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Lowlandic
Type Fusional
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Final
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders 3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 98%
Statistics
Nouns 100%
Verbs 100%
Adjectives 100%
Syntax 100%
Words 700 of 1500
Creator HoubkneghteS

Lowlandic is an a posteriori conlang developed for the fictional nation of Lowlandia. Lowlandic is an West Germanic (specifically an Anglic) language, meaning that most of the features will be instantly recognisable to an English speaker. It is however, much more conservative, so a few differences can also be seen between itself and English.

Lowlandic can also be learned on Memrise here.

Notable CharacteristicsEdit

  • A very Germanic vocabluary, much of which is noticable for English as most of the common English words are Germanic, but much is also words that no longer are productive in English.
  • A 4-case system with: Nominative, Accusative, Dative, and Genitive. These cases are reflected by articles, pronouns, and also a few so-called "weak nouns".
  • A spelling system that looks much like the English spelling (at least for the Germanic words in English), but is much more reflective of the actual pronunciation. All those e's at the end of words aren't silent!
  • 3 genders: Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter; this is determined through the ending of the word, and articles decline to it. Like other languages containing it, you will have to memorise it for each word.

Classification and DialectsEdit

Lowlandic is, like English, Frisian, and Low Saxon, an ingvaeonic, West Germanic language. The language of these three that it shares the most phonetic and lexical similarity is English, however, the grammar is much more conservative, much like old English or even Old Low Saxon.

CultureEdit

Main article: Lowlandic/Culture

The language is developed around the connation Lowlandia, which shares much in common with the standard Germanic cultures. The religion is a mix of the old Norse mythology and Christianity. The food is based on meats swynfleash and cúfleash; pork and beaf. Hierarchy is also positively viewed in the society, but it is very contextual. When not at work, you view your boss as an equal, or if he at your house, even subservient.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p, b t, d
Fricative f, v θ, ð s ʃ x h
Affricate t͡ʃ
Approximant ɹ j w
Lateral fric. l

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High i u
Near-high ɪ ʊ
High-mid o
Mid ə
Low-mid ɛ
Near-low æ
Low a

PhonotacticsEdit

Writing SystemEdit

Letter
Sound
Letter
Sound
Letter
Sound

GrammarEdit

PronounsEdit

Pronouns tend to be much more inflected than their English counterparts.

Personal Pronouns
Nom Acc Dat Gen
1S ic mic meer my
1P wi oos oor
2S þú þic þeer þy
2P je jor
3S-Masc hi hen hem hes
3S-Neut hat hem hes
3S-Fem she shi her
3P þae þi þer

NounsEdit

Nouns decline to four cases: Nominative, Accusative, Dative, and Genitive, with most of the declension happening in the articles. There are also 3 genders and several noun declension classes.

S-class nouns are the most common, having a plurality of all nouns. They recieve a -s suffixed in both the genitive and plural forms of the noun. E-class nouns are the secondmost common type, which are identical to the s-class nouns but with an -e in the dative form. Common word endings that cause an e-class noun are -ghl, -land, -os.

S-class: hond (hunting dog)
Nom Acc Dat Gen
Sing. þi hond þen hond þem hond þes honds
Pl. þe honds þi honds þer honds þer honds'
E-class: land (land, country)
Nom Acc Dat Gen
Sing. þat land þat land þem lande þes landes
Pl. þe lands þi lands þer lands þer lands'

DeterminersEdit

Determiners are a closed set of words, and they are declined to agree to the case and gender of their respective noun. This declension follows a loose pattern, but is much less regular than the adjective declension. Here are a few of the more common determiners:

þat (the)
Nom Acc Dat Gen
Masc þi þen þem þes
Fem þe þi þer þer
Neut þat þat þem þes
Pl þe þi þer þer
a (a)
Nom Acc Dat Gen
Masc a an am ans
Fem ane ani aner* aner*
Neut a a am ans
Pl

* The form "ar" is also common in coloquial speech.

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives inflect for a basic, comparative, and superlative form. They also agree to their noun on account of gender, and case, but this declension has simplified over time. There are 4 adjective declensions, Masculine, Feminine, Neuter, and Strong declension. Strong declension is used for any gender when a definite article is used.

