it has an direct object, it means touch. When no, fly:
- Gas ves. "I fly."
- Gas rāsf ves. "I touch you."
Causative usage of nouns(AF)Edit
Add the short grade of the core vowel of a noun to make it causative verb.(Core vowel is the vowel of a primary word, the first vowel of a secondary word. A compound word's core vowel is the core vowel of its head.)
|alī, "the all"||alīå|
|Pānspṙik, "God of Sun"||Pānspṙikå|
A causitive verb of a noun means "to make sth/sb become/be...". For example:
- Gas rāsf khuno. "I make you king."/ "I make you become king."
- Gas rāsf skuġho. "I make you (my) slave."
Conative usage of nounsEdit
Add "m" to causative verb of a noun.Causative usage of noun, and it means " to regard sth/sb as...", or " to treat sth/sb as..)
- Gas rāsf khunom. "I regard you as a king."
- Gas rāsf skuġhom. "I regard you as a slave."
Causative usage of verb(PF)Edit
Add the full grade of the core vowel of a verb to make it causative.
- meġh, "to eat" > meġhi, "to make someone eat"
- rop, "to dress up" > ropu, "to make someone dress up"
In these cases, someone should be marked by the particle "ink".
- Gas rāsink suosf meġhi. "I make you eat him."
- Gas rāsink ropu. "I make you dress up."
Sometimes, may only use the particle "ink" without changing the form of the verb.
- Gas rāsink suosf meġh. "I make you eat him."
Causative usage of adjectiveEdit
Add the full grade of the core vowel of an adjective to make it causative. For adjectival phrase marked by zre/e/i, add vi.
- Gas rāsink khosru. "I make you beautiful."
Conative usage of AdjectiveEdit
Add "m" to the causative form of an adjective.
- Gas rāsink khosrum. "I think you are beautiful."
These class of particles are immediately attached to a word/phrese/sentence of dependent form(DF).
|fu/f, ips||Accusative marker|
|ink||Marks the object of causative verb|
|gu, mu||Genetive marker3|
- The usage of taṅ is rare.Few words(sky, heart, etc) accept this particle
- Su and gim are only used for animated things, and gim make an emphasis on the possesion.
- gu for inamimated things, while mu for abstract conceptions.
|tte(after vowel), te(after consonant)||Emphasizer|
|kin||Comparison target marker|
|an||In front of|
|iz||On the left of|
|dir||On the right of|
These particles are used separated from other words, id est, they are not attached/suffixed to other parts of a sentence.
|pas(used at the begining of a sentence)||Weak imperative/ optative|