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Lojan

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Progress 49%
Lojan Language
Lūghjami dirdh
Type
Aglutinative-Analytic
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Changeable
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
No
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Lojan language (natively Lūghjami dirdh [ lɟɦämi dirdɦ ] ) is a language spoken in the Lojan land 9000 years ago. It is a predominantly suffixing agglutinative language which has obvious analytic tendencies.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal m n ɳ ɲ ŋ ɴ
Plosive

ph

bɦ

th

dɦ

ʈ ʈh

ɖ ɖɦ

ch

ɟ ɟɦ

kh

gɦ

qh

ɢ ɢɦ

Fricative f v s z ʂ ʐ
Affricate p̪͡f t͡s ʈ͡ʂ
Approximant l
Trill r
Flap or tap ɾ

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close i iː u uː
Close-mid e o
Near-open ɐ
Open ä äː

AlphabetEdit

Alphabet
Letter Name Sound
A, a A /ä/
Ā, ā Ā /äː/
Å, å Å /ɐ/
B, b Ba /b/
Bh, bh Bha /bɦ/
E, e E /e/
F, f Af /f/
G, g Ga /g/
Ġ, ġ Ġa /ɢ/
Gj, gj Gja /ɟ/
Gh, gh Gha /gɦ/
Ġh, ġh Ġha /ɢɦ/
Ghj, ghj Ghja /ɟɦ/
I, i I /i/
Ī, ī Ī /iː/
K, k Ka

/k/

Kj, kj Kja /c/
Kh, kh Kha /kh/
Khj, khj Khja /ch/
L, l Al /l/
M, m Am /m/
N, n An /n/
Ń, ń /ŋ/
Ṅ, ṅ Uṅ /ɴ/
O, o O /o/
P, p Pa /p/
Ᵽ, ᵽ Ᵽa /p̪͡f/
Ph, ph Pha /ph/
Q, q Qu /q/
Qh, qh Qhu /qh/
R, r Ir /ɾ/
Ṙ, ṙ Iṙ /r/
S, s Is /s/
Sr, sr Isr /ʂ/
T, t Ta /t/
Ț, ț /t͡s/
Tr, tr Tra /ʈ/
Țr, țr Ițr /ʈ͡ʂ/
Th, th Tha /th/
Thr, thr Thra /ʈh/
U, u U /u/
Ū, ū Ū //
V, v Iv /v/
Z, z Iz /z/
Zr, zr Izr /ʐ/

PhonotacticsEdit

Possible syllables are:

  • (C)(C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)(C) for primary words
  • VC(C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)(C) for secondary words
  • No limit for compound words

Impossible clusters are:

  • /t/, /th/, /d/, /dɦ/, /s/, /z/, /t͡s/ or /n/ + /ɾ/. (In these occasions, /ɾ/ will be substituted by /r/

When an affricate or a plosive precedes a fricative of the same place, they merge into one affricate. 

Assimilation Agressive:

  • /gk/ > /kk/, /tht/ > /tt/, /tdh/ > /ddh/, etc.
  • /tʈ/ > /ʈʈ/, /tʈh/ > /ʈʈh/, /tɖɦ/ > /ɖɖɦ/, /tʂ/ > /ʈʂ/ > /ʈ͡ʂ/  etc.

GrammarEdit

Background InformationEdit

Vowel GradeEdit

In Lojan, vowels have 3 grades:

Vowel Grades
Full Grade Short Grade Long Grade
/ä/ /ɐ/ /äː/
/i/ /e/ //
/u/ /o/ //

Primary, secondary and compound wordsEdit

Primary words only have one syllable. Secondary words have two syllables but the first is always without onset. Compound words can be formed from primary, secondary, o even other compound words.

FormsEdit

Almost every word has three main forms: Absolute Form(AF), Dependent Form(DF) and Predicate Form(PF).

  • AF works as a noun or a pronoun. Also, AF can form the non-head parts of a compound word.
  • DF, just as its name, cannot appear independently. It can accept particles or enclitics. When a noun is suffixed by a particle/enclitic, it must change from AF to DF. Also, DF can act as the head of a compound word.
  • PF is simply a verb, from which the adjective form can be formed.