Masculine Declension
Nom Acc Dat Gen
Bas. greghte man greghten man greghten man greghten mans
Comp. greghtere man greghteren man greghteren man greghteren mans
Sup. greghteste man greghtesten man greghtesten man greghtesten mans
Neuter Declension
Nom Acc Dat Gen
Bas. greght land greght land greghten lande greghten landes
Comp. greghter land greghter land greghteren lande greghteren landes
Sup. greghtest land greghtest land greghtesten lande greghtesten landes
Feminine Declension
Nom Acc Dat Gen
Bas. greghte maceng greghti maceng greghter maceng greghter macengs
Comp. greghtere maceng greghteri maceng greghterer maceng greghterer macengs
Sup. greghteste maceng greghtesti maceng greghtester maceng greghtester macengs
Plural Declension
Nom Acc Dat Gen
Bas. greghte lods greghti lods greghten lods greghten lods'
Comp. greghtere lods greghteri lods greghteren lods greghteren lods'
Sup. greghteste lods greghtesti lods greghtesten lods greghtesten lods'
Weak Declension
Nom Acc Dat Gen
Bas. þi greghte man þen greghte man þem greghten man þes greghten mans
Comp. þi greghtere man þen greghtere man þem greghteren man þes greghteren mans
Sup. þi greghteste man þen greghteste man þem greghtesten man þes greghtesten mans

VerbsEdit

There are two classes of verbs; strong and weak. There are also a few irregular verbs.

Irregular VerbsEdit

been (to be)
1st Person Sing. 1st Person Pl. 2nd Person Sing. 2nd Person Pl. 3rd Person Sing. 3rd Person Pl.
Present bem sen bis art is sen
Past was war was wast was war
Subjunctive/Conditional were weren weres werest weres weren
Imperative sant wi bi sent

Strong VerbsEdit

Strong Verbs form the past tense with a umlaut in the vowel and form the 2nd person singular with a -st ending. These verbs are a minority, but most of them are common, so overall they are often seen.

given (to give)
1st Person Sing. 1st Person Pl. 2nd Person Sing. 2nd Person Pl. 3rd Person Sing. 3rd Person Pl.
Present giv given givst given givs given
Past gav gaven gavst gaven gav gaven
Subjunctive/Conditional give given givest given give given
Imperative givan wi giv givt

Weak VerbsEdit

Weak verbs are a bit different, in that they have a specific structure for the past tense. The 2nd person singular ending is also simply -s instead of -st.

brouen (to cook)
1st Person Sing. 1st Person Pl. 2nd Person Sing. 2nd Person Pl. 3rd Person Sing. 3rd Person Pl.
Present brou brouen brous brouen brous brouen
Past broued brouden broued brouden broued brouden
Subjunctive/Conditional broue brouen broues brouen broue brouen
Imperative brouan wi brou brout

SyntaxEdit

Lowlandic is officially V2, meaning that unlike English, the subject is not required to be in the first position of the sentence.

Verb positioning in sentences is also a bit more complicated than English. Wheras the finite verb always goes into the second position like explained above, the rest of the verbs are pushed to the end, like German. They however preserve the original English ordering of the verbs. (Sorry if this is confusing, see example two for an example of how the verbs stack)

ExamplesEdit

A búc well ic.
a-ACC book want-prs 1S-NOM
(I want a book)

Þat internet dygs complet, wechi nextdeels ans in regirengslosnes cann seen.
the-NOM internet shows-PRS completely, which-ACC disadvantages one-NOM in anarchy can-PRS see-INF
(The internet shows perfectly, which disadvantages one can see in an anarchy.)

LexiconEdit

Example textEdit


1st UDHR Article

Alle húmans sen frid ond glyc mid worþ ond reght geborn. Þae haven intelegens ond þenceng, ond sholden broþerec túanoþer acten. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Napoleon's Advisor's Bayonet Quote

Man cann allhat mid am byonet dúen, úter þarup sitten. You can do anything with a bayonet, except sit on it.

The Lord's Prayer

Oor faþer in hevel.

Þy naem weres geert.

Þy kinengric come.

Þy wellen weres gemact on irþe ond in hevel.

Giv oos han oor degsbred;

Ond forgiv oos oori shilds, þenn wi haven oori shildhelders forgiven.

Ond fer oos night tú þer welleng, þogh befrid oos þem yvlem.

Þenn Þy is þat kinengric, þe meght, þat er.

Ivermor, amen.

Our Father in heaven,

May your name be honored.

May your kingdom come.

May your will be done on earth as it is in heaven.

Give us today our daily bread;

And forgive us our debts, as we ourselves have forgiven our debtors.

And do not lead us into temptation, but deliver us from evil.

For yours is the kingdom, the power, and the glory

Forever, amen.


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