​Primary and secondary words can transform by vowel grade shift:

Forms of primary and secondary words
AF DF PF
Primary full long short
Secondary full, long* long, short short, short
  • "full, long": "Full" for the first vowel of the secondary word, "long" for the second.
Examples
AF DF PF
khu (flower) khu khū kho
alī (the all) alī āle åle

Compound words don't have PF,  and their forms(AF and DF) are related with the head place. The AF has the initial head place, while the DF has the final head place.

Examples of compound words
AF DF
dūrpṙik(Gate of the Sun) dūrpṙik pṙikdūr
Pānspṙik(God of Sun) Pānspṙik Pṙikpāns

Sentences, like compound words, also have AF, and DF. And the AF has the initial head place, while the DF has the final head place.[ If a sentence has a topic(omitted or no), the topic is its head, or the head will be the verb.]

NounsEdit

CasesEdit

Noun cases are expressed by particles (like in japanese).

  • khu, "flower". khūikj, "towards the flower". (remember that particles must be attached to DF).
  • dang, "sky". dāngtaṅ, "in the sky".

​PlurarityEdit

Lojan nouns don't decline according to number, but there are other ways to express the plurarity: 

Collective wordsEdit

Compounding a noun with a collective word:

Compounding Plurarity
Original words Collective words Results
dhrim, "person, man" sam, "a few" sāmdhrim, "some persons"
gas, "I' tins, like "-dachi" in japanese nīsgas, "we"
NumeralsEdit

Numerals can be directly put before a noun:

  • guq dhrim. "a person".
  • sim sir. "six lions".
DuplicationEdit
  • gak, "star". gaggak, "(some) stars"
  • dhrim, "person". dhrimdhrim, "some persons, people"

For compound words, only duplicates the head:

  • khūkhir, "flower of snow". khūkhūkhir, "flowers of snow".

If a word needs change its form, all the duplicated parts should change at the same time.

  • gāggākikj, "towards the stars".

PronounsEdit

Pronouns
1st person 2nd person 3rd person
normal tra njundh liv
respectful erābī
formal trabin, gas njundh sos, anābī
literary gas, ras sos
impolite sań
poetic uṅ ras sos
intimate mudhāġhā
modest mim, imī
  • Some forms of some pronouns are irregular. (erābī, sos)
  • Plurarity is expressed in the same way of nouns.

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectival formEdit

Structure of adjectival form
Predicate Form -sr

Most words have adjectival form, whose meaning is related to its AF's meaning.( But there are no rules for this relation, so its necessary to remember the meaning of the adjectival form).

  • khu, "flower" > khosr, "beautiful"
  • lug, "a far place" > logsr, "far"
  • gas, "I" > gåssr, "egoist"
  • vis, "wind" > vessr, "free"

​Adjectival word/phrase/sentenceEdit

An adjectival particle can make a word/phrase/sentence adjectival. The particle is zre, but it has 3 allomorphs according to the preceding phoneme.

Adjectival Particle
after vowel or unaspirated plosive  zre
after aspirated plosive, voiceless fricative or liquid e
after nasal, affricate, or voiced fricative i
  • sūfe slim, "a tree of fruit". (suf, "fruit"; slim, "tree")
  • ākåzre gum, "a sound of midnight". (akā, "midnight"; gum, "sound")
  • ksrāmi khrib, "soul blade". (ksram, "soul"; khrib, "blade")
  • ångzre dhrim, "a crying man". (ang, "wave“ > ång, "cry" )
  • mnjegtuzre dhrim, "a man asleep". (mnjeg, "to sleep"; tu, "particle of perfective")
  • dāngtiṅ elthe dibsdibs, "clouds that floats in the sky".

​CompoundingEdit

Compouding is also an important method of modification. In a compound word, the non-head parts modify the head.

Adjectival prefixEdit

A special type of adjectives, that are prefixed to a noun. Most are indefinite adjectives and desmonstratives:

  • kus-, "which": kusikū, "which boy"
  • kas-, "every": kasanās, "every day"
  • als-, "whole, entire": alsumī, "the entire world, all the world"

VerbsEdit

A verb is a word in PF.

TransitivityEdit

Almost all verbs can be either transitive or no, and may have differente meanings in each case. 

Vis "wind", its PF is ves, which can mean "touch", or "fly". When it has an direct object, it means touch. When no, fly:

  • Gas ves. "I fly."
  • Gas rāsf ves. "I touch you."

Flexible UsageEdit

Causative usage of nouns(AF)Edit

Add the short grade of the core vowel of a noun to make it causative verb.(Core vowel is the vowel of a primary word, the first vowel of a secondary word. A compound word's core vowel is the core vowel of its head.)

Causative usage of nouns
khun, "king" khuno
alī, "the all" alīå
Pānspṙik, "God of Sun" Pānspṙikå

A causitive verb of a noun means "to make sth/sb become/be...". For example:

  • Gas rāsf khuno. "I make you king."/ "I make you become king."
  • Gas rāsf skuġho. "I make you (my) slave."

​Conative usage of nounsEdit

Add "m" to causative verb of a noun.Causative usage of noun, and it means " to regard sth/sb as...", or " to treat sth/sb as..)

  • Gas rāsf khunom. "I regard you as a king."
  • Gas rāsf skuġhom. "I regard you as a slave."

​Causative usage of verb(PF)Edit

Add the full grade of the core vowel of a verb to make it causative.

  • meġh, "to eat" > meġhi, "to make someone eat"
  • rop, "to dress up" > ropu, "to make someone dress up"

​In these cases, someone should be marked by the particle "ink".

  • Gas rāsink suosf meġhi. "I make you eat him."
  • Gas rāsink ropu. "I make you dress up."

​Sometimes, may only use the particle "ink" without changing the form of the verb.

  • Gas rāsink suosf meġh. "I make you eat him."

​Causative usage of adjectiveEdit

Add the full grade of the core vowel of an adjective to make it causative. For adjectival phrase marked by zre/e/i, add vi.

  • Gas rāsink khosru. "I make you beautiful."

​Conative usage of AdjectiveEdit

Add "m" to the causative form of an adjective.

  • Gas rāsink khosrum. "I think you are beautiful."

ParticlesEdit

Case MarkersEdit

These class of particles are immediately attached to a word/phrese/sentence of dependent form(DF).

Case Markers
Particle Case
va/v Nominative marker
fu/f, ips Accusative marker
ink Marks the object of causative verb
ġu Locative marker
min Inessive marker
taṅ Locative marker1
gim Genetive marker
su/s Genetive marker2
gu, mu Genetive marker3
ikj Allative marker
ikjār Terminative marker
tuń Instrumental marker
Iptīṅ Instructive marker
nrit Comitative marker
bokhj Ablative marker
nu Essive marker
kin Dative marker
  1. The usage of taṅ is rare.Few words(sky, heart, etc) accept this particle
  2. Su and gim are only used for animated things, and gim make an emphasis on the possesion.
  3. gu for inamimated things, while mu for abstract conceptions.

PostpositionsEdit

Postpositions
ma Topic marker
tte(after vowel), te(after consonant) Emphasizer
kin Comparison target marker
an In front of
in Behind
iz On the left of
dir On the right of
firs Over
and On
tirf Between/among
prikhj Near
po Under

Mood/tone markersEdit

These particles are used separated from other words, id est, they are not attached/suffixed to other parts of a sentence.

Tone/Mood Markers
pa Imperative marker
pas(used at the begining of a sentence) Weak imperative/ optative
ńa Agreement
sa Agreement(more colloquial)
pat Question marker
tte, te Emphasizer

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1IContionary_Wiki
2you (singular)Contionary_Wiki
3heContionary_Wiki
4weContionary_Wiki
5you (plural)Contionary_Wiki
6theyContionary_Wiki
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatContionary_Wiki
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


